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Full text of "The China mission year book"

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THE LIBRARY 

of 

VICTORIA UNIVERSITY 

Toronto 






"ft,,. 



THE 

CHINA MISSION 

YEAR BOOK 

1925 



(THIRTEENTH ISSUE) 



Edited by the National Christian Council under arrange- 
ment with the Christian Literature Society for China 



,„„< 



Editor 
HENRY T. HODGKIN, M.D, 

Secretary of the National Christian Council 



SHANGHAI 

CHRISTIAN LITERATURE SOCIETY 

J925 



3^(0 
>8 



35 



LWMANUEL 






PREFACE 

IN presenting to the readers the 1925 edition of the China 
Mission Year Book the editor wishes in the first place 

to express his appreciation of the willing collaboration 
by the writers of the many valuable articles herein con- 
tained. The task of an editor is, in such a case as this, a 
somewhat thankless one. Contributions have been sought 
from many busy people. None have received any remunera- 
tion for their work. Some have been pressed to write 
against time. In a number of cases a good deal of 
preliminary work has been involved in addition to the 
actual preparation of the article. Readers and editor alike 
owe a big debt of gratitude to these writers, a debt which 
will become increasingly apparent as the volume is carefully 
studied. 

Their thanks are also due to those who have assisted 
behind the scenes in various ways, among whom the editor 
wishes especially to refer to Mrs. Gilliland who has read 
all the proof and prepared the index and without whose 
help the work could never have been completed. 

The National Christian Council, under whose auspices 
the China Mission Year Book is produced, does not of 
course accept responsibility for the views of individual 
writers. In dealing with such topics as the political situa- 
tion or the state of the church it is inevitable that personal 
bias enters in. Each writer is left perfectly free to express 
his own views in his own way. 

A few writers have been unable to produce the articles 
asked for and in some cases promised. This means that 
the plan of the Year Book as originally conceived has not 
been fully carried out. The editor has been under the 
necessity of filling in one or two gaps himself. Such as 
remain will probably not be apparent to the reader. The 
excellence of the material which is presented will, it is 
hoped, compensate for any omissions. Two features 
which have appeared in previous volumes, but not in 



IV PREFACE 

this one, must, however, be noted. The editor is ex- 
tremely sorry that the sections on " New Publica- 
tions in Chinese " and on "Bibliography of Books, 
etc., dealing with China " for which readers of the 
Year Book have previously looked to Mr. Clayton and 
Dr. Rawlinson, respectively, could not be included this 
year. On certain other subjects the reader may be referred 
to previous Year Books, particularly that of 1924. On 
such topics, for example, as Recent Religious Movements, 
or in reporting some societies whose work is much the 
same from year to year, it has not seemed necessary to 
repeat what was well said a year ago. 

The present editor is new to this work and only 
undertook it reluctantly when it seemed that no one else 
could be found for it. His conception of the service which 
the Year Book may render is not that of a mere record of 
events and statistics. His hope is that the reader may 
gain a true impression of the inner life of the Church in 
China and of the situation which it is facing to-day. In 
order to gain this end different points of view are welcomed, 
and in dealing, for example, with such a matter as the 
anti-Christian movement, it will be found that there is 
some overlapping and some difference of viewpoint among 
the writers. This would seem to be a gain rather than a 
loss. Of course the main object is to present actual hap- 
penings in an unbiassed way, and thus to enable the reader 
to form his own conclusions; but this does not reduce the 
writing of articles to mere compilations. 

Without attempting to summarize the large amount of 
material contained in the Year Book, the editor ventures 
to make a few introductory remarks which may guide the 
reader in his journey through the volume. The general 
order of the 1924 edition has been followed and the same 
section headings used. In some cases articles seem really 
to belong to more than one section and those who wish 
to concentrate attention on one subject will do well to look 
over other sections than that which is most immediately 
relevant. For example, the student of the educational 
situation should read, in the section devoted to medical 
work, Dr. Hume's article on " Medical Education in China 
To-day," and the student of cooperative movements. will 



PKEFACE V 

find much light on his problem in other sections than Part 
IV, such as Parts VII, VIII and IX. 

All readers, whatever their special interests, are urged 
to read the first two parts which give the background 
political, social, economic, religious, for the rest of the 
book. Mr. Green's survey of the political situation and 
Mr. Zia's study of the Anti-Christian Movement may 
justly be singled out as of peculiar importance in this 
connection. In Dr. Bo wen's chapter we have an attempt 
to show the significance of this background for the 
Christian worker. 

It is no easy matter to form an estimate of the true 
state of the Church in China. The writers of the first five 
articles in Part III have had peculiar opportunities for 
studying the situation and have made it their business so 
to do. The net impression of their presentations, coupled 
with a reading of the editor's article on evangelistic work, 
should give a pretty fair picture of fhe case as far as it can 
be gathered together and presented to an outside student. 
In the remaining chapters in Part III certain special 
aspects of the Church's life and work are picked out as of 
particular interest to-day. 

The extent to which missions and churches are now 
acting together is one of the outstanding features of the 
Christian movement. While it has not proved possible to 
gather into one article a single impressive statement of 
this matter, the cumulative effect of the chapters in Part 
IV and others scattered through the volume will be very 
considerable. The movement towards an ever larger 
measure of cooperation has come to stay and is not 
appreciably checked by small groups which, for different 
reasons, fear its effects. The broad fact is that the 
Chinese Church demands it and that the missions, on the 
whole, favor it whole-heartedly. Whereunto it will 
grow, who shall say? The article on the Y.M.C.A. by 
Dr. Yui indicates the way in which cooperation and 
" indigenization " run hand in hand. 

The variety and extent of evangelistic work can be 
but inadequately set forth in Part V. Workers in this 
field seem often slow to take up the pen, and the editor 
regrets that some have been so occupied with the work 



VI PREFACE 

itself as to fail to find the needed time for telling about it. 
Notwithstanding this difficulty we are brought face to face 
in this section with some very interesting and encouraging 
work and with some of the problems confronted by the 
workers in this field. The editor's hope was to have 
presented an even richer variety. 

The Christian movement in China becomes less and less 
describable as the Missionary Movement. In almost every 
problem the Chinese Church is a factor of growing 
importance. The small Sixth Part may be taken as an 
indication of the restricted field in which the missionaries, 
as missionaries, are interested in any special way. Even 
here the second article on the Missions Building might 
better have been included in Part IV. 

It is impossible to read Part VII without gaining 
some sense of the extremely interesting and indeed 
critical position now faced by the Christian educational 
forces in China. This should be studied along with such 
articles as those by William Hung and Miss MacNeil in 
Part I and the two first articles in Part II. It is scarcely 
too much to say that the future of missions in China will 
be largely determined by decisions reached and policies 
worked out in the educational field during the next ten 
years. Will the Chinese Church take to herself the great 
educational enterprise of the Church and make it her 
own? Will China find a place for education under 
non-government and religious guidance ? Can Christians 
make good their claim to have a distinctive and valuable 
part to play in the educational development of this nation ? 

That medical work in China is entering on a new 
sphere of usefulness is apparent by a study of Dr. Max- 
well's article. The emphasis is changing in certain 
important directions, not the least important of which are 
illustrated in the articles which follow in Part VIII. 
More thought must clearly be given to preventive work, 
to research, to training of Chinese doctors and nurses. 
The close association of missionary and other doctors in 
China is a happy and hopeful factor in the situation. 

In the wide field of social and industrial effort one 
can only hope to touch on some outstanding facts and 
efforts. Whatever may be true of the paBt history of 



PREFACE Vll 

churches in other lands, Part IX makes clear that the 
Church in China is already keenly alive to the urgent 
necessity of applying Christian principles in all depart- 
ments of life, in the home, the factory, the country, and 
so forth. Along with these chapters should be read Mr. 
Reisner's article in Part III, and, as a background, the later 
chapters in Part I. Much is being done in this field also 
which cannot be adequately reported. 

One important development in the literary world has 
not found a place in the Year Book as it is yet too soon 
to do more than merely refer to it. This is the formation 
of a group of Chinese Christian writers as a result of two 
retreats held last year. This group expects to produce a 
steady stream of indigenous literature and so greatly 
strengthen the forces reported in the four articles included. 
The reader who wishes to study further in this field is 
referred to the 1924 Year Book where there is a good deal 
of material not repeated this year. 

The impressions the editor has gained in reading over 
the material sent in are too varied to be even summarized 
in this preface. To some who have contributed to the 
amazing work so rapidly surveyed in the Year Book we 
pay a tribute of respect and gratitude as we pass our eye 
over the list of those who have been taken from our midst 
during one year. We are not able to include in the list 
the names of noble Chinese leaders who have also added 
their share and passed to their reward. Let us unite in the 
prayer that all who have any part in carrying on the work 
may worthily take up their burden and help, in humility, 
faith and love, to solve the grave problems now confront- 
ing the Church in this land. In this hope the editor 
commends this volume to workers in China and other fields 
who care for the coming of the Kingdom of God. 



CONTENTS 

PREFACE iii 

CONTENTS viii 

CONTRIBUTORS xiii 
PARTI. CHINA TO-DAY 

Chapter Page 

I. The Political Condition op China in 1924 

0. M. Green 1 

II. Main Tendencies in Literary Circles 

William Hang 10 

III. Changing Ideals Among Women 

Eleanor MacNeil 14 

IV. The Criminal Code and the Treatment op 

Prisoners Thomas C. Blaisdell, Jr. 19 

V. The Labor Organizations and Their At- 
titude Toward Socialism H. C, Shen 23 

VI. The Labor Movement and Militarism 

Thomas C. Blaisdell, Jr. 26 

VII. China's New Treaties M. T. Z. Tyau 30 

VIII. The Good Koads Movement Mr. Wu Shan 34 

IX. The Boxer Indemnity (chart) 40 

PART II. RELIGIOUS THOUGHT AND ACTIVITY 

X. Chinese Students and Eeligion To-day 

Herman C. E. Liu 42 
XI. The Anti-Christian Movement in China. A 

Bird's-Eye View N. Z. Zia 51 

XI I. The Effect op the Present Situation op 
Public Affairs in China Upon the Work 
op Missions. 1924 A. J. Bowen 61 

PART III. THE CHURCH IN CHINA 

THE PEESENT STATE OF THE CHUECH IN CHINA 

XIII. The Church in West China. ..Leonard Wigham 67 

XIV. The Church in North China C. A. Stanley 72 



CONTENTS 

Chapter 

XV. The Church in East China... 
XVI. The Church in South China. 



IX 

Paqh 

..Edwin Marx. 75 
A.J.Fisher 81 



XVII. The Yearnings of the Chinese Church 

K. T. Chung 86 
XVIII. The Problem op the Church in Kelation to 

Rural Leadership John H. Eeisner 9o 

XIX. Self-support— Is it Growing? 

James Maxon Yard 94 
XX. Some Experiments in Devolution of Mission 
Responsibility in the Northern Baptist 

Mission in EastChi^a J. T. Proctor 97 

XXI. Mission Devolution in North China. The 
Question of Organization 

Rowland M. Cross 103 
XXII. The Value of the Retreat As a Method 

Luella Miner 110 



PART IV. COOPERATIVE MOVEMENTS IN CHINA 

XXIII. The National Christian Council. A Bird's- 

Eye View Henry T. Hodgkin 

XXIV. The Church of Christ in China 

C. G. Sparham 
XXV. South Fukien United Preachers' Conference 

T. Cocker Brown 
XXVI. The First Chinese Christian Conference in 

Hunan J. A. 0. Gotteberg 

XXVII. The Inter-Misston Provincial Conference at 

Titao Robert B. EKvall 

XXVIII. The First General Conference of the 
Christian Churches of Szechwan 

K. J. Beaton 
XXIX. Provincial and City Federations 

Henry T. Hodgkin 

XXX. The Indigenization of the Y. M. C. A. in 

. China David Z. T. Yui 



115 



123 



130 



135 



139 



143 



147 



154 



CONTENTS 

Chapter Page 

XXXI. The Program of the Y. W. 0. A. 

Helen Thoburn 167 
XXXII. The Work op the Committee on International 
Eelations of the National Christian 
Council T. C. Chao 173 



PART V. EVANGELISTIC WORK 

XXXII I. Eeview op the Evangelistic Work of the 

CnuRCH in China and Study of Problems 
Connected Therewith H. T. Hodgkin 

XXXIV. The Week of Evangelism... George A. Clayton 
XXXV. Student Evangelism 0. E. Magill 

XXXVI. The Eeligious Policy at Yenching University 

J. Leighton Stuart 
XXXVII. Evangelistic Work in Szechwan 

H. J Openshaw 
XXXVIII. Eecent Efforts in Evangelism in the Me- 
thodist Episcopal Mission L. J. Birney 

XXXIX. Eecent Efforts in Evangelistic Work in the 

American Baptist Foreign Mission Society 

P. E. Bakeman 

XL. Tent Evangelism in Shantung... Henry Payne 

XLI. Evangelism in the North West 

A. Mildred Cable 
XLII. The Korean Missionaries in Shantung 

C. A. Clark 
XLIII. Mongolia W. E. Stewart 

PART VI. MISSIONS AND MISSIONARIES 

XLIV. Language Schools W. B. Pettus 

XLV. The Missions Building E. C. Lobenstine 

XLVI. Schools for Missionaries' Children 

Eliza Eoots 

XLVII. The Missionary Home Edith Spurling 

XLVIII. Christian Missionaries and the Interna- 
tional System in China E. E. Chandler 



177 

188 
191 

200 

204 

208 



211 

216 

220 

224 

228 



235 
238 

244 
250 

253 



CONTENTS XI 

Chapter Pagb 

PART VII. THE EDUCATIONAL WORLD 

XLTX. General Development op Education in China 

Stanford C. C. Chen 259 
L. Organized Christian Education 

Edward Wilson Wallace 270 

LT. Keligious Education Henry T. Hodgkin 276 

Lit. The China Sunday School Union 

E. G. Tewksbury 284 
LIII. Summer School op Keligious Education 

S. J. Harrison 287 
LIV. Physical Education in China. ..Vera V. Barger* 291 
LV. The Extension Department op the Shantung 

Christian University Agnes S. Ingle 294 

PART VIII. MEDICAL WORK 

LVI. China Medical [Missionary] Association in 

1925 ...James L. Maxwell 298 

LVII. Council on Health Education W. W. Peter 303 

LVIII. Nurses' Association op China 

„ Miss Cora E. Simpson 306 

LIX. A Survey op Leprosy in China H. Fowler 309 

LX. Medical Education in China, To-day 

Edward H. Hume 318 

PART IX. SOCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

LXI. The Problem op the Home in China 

Miss Y. J. Fan 324 

LXII. The Fight Against Opium E. C. Lobenstine 330 

LXIII. Child Labour and the Church 

Mary Dingman and Helen Thobnrn 345 
LXIV. Cooperative Credit in China. The China In- 
ternational Famine Kelief Commission 
Program Walter H. Mallory 349 

* The name of Miss Freeda Boss given by mistake in the text as 
the writer of the article. 



Xll CONTENTS 

Chapter Page 

LXV. Commission on Social and Economic Reserach 

J. B. Tayler 353 

LXVI. Mission Industries Helen Davis Chandler 356 

LXVII. The International Institute op China 

Gilbert Reid 360 

LXVIII. The Floods op 1924 Walter H. Mallory 363 

PART X. LITERATURE 

LXIX. Scripture Dissemination in 1924 

G. W. Sheppard 369 
LXX. Chief Publications in Chinese by Literature 

and Tract Societies John Darroch 374 

LXXI. Christian Printing Presses in China 

Gilbert Mcintosh 379 
LXXI I. The Phonetic Promotion Committee 

E. G. Tewksbury 390 

PART XI. OBITURIES. 1923-24. Gilbert Mcintosh 395 



CONTRIBUTORS 

Page 

Bakeman, Percfval Rogers (1906) Eecent Efforts in Evange- 
lism in the American Baptist Foreign Missionary 
Society. 

A. B. F. M. S., Professor of Theology and Evangelistic 
Advisor to Mission and Chinese Association, Shanghai 
College 211 

Barger, Vera V., B. A. (1921) Physical Education in China. 
Executive Secretary, Physical Education Department, 

National Committee Y. W. C. A ... 291 

N. B. The name of Miss Freeda Boss given by mistake in 
the text as the writer of the article. 

Beaton, Rev* Kenneth J., B. A. (1914) The First General 
Conference of the Christian Churches of Szechuan. 
Canadian Methodist, Pastor Institutional Church, 
Chengtu, Sze. ... 143 

Blrney, Bishop L. J. (1920) Eecent Efforts in Evangelism in 
the Methodist Episcopal Mission. 
M. E. Bishop of Shanghai Area 208 

Blaisdell, Thomas C. Jr. (1922) The Criminal Code and the 
Treatment of Prisoners. The Labor Movement and 
Militarism. 

International Committee Y.M.C.A., Teacher of Sociology, 
Yenching University ; secretary Peking Y. M. C. A. ... 19, 26 

Bowen, Rev. A. J., B. A., LL. D. (1897) The Effect of the 
Present Situation of Public Affairs in China upon the 
Work of Missions. 
M. E., President of the University of Nanking 61 

Brown, Rev. T. Cocker, B. A., B. D, (1907) The South Fukien 
United Preachers' Conferfnce. 

L. M. S., Church, evangelistic, and primary education in 
Hwei-an, Fu 130 

Cable, A. Mildred (1902) Evangelism in the Northwest. 

China Inland Mission. Evangelistic work and training 

of the evangelistic band in northwest Kansu 220 

Chandler, Robert E. (1911) Christian Missionaries and the 
International System in China. 



x i v CONTRIBUTORS 

Page 



North China Mission, A. B. 0. F. M., General Secretary 
of the North China Kung Li Hui, 37 Kun Wei Lu, Hopei, 



253 



Tientsin 

Chandler, Helen D. (Mrs. R. E.) (1911) Mission Industries. 
North China Mission of A. B. C. F. M., President National 
Christian Industries Association, Hopei, Tientsin ... ooo 

Cbao, Professor T. C, M. A., B. D. The Work of the Com- 
mittee on International Relations op the National 
Christian Council. . 
M. E. Church South, Dean of College of Arts and Sciences 
of Soochow University, Soochow, Ku li6 

Chen, Sanford C. C, B. A., M. A. The General Development 
op Education in China. . . . 
M.E. Church, Associate General Secretary China Christian 
Educational Association, Shanghai ^° y 

Chung, Rev. K. T„ B. A. The Yearnings of the Chinese 

Chung'Hua Sheng Kung Hui. Secretary of National 
Christian Council, Shanghai - 

Clark, Charles Alien, M. A., D. D. (Korea, 1902) The Korean 
Missionaries in Shantung. .«*.*.• 

Presbyterian (U. S. A., North) Professor m Presbyterian 
Theological Seminary of Korea, Pyengyang ... ... ^* 

Clayton, Rev. George A. (1895) The Week of Evangelism. 

K. T. S. for China. Secretary of this Society. Hankow. 188 

Cross, Rev. Roland M., B. D., S. T. M. (1917) Mission 
Devolution in North China ; The Question of Organiza- 

A°B. C. F. M. Student Evangelistic Work, Peking ... 103 

Darroch, John, Litt. D. (1887) Recent Christian Literature 
Keligious Tract Society of London. General Agent for 
China and Korea, Shanghai 

Dingman, Mary A., B. Sc. (1922) Child Labour and the 

y H W° 0. A., Industrial Secretary World's Y. W. C. A., 
allocated to China, 1924-25, Shanghai ... ™> 

Efcvall, Robert B., B. A. (Born in China but returned 1923 
for work.) Inter-Mission Provincial Conference at 

Christian and Missionary Alliance, Principal of Bible 
School, Titao, Kansu 






CONTRIBUTORS XV 

Page 

Fan, Yu Jung, The Problem op the Home in China. 

American Board Mission. Secretary of the National 
Christian Council, Shanghai 324 

Fisher. Rev. A. J., D. D. (1902) The Present State op the 
Church in South China. 

American Presbyterian (North) Evangelistic and 
Administrative work. Secretarial work in the Church of 
Christ in China, Kwangtung Divisional Council. Canton 81 

Fowler, Henry, M. D., L. R. C. P. & S. (1899) A Survey op 
Leprosy in China. 

Hon. Member L. M. S. Hon. Medical Adviser to the 
International Mission to Lepers. Administrator for the 
Far East, Shanghai . .... 309 

Gotteberg, Rev. J. A. O. (1S96) The First Chinese Christian 
Conference in Hunan. 

N. M. S., Superintendent of N. M. S. in China, Changsha, 
Hunan 135 

Green, Owen Mortimer. (1907) The Political Condition op 
China in 1924. 
Editor North China Daily News since 1911. Shanghai... 1 

Harrison, Rev. Samuel J., B. D. (1920) The Summer School 
op Religious Education. 
M. E., Evangelistic and Educational, Chinkiang, Ku. ... 287 

Hodgkin, Henry T., M. A., M. B. (1905) The National 
Christian Council ; A Bird's Eye-view. Provincial and 
City Federations. Review op .Evangelistic Work in 
China. Religious Education. 

F. F. M. A. Secretary National Christian Council, 
Shanghai ... * 115, 147, 177, 276 

Hume, Edward Hicks, M. A., M. D. (1905) Medical Educa- 
tion in China, To-day. 

Yale Mission, President of the Colleges of Yale-in- China, 
Changsha, Hunan '.'. ... ... ... ... 318 

Hung, Professor William, M. A., S. T. B. Main Tendencies 
in Literary Circles. 

Dean, College of Arts and Science for Men, Yenchirig 
University, Peking 10 

Ingle, Agnes S., M. A. The Extension Department of the 
Shantung Christian University. 



42 



14 



191 



xv j CONTRIBUTORS 

Page 

English Baptist, wife of Dr. Laurence Ingle, Medical 
School, Shantung Christian University, Tsinanfu M* 

Liu, Herman Chan En, M. A., Ph. D. Chinese Students>nd 
Eeligion To-day. . 
Educational Secretary, National Committee, Y. M. o. A., 
Shanghai 

Lobenstine, Rev. E. C. (1898) The Missions Building. The 
Fight Against Opium. .... , 
Northern Presbyterian Mission. Secretary, National 
Christian Council, Shanghai * 6 *> 66 " 

MacNeil, Eleanor (1915) Changing Ideals Among Women. 
Y. W. C. A. Student Field Secretary, Kiangsu and 
Chekiang 

Magill, Orrta R. , B. S. (1913) Student Evangelism. 

Y. M. C. A. Executive Secretary, National Committee- 
Student Division, Shanghai 

Maliory, Walter H. (1921) Cooperative Credit in China. 
The International Famine Relief Commission Program. 
The Floods op 1924. . . 
China International Famine Relief Commission, Ex- 
ecutive Secretary, Peking <$4y, <*w 

Marx, Edwin, A. B., B. D, (1918) The Present State>f the 
Church in East China. 

United Christian Missionary Society, Secretary, Treas- 
urer, and Chairman of Administrative Committee, 
Nanking, Ku 7& 

Maxwell. James L., M.D. (1901) China Medical (Missionary) 
Association in 1925. 

English Presbyterian and C. M. M. A. Executive 
Secretary, C. M. M. A., Shanghai ^ y8 

Mcintosh, Gilbert (1885) Christian Printing Presses. 
Obituaries. , , 

American Presbyterian Mission. Superintendent of 
Presbyterian Mission Press, Shanghai d/9, rfyo 

Miner, Luella, D. Lltt. (1887) The Value op the Retreat as 
a Method. , _ ,. . „, 
A. B. C. F. M. Professor Department of Religious Educa- 
tion, School of Theology, Shantung Christian University, 
Tsinan, Shantung 11U 



CONTRIBUTORS XV11 

Page 

Openshaw, Henry J. (1893) Evangelistic Work in Szechwan. 
A. B. F. M. S. Evangelistic Work, Chengtu, Sze General 
Secretary of Evangelism, Szechwan Christian Council ... 204 

Payne* Henry, (1906) Tent Evangelism in Shantung. 

English Baptist. Evangelistic, Tsinan, Shantung ... 216 

Peter , W. W., Ph. M*, M. D., C. P. H, (1911) The Council on 
Health Education. 

Y. M. C. A. Director, Council on Health Education, 
Shanghai 303 

Pettus, W. B., B. A. (1906) Language Schools. 

M. C. U. L. S. and Y. M. C. A. Principal of Language 
School, Peking 235 

Proctor, J. T., D, D. (1897) Some Experiments in Devolution 
op Mission Eesponsibility in the Northern Baptist 
Mission in East China. 

A. B. F. M. S. Secretary, East China Mission 97 

Reid, Gilbert, A. M., D. D. The International Institute 
op China. 

Independent. Literary, social, and educational. Shanghai 
and Peking 360 

Reisner, John H., B. A., M. S» A. (1914) The Problem op the 
Church in Relation to Rural Leadership. 
Presbyterian North. Dean of the College of Agriculture 
and Forestry, University of Nanking, Nanking 90 

Roots, Mrs. L.H. (1899) Schools for Missionaries' Children. 
American Church Mission, Hankow. Acting Principal 
at Ruling American School, autumn of 1924 ... ... 244 

Shen, H. C, B. A., Pei Yang University. The Labor Organ- 
izations and Their Attitude Toward Socialism. 
Formerly edited "The Ladies' Star" and "The 
Woman's Daily." Teaches in a private girls' school in 
Tientsin 23 

Sheppard, Rev. G. W. (1898) Scripture Dissemination in 1924. 

B. F. B. S., Secretary for China, Shanghai 369 

Simpson, Cora E., R. N. (1907) Nurses' Association op 
China. 

M. E. of U. S. A. General Secretary, Nurses' Association 
of China, Hankow 306 



XV111 CONTRIBUTORS 



Page 



Sparham, Rev. Charles George. (1884) The Church op 
Christ in China. 

L. M. S., Secretary of the China Advisory Council of the ' 
L. M. S., Shanghai 123 

Spurting, Edith (1900) The Missionary Home. 

Proprietress of the Missionary Home, Shanghai 250 

Stanley, Rev. Charles A., B. A., B.D., D.D. (1904) The Present 
State op The Church in North China. 
American Board Mission, Tientsin ... ... 72 

Stewart, William R. (1910) Mongolia. 

Executive Secretary, Student Work, National Y. M. C. A. 
Wuchang, Hup 228 

Stuart, John Leighton, B. A., B. L. H. t D. D. (1904) The 
.Religious Policy at Yenching University. 
Presbyterian U.S., (South) President Yenching University, 
lekm £ ?.. 200 

Tayier, Professor John. Bernard, M. S. C. (1906) Commission 
on Social and Economic Research. 

London Missionary Society, Professor Economics, Yen- 
ching University, Peking ... ' _ 353 

Tewksbury, Rev. E. G. (1S90) The China Sunday School 
Union.— The Phonetic Promotion Committee. 
General Secretary, China S. S. Union, Shanghai.... 284, 390 



Thoborn, Helen, A. B. (1920) The Pkogram op the Y.W.C A 
J; . W * o A * Editori al Secretary, National Y. W. C. A. of 
China, Shanghai ... 

Tyau, M. T. Z., LL. D. China's New Treaties. 

Aj? en ,™ n . E P| 8C0 P al Church. Member of Chinese Foreign 
Oflice (Waichiaopu), with Third Class Chia-ho Decoration : 
Managing Editor of " The Chinese Social and Political 
Science Review ", Peking ; author of "Treaty Obligations 
between China and other States," " China Awakened " 
London through Chinese Eyes " etc 

Wallace, Edward Wilson, M. A., D. D. (1906) Organized 
Christian Education. 

Canadian Methodist. Associate General Secretary of the 
Ciuna Christian Educational Association, Shanghai ... 



167 



30 



270 



CONTRIBUTORS XIX 

Page 

Wfgham, Leonard, B. A. (1891) The Present State op the 
Church in West China. 
F. F. M. A. General Station Work, Tungchwan, Szechwan. 67 

Wu Shan. The Good Roads Movement. 

Sheng Kung Hui Church. General Secretary, National 
Road Construction Association, Shanghai 34 

Yard, James M., B. A., B. D. (1910) Self-Supi>ort— Is It 
Growing ? 

Methodist Episcopal. General Secretary, World Service, 
M. E. Church, Shanghai 94 

Yul, David Z.T., B.A. The Indigenization op the Y. M. C. A. 
in China. 

General Secretary of the National Committee of the 
Y. M. C. A. of China 154 

Zia, Mr, N. Z. The Anti-Christian Movement in China. 
A Bird's-Eye View. 

General Administrative Secretary of the National Com- 
mittee of the Y. M. C. A. of China, Shanghai 51 



PART I 
CHINA TO-DAY 

CHAPTER I 

THE POLITICAL CONDITION OF CHINA IN 1924 

O. M. Green 

Even in writing early in March, with peace nominally 
restored throughout the country and an imposing Re- 
organization Conference sitting in Peking, it is impossible 
to view the events of the past year and their probable 
outcome with any degree of hopefulness. Too many 
parties and persons are left out in the cold or stand in 
undisguised antagonism to Marshal Tuan Chi-jui and the 
Anfu faction. The Southwest, headed by Tang Chi-yao 
of Yunnan — the province one recalls, whence sprang the 
opposition which wrecked Yuan Shih-kai's " empire " — 
is openly hostile; the Kuomintang, with whom goes the 
rest of the South, stands acidly apart; Chang Tso-lin of 
Manchuria has parted from Tuan: it is even reported that 
an alliance between him and Wu Pei-fu against Peking is 
not impossible; at any rate Wu Pei-fu is not finished yet, 
as the clamant objections of Hupeh and Hunan to have 
him within their borders clearly indicates; Feng Yu- 
hsiang, in more or less gilded exile on the Northwest 
Frontier, while ruling the district with his usual thorough- 
ness, remains a factor of great uncertainty: he has latterly 
recruited several thousands of additional levies for his 
army in eastern Honan; and while the Reorganization 
Conference talks grandly of cutting down the army, every- 
where generals are increasing their forces. 

The outstanding feature of the first half of the year 
was tfie extraordinary growth of the domination of Wu 






2 THE POLITICAL CONDITION OF CHINA IN 1924 

Pei-fu. Early in February his lieutenant in Szechwan, 
Yang Sen, captured the provincial capital and, with the 
liight of Hsiong Keh-wu and Liu I-chiu into Yunnan, 
controlled the province. In April Wu Pei-fu sent troops 
to strengthen the hold of his ally Chao Heng-ti on Hunan. 
Hupeh he held, of course, through his creature Hsiao Yao- 
nan. Eastward he planted a portion of the Navy at 
Tsingtao and fed it from the revenues of the Kiao-Tsi 
Railway. In Nanking Chi Hsieh-yuan, overlord of Kiang- 
su, Kiangsi and Anhui, was his ally and a faithful one as 
events proved. In May, Wu Pei-fu caused Chou Yin-jen 
to be made Tuchun of Fukien, thereby securing that 
province and releasing Sun Chuan-fang to attack Che- 
kiang — the seat of Chang Tso-lin's ally, Lu Yung-hsiang, 
— from the South. And thus by midsummer, excluding 
portions too remote to affect the issue, Wu Pei-fu held a 
paper control of all the essential provinces of China 
proper. 

Meanwhile Chang Tso-lin had not been idle. A 
fascinating book might be made of the consolidation of 
his power in Manchuria, his vigorous repression of 
"squeeze" by subordinates, the increasing prosperity of 
the Three Eastern Provinces and the disciplined and well 
equipped army which, with the aid of foreign experts, he 
gradually built up. We do not know the details, but 
when in September Chang moved his armies towards the 
Great Wall against Wu Pei-fu, he is estimated to have 
possessed 130,000 of the best drilled and officered troops 
ever seen under a Chinese general. Feng Yu-hsiang's 
"Ironsides" are thought by some experts to have been 
better, but they were very inferior in numbers, probably 
not more than 20,000 at most. Yet all through it has been 
treachery far more than soldierly qualities which has 
decided the war. 

The conflict opened brightly for the Chihli (Wu Pei- 
fu's) party. The admission into Chekiang by Lu Yung- 
hsiang of two fugitive Anfu generals from Fukien, which 
was a technical breach of the previous September's peace 
treaty between Lu and Chi of Nanking, gave a semblance 
of excuse to the quarrel ; and the long-standing grievance 



THE POLITICAL CONDITION OF CHINA IN 1924 3 

of the Nanking Tilchun that Lu controlled the rich district 
of Shanghai and Woosung, which is properly in Kiangsu, 
gave it the necessary acrimony. On September 5 the 
first brush between Chi's and Lu's outposts occurred at 
Quinsan, after which Lu fell back on a line stretching 
from Liuho on the Yangtze, by Anting on the Shanghai- 
Nanking Railway to the regions of Sungkiang. Three 
days later Chi very nearly broke through this line and 
the prospect of Shanghai being invaded by thousands of 
fugitive troops caused an international naval force to be 
landed and the Volunteers mobilized for the defence of 
the Settlements. But Chi was ever more of a politician 
than a soldier. Many of his generals were old and worth- 
less and although his troops undoubtedly fought with 
great bravery, his advantages were never followed up and 
Lu's machine-gun nests proved too strong for the attack. 
Lu had to be betrayed twice — first in Chekiang by Pan 
Kuo-kun opening the southern border of the province to 
Sun Chuan-fang ; then at Sungkiang by Chen Yao-san, of 
the 4th Division, refusing to come to his aid, before Chi 
could reach Shanghai, Lu himself lleeing on October 14 
to Japan. 

In the north Chang Tso-lin's armies had struck at the 
Great Wall while the internal line of attack, intended to 
reach Peking via Jehol, had made no progress of any note. 
It was a case of personality against equipment. Wu Pei- 
fu's presence among his troops was as invaluable as 
"Wellington's long nose on the morning of a battle " and, 
with odds in men, money and material against him, he 
fully held his own. With Chi now supreme on the Yang- 
tze and able to send north the reinforcements borrowed 
from W T u Pei-fu, the prospects of the Chihli party were 
decidedly rosy. 

But on October 23, the issue was decided by Feng 
Yu-hsiang seizing Peking, compelling President Tsao Kun 
to resign and declaring that there had been enough fighting 
and that all parties must settle their differences by nego- 
tiation. This is not the place to judge of Feng'saction, 
which has indeed been the subject of immense controversy; 
but whatever his expectations, it is fairly certain they 



4 THE POLITICAL CONDITION OF CHINA IN 1924 

have not been realized. He tried hard to persuade the 
veteran Anfu leader and ex-Premier, Tnan Chi-jui, to come 
to Peking and assume the reins of Government, but Tuan 
declined to leave Tientsin until, on November 9, Chang 
Tso-lin arrived and promised his support. Meanwhile 
Wu Pei-fu had rushed back from Shanhaikuan, but on 
November 5 his war-worn men were easily defeated out- 
side Tientsin by Feng's fresh troops, and, collecting what 
troops he could, he fled by sea and river to Hankow. A 
further attempt to regain Loyang in Hunan proved futile 
and he settled near Chikungshan until at the beginning 
of March he removed to Yochow, whether because Hupeh 
turned him out, or with a view to making for Szechwan, 
has yet to be shown. 

The triumph of the Anfu party now appeared com- 
plete, but their conception of how to make use of it, very 
quickly revealed, is one of the worst of omens for the 
future peace of China. Tuan Chi-jui arrived in Peking on 
November 22 where he was joined by Chang Tso-lin two 
days later, was instituted Chief Executive and was rec- 
ognized by the Powers on December 9. He had already 
issued an appeal to all leaders in the country to sink their 
differences and combine for the unification of China, and 
had received a promising response from the Yangtze 
Tuchuns. One inclines to the belief that Tuan himself is 
sincere but his followers are too strong for him. On 
December 12 the prospects of unification in the sense of 
anything beyond a division of spoils among Anfu partisans 
was shattered by a mandate cashiering Chi Hsieh-yuan. 
For a day or two Chi tried to defy Peking, but his peculiar 
protig£ Chen Tiao-yuan, governor of Hsuchowfu, betrayed 
him — one of the worst acts of treachery in all the lament- 
able series — thus opening Kiangsu to the advance of 
Lu Yung-hsiang, who had come back from Japan and had 
been appointed Pacificator of Kiangsu, with the aid of 
Chang Tso-lin's 1st Army. Chi retired to Shanghai, col- 
lected his old troops of the 6th division, attacked and seized 
the Kiangnan Arsenal and, in alliance with Sun Chuan-fang, 
commenced a movement against Nanking, himself along the 
Shanghai Nanking Railway, while Sun was to develop a 



THE POLITICAL CONDITION OP CHINA IN 1924 5 

flank attack by the west of the Taihu. Whatever chances 
Chi might have had — and the Fengtien army's prestige 
was greatly enhanced by a regiment of White Russians, 
whom Chang had recruited among the refugees of Man- 
churia — were again disposed of by treachery, the Navy 
turning on him at Chinkiang and the 19th division at 
Wusih. On January 28 of this year Chi fled to Japan 
consigning his troops to the charge of Sun Chuan-fang, 
who was granted peace on condition of withdrawing from 
Kiangnan Arsenal (which he first very thoroughly looted 
and spoiled) in order that the Rehabilitation Conference, 
called together by a mandate of December 24, might meet 
in a semblance of peace. On February 4 the Arsenal was 
solemnly handed over to the Shanghai Chinese Chamber 
of Commerce and Shanghai was declared "demilitarized " 
for ever. But the grip of the Fengtien Army on all the 
rest of Kiangsu remains as unyielding as ever, and nobody 
believes that the proclaimed peace is more than the 
shadow of a dream. 

It is necessary now to turn for a moment to affairs in 
Canton. In the ranging of parties, the late Sun Yat sen 
was the ally of Chang Tso-lin and Lu Yung-hsiang; and 
when on September 5 Chang declared war on Peking, Sun 
also announced another " punitive expedition. " But he 
had neither men, money nor support and the enterprise 
failed dismally. It would appear to have been the curse 
of Dr. Sun's career that he allied himself ever with the 
least stable elements. His prestige with the mob remained 
enormous. But the overseas Chinese, who once con- 
tributed hundreds of thousands of pounds annually to his 
war chest, have largely withdrawn their support; the 
respectable citizens of Canton have become utterly dis- 
gusted by his crushing perquisitions and tyrannical 
government, and by his letting loose of Yunnanese mer- 
cenaries in Kwangtung; and more and more the year has 
seen him driven into the power of the "Red " wing of the 
Kuomingtang, which certainly acts under the tutelage of, 
if it is not actually controlled by, Borodin, the Soviet 
envoy in Canton. Dr. Sun's quarrel with the Merchant 
Volunteers of Canton is typical of his utter lack of states- 



6 THE POLITICAL CONDITION OF CHINA IN 1924 

manship. This force, the formation of which really dates 
from the Revolution of 1911, had, in the autumn of 1923, 
begun to develop actively, as a means of protection against 
the aliens from Yunnan, Hunan and Kwangsi who 
thronged the province, and it is said at present to have 
branches in 72 towns and villages ol Kwangtung. A 
wiser man than Dr. Sun might have found in the Volun- 
teers a chance to put himself at the head of a truly 
national force. But his overweening conceit could see in 
them only a challenge to his own supremacy. On August 
18 he seized a consignment of arms arriving by the Nor- 
wegian str. Hav, although the Volunteers actually held a 
permit from his government to import them, and refused 
to give them up. The quarrel, reinforced by other 
grievances, developed into a general strike, which Dr. Sun 
was actually preparing to settle by bombarding a part of 
Canton when a vigorous protest and threat of retaliation 
by the British Consul-General deterred him. Finally he 
consented to give back to the Volunteers a portion of the 
arms. They were actually taking delivery when they 
were set on by the Kuornintang "Red" troops and a 
regular battle ensued. The Volunteers concentrated in the 
suburb of Saikwan, where numbers of them were killed by 
the Reds and a large portion of the suburb burnt down. 
This outrage drew down on Dr. Sun the execrations of 
Cantonese in all parts and undoubtedly had much to do 
with his flight from Canton on November 13. He made 
his way by Shanghai and Japan — not venturing to trust 
himself to the railway — to Tientsin and ultimately 
reached Peking on December 4, where he at once took to 
his bed suffering from an internal complaint, to which 
he ultimately succumbed on March 12. But he had 
strength enough left to quarrel violently with Tuan over 
the constitution of the Rehabilitation Conference, which he 
declined to support unless it were made elective, and in- 
cluded merchants, students and workmen. From this 
pronunciamento the Kuornintang has taken its cue. 

Some other incidents of interest should be noted during 
the year although their political import is as yet hard to 
gauge. The most spectacular was the expulsion by Feng 



THE POLITICAL CONDITION OF CHINA IN 1924 7 

Yu-hsiang on November 5 of the Ching Emperor and all his 
household from the Imperial Palace. The true motive of 
this act, which greatly scandalized the Chinese, has never 
been explained. Released from the virtual prison, in which 
Feng had immured him in the house of his father Prince 
Chun, by Tuan Chi-jui, the Emperor took refuge first in 
the Japanese Legation and has recently made another flight 
to Tientsin. There are wild rumours afloat that the Japanese 
dream of enticing him to Manchuria and inducing Chang 
Tso-lin to set him up as Emperor of the ancient province 
of his ancestors. Any tiling in the present condition of 
China might happen: but it is obviously impossible to 
verily these rumours and imprudent to take them too 
seriously. 

The servants' strike at Shameen, the foreign settlement 
of Canton, was a good example of Bolshevist influence. It 
was due in the first instance to an injudicious set of munici- 
pal regulations, compelling all Chinese employed in Shameen 
to wear special badges, with consequent loss of face not to 
be endured. But this regulation the Shameen Council 
instantly amended and the strike would very easily have 
been settled if the servants had been allowed to deal directly 
with their masters. But agitators took charge, called (or 
drove) out every Chinese from Shameen and from July 15 
to August 19 the foreigners had the novel experience of 
cooking their own dinners, emptying their own slops and 
making their own beds. Eventually the strikers gave in, 
largely due to the influence of Chinese merchants who were 
losing heavily by the strike. The terms of settlement were 
drafted with regard for Chinese "face," but the Shameen 
Council won in all essentials. 

On May 31, after repeated breakings off and resumption 
of negotiations, China recognized the Soviet Government 
of Russia and on June 7 a Russo-Chinese Treaty was signed 
the full text of which may be found in the " North China 
Herald " of June 21. Chang Tso-lin at first refused to 
recognize the treaty, but on the outbreak of the war with 
1 eking he found it advisable to secure his rear by making 
a separate agreement with the Bolsheviks, the essence of 
which was that he handed over to them the full control 



8 THE POLITICAL CONDITION OP CHINA IN 1924 

of the Chinese Eastern Railway. Comrade Karakhan, who 
had negotiated the Rosso-Chinese Treaty, became the first 
Ambassador to China and has since added greatly to the 
normal discomforts of the Diplomatic Body by pulling 
against it on every possible occasion. 

This is hardly the place to speculate on the effect of 
Soviet propaganda in China. Undoubtedly the Russo- 
Chinese Treaty was a powerful consideration with Japan 
in inducing her to agree to the compromise which led to 
the Russo-Japanese Treaty signed on January 20, 1925. 
Bolshevism could be seen in the Shameen strike and in the 
extraordinary outburst of anti-Christian violence among 
the students of Hunan, Canton and some centres of Che- 
kiang, which occurred towards the close of the year. At 
the Pinghsiang mii.es in Hunan, the workmen are said to 
be organized on Soviet lines in remarkable compactness; 
and in all industrial centres Soviet agitators are un- 
doubtedly very active. One hardly sees a country like 
China, of millions of peasant proprietors (the last to be 
attracted by Bolshevism) at one end and military auto- 
cracies at the other, following in the deplorable paths of 
Russia. But the Bolshevist influence has brought a new 
factor into the distracted state of China, which cannot but, 
cause grave anxiety to the governments of other countries, 
and provides yet another element militating against 
unification. 

Proverbially difficult as it is to see the wood for the 
trees, one is tempted to wonder, as one surveys the events 
of 1924, whether there is any wood to be seen. In all the 
maze of civil war, treachery, selfishness and political 
intrigue with which the year is crowded, one can find no 
clue to any central purpose, nor any motive beyond the 
most sordid self-seeking on which to found hopes of a 
united China. The theory of the Rehabilitation Confer- 
ence is that it shall evolve a programme and scheme of 
financial reorganization, military reduction and con- 
stitutional reformation, which shall be submitted to a 
National Assembly to be hereafter elected : and in thfory — 
like Mulvaney's " little orfficer " the Chinese are unrivalled 
at " theowrizing " — this sounds well enough. But there 



THE POLITICAL CONDITION OF CHINA IN 1924 9 

is nothing to indicate that the Conference is more than a 
mere Anfu caucus making hay while the sun shines. 
Already there are signs of a new party arising, with a 
totally new programme and not devoid of formidable 
support in the Southwest. 



CHAPTER II 

MAIN TENDENCIES IN LITERARY CIRCLES 
William Hung 

In the following paragraphs an attempt will be made 
to sum up some of the chief directions in which the leading 
writers in China have been expressing themselves during 
1924. It is, of course very difficult to summarize in such 
little space the very large literary output of a whole year. 
Our chief attention must be given to the comparatively 
small group of creative thinkers whose work is producing 
the largest influence upon students and educated people. 

We may divide our subject into consideration of three 
main interests — the political, the philosophical, and 
the literary. 

Political ^ * s a 1 " 10 ^ cea ble fact that during the larger 

Writing P arfc of 1924 the output of writing by Chinese 

on political subjects was markedly less than 
in recent years. In fact during the larger part of the year 
there was what might almost be described as a complete 
silence on political issues on the part of a group which had 
previously been deeply concerned with them. Towards 
the end of the year writings on political matters began to 
appear from this group, stimulated by the change in the 
political situation and the new sense of hope which had 
been stirred thereby. The main reason for this compara- 
tive silence was that men began to be very pessimistic in 
regard to politics and felt that their energies had better be 
directed into more fruitful channels. On account of this 
feeling of pessimism some of the leaders of thought in 
China have refused to accept invitations to join the present 
Rehabilitation Conference. 

So far as there has been a definite tendency in any 
one direction in the political writings of the last few 
months it may be said to be directed towards the problem 
of how to resist the imperialistic designs of foreign nations 



MAIN TENDENCIES IN LITERARY CIRCLES 11 

upon China. There has been a great deal of interest in 
the ways in which foreign imperialism has been met in 
various countries and the examples of Turkey and Russia 
have been quoted frequently with approval. The main 
interest in the Russian experiment on the part of these 
leaders of thought seems to be not so much that certain 
theories are being worked out or that an attempt has been 
made to set up a Communistic government as the fact that 
Russia has attempted to meet the pressure of foreign 
capitalistic imperialism by using a peculiar weapon. The 
weapon of Communism is regarded as perhaps the most 
effective way by which the aggressive policies of capitalistic 
nations can be checkmated. For this reason even many 
thinkers who are not philosophically inclined towards 
communism are beginning to look favorably upon it as the 
weapon which China must in her turn use to resist foreign 
aggression. To them it appears that the choice lies be- 
tween military resistance developed by China herself on 
the one hand, and the development of some type of 
Communism all over the world on the other. They realize 
that in this country militarism has been a deplorable 
failure bringing great disaster, therefore, they are quite 
willing to listen to the Russian suggestion of communistic 
experiment. 

The above position is taken by a small group of men, 
but the statement of it has had a wide influence. Others 
outside this group are placing more stress upon the neces- 
sity to abolish militarism in China and to work for a 
genuine expression in the life of the people of the ideals 
of democracy. Such writers plead for the maintenance 
of the Republic; the revision of the Constitution, as 
adopted in October, 1923 ; a revision of the relation 
between the provinces and the central government; the 
working out of a cabinet system with real responsibility 
resting in the Parliament, the reconstruction of finance 
and an alteration in the treaties with foreign powers. 
Constructive programs along these lines are in sharp con- 
trast to the views of the Communistic group who would 
be willing to throw the whole country into an even greater 
chaos than the present, believing that a new government 
would emerge from the wreckage. 



12 MAIN TENDENCIES IN LITERARY CIRCLES 

Indemnities * n addition ^° tne aDove classes of writers, 

there are others who have been directing 
attention more particularly to certain specific problems. 
These are generally professional men, educationalists, as 
well as a certain number of politicians. They write on 
such issues as the Gold franc question, the Treaty between 
China and Russia, and the use of the Boxer Indemnity. 
In regard to the last named matter there has been strong 
approval of the method adopted by Russia, largely because 
the return of the money has not had strings tied to it. 
The action taken by Great Britain has been pretty 
generally resented while the American scheme is still re- 
garded as sub judice. The plans proposed by Japan have 
also come in for a great deal of violent criticism. It is 
assumed that both Japan and Great Britain are anxious to 
use these funds in order to further their own ends rather 
than help China. 

™, f ,. f Much of the very finest writing that has 
been done m China during the last year has 
been directed to the controversy between science and 
metaphysics. Writers from all parts of the country have 
participated in what has proved to be a very keen dis- 
cussion. Most of the writers have taken a very strongly 
partisan line on one side or the other. Periodicals 
published in many different centers have joined in the 
discussion and there is no doubt that the net result has 
been a greatly increased study both of science and of 
philosophy. This may be regarded as a great gain; but on 
the other hand it is unfortunate that the partisan spirit 
has been promoted. People have been labelled on one 
side or the other with scornful names such as, " The ghost 
of metaphysics " or " The slave of science. " The prepon- 
derant amount of writing has been on the side of 
Materialism, and among the students, there seems to be an 
increasing following for this group rather than for those 
who have maintained the spiritual interpretation of the 
universe. 

L ., The comparison between Chinese and 

Western civilization and literature has been 

again this year a prominent subject of discussion. To 

some extent this problem has been related to the science- 



MAIN TENDENCIES IN LITERARY CIRCLES 



13 



metaphysics controversy. The advantages of Western civili- 
zation have been advocated by a very considerable group 
especially among the younger men, whereas others under 
the leadership of Liang Chi-chao have emphasized the 
value of Eastern culture and have been more sympathetic 
towards the visit and the message of Rabindranath Tagore. 
The General tendency seems to be to adopt many things 
out of Western life, but to seek to preserve certain elements 
in China's own civilization — art, literature, etc. — which 
are felt to be of permanent value. 

At the same time the emphasis in Chinese Classics 
upon a strict code of ethics is not appreciated by many of 
the younger generation and this is particularly evident in 
matters concerning the relation of the sexes and the 
relation of teacher and student. Literary writings of 
middle school and college students are increasing in num- 
ber, their temper is generally iconaclastic and their subject 
matter, often, sex. 

Quite a good deal of worth while, work has been done 
in Historical Criticism of Chinese Classics. A painstaking 
effort has been made to establish the dates of various 
writings and to ascertain the dates of the birth and death 
of the greatest writers of the past. 

A number of very good articles on Chinese philology 
have appeared. A scientific study of the numerous dialects 
is now urgently called for and seems to promise rich 
returns in the future. 

The new poetry is still growing in volume; but only 
a very little portion of it can be said to be first rate. 






CHAPTER III 

CHANGING IDEALS AMONG WOMEN 

Eleanor MacNefl 

Changes in More than any other group in China the 

Soda! Order educated young women have been affected by 
the tremendous changes in social life which 
are coming *o quickly. The new order has broken down 
more quickly than it has built up, and so freedom has 
come to large numbers of girls far ahead of any under- 
standing of how to use it. From an ordered, controlled, 
secluded life they have been thrown, sink or swim, into 
the complexities of a changing society which is not ready 
tor them. # While the uneducated woman may have changed 
not at all in her ideas, and only slightly in her habits, and 
while back m the provinces and country towns there are 
many families who do not know that a new hour has struck, 
m the larger towns and great educational centres girls and 
women are now in process of deciding which way Chinese 
womanhood is to develop. 

Uaprspared- * n conversation with a great many younger 

Bi^Mitid women, the genera] impression gathered has 
been of bewilderment: things move too fast- 
ireedom comes without any knowledge of how to use it 
Decisions have to be made without sufficient experience or 
understanding. Responsibility for one's own life often 
means only puzzlement and unhappiness. Which way should 
m £ u Where i,s safety ? A woman says, "if only we 
could go back to the days when we did not have to think I" 
But asked whether if they could they would have the clock 
put back, one and all say, No; there is more possibility of 
happiness this way. Only it all goes too fast. 

If the whole family were moving at the same rate it 
would not be so difficult; but the older people often feel 
complexly incapable of meeting the new ideas which are 
alioat. I he younger members of the family are just as 



CHANGINC4 IDEALS AMONG WOMEN 15 

likely as not to tell them " You do not know anything 
about modern ways, and I do. This is quite proper for me 
to do : it is new style. I can quite well take care of my- 
self " So that instead of having the Western background 
of family understanding and proteetion, the modern young 
woman is often left to stand very much alone. 

In the larger cities the whole complex hie 
R^SSment of Western women seems to have been im- 
Ke-adju ported entire, to be carried by a small group 

of Chinese women who struggle vainly to be equal to the 
demands made upon them. They are limited, not by 
capacity, but by the physical impossibility of being m three 
places at once. Clubs, Church affairs, Y. W. C A social 
events, international friendships, committees, entertaining, 
finance campaigns, speeches, articles, all claim the atten- 
tion of women who already are carrying the none too light 
load of family obligations which the Chinese social system 
entails. Where available women to meet all those demands 
can only be numbered in dozens instead of in hundreds, 
one can heartily sympathise with the woman who with a 
distracted look in her eye says, We can t stand it, we 
truly can't. We will go crazy if people keep on asking so 
much of us." One of the gifts of the West to China seems 
to be nerves ! Too many of the modern young women are 
overstraining their strength in a valiant effort to be equal 
to a situation which is none of their making. 

There are three groups which need to be 
Various Groups mentioned separate ly, each of them influen- 
cing very decidedly tie development of opportunity for 
women. While there are of course many women who can- 
not be classified under any one of these three, still they 
are clearly visible in their extreme manifestations. 

The ultra-radical group is found chiefly 
Ultra Radical among govcrnme nt school students, and 
P among women who are taking an interest in 

politics and semi -political movements. Russian literature 
is being widely read by this group, and there are very 
advanced papers and magazines which cater to their tastes 
Rebellion to everything established is essential, bhort 
hair, careless dress, cigarettes, personal freedom, delight in 
new ideas, contempt for the softer side of life, insistence 



16 CHANGING IDEALS AMONG WOMEN 

on equality with men — so does the New Woman of China 
repeat the New Woman of the West who first made her 
appearance thirty odd years ago. With all this there is a 
passionate interest in ideas and ideals, a good deal of read- 
ing and thinking, a great deal of talking, and often a 
readiness to go to any lengths of personal discomfort and 
sacrifice for the things which they believe. There is real fire 
and energy of action among these women, though often for 
want of direction it is wasted. Friendship between men 
and women is one of their cherished ideals, co-education 
and joint action are a matter of course. The shrilly 
feminist note is not often heard ; in fact an article on 
women's freedom is just as likely to have been written by 
a man as by a woman. This group is largely anti -foreign 
in tendency. 

ttu«., H\*~,i i The second class is that of the ultra- 

Ultra r'emmme .... T ., . .. ., 

Group iemmme. In the port cities there is growing 

before our eyes a " society butterfly v class, 
educated, accomplished, wealthy, making a fine art of clothes, 
dancing exquisitely, going its own way nnchaperoned ; 
changing fashions in sleeves and hairdressing, looking for 
admiration rather than companionship. The tendency 
here is to copy exactly all the mannerisms and luxuries of 
the West. Chinese ways for Chinese people is a phrase 
without meaning to them. It is impossible to discount the 
influence of this group. They are changing girls' ideas of 
what constitutes a good time. They are emphasising feminin- 
ity as cleverly as a chic Parisienne. They are making 
homespun virtues look rather unattractive. Prohibitions 
are useless to keep young people steady in the face of this 
enchanting colourful new freedom. There must be a better 
understanding of the facts of life and of its values. 

The third group is less voluble than the 

Mabrit/ ^ rs * an( * * ess v ^ s ^ D ^ e than the second. 

Group To it belong the people who are steadily 

working at changing conditions by continued 
deliberate effort: teachers in schools who are teaching the 
art of living in addition to the subjects in the curriculum ; 
students teaching in free schools all through the long hot 
summer; young married women bringing up " better 
babies " and being companions to their husbands,' women 



CHANGING IDEALS AMONG WOMEN 17 

in social and church work, growing wise and sympathetic 
as they meet problems both general and personal ; girls in 
business offices trying to make a standard for women 
working with men. These are the solid and most in- 
fluential section of society. Western ideas are adopted as 
they fit conditions, but there is a tendency away from the 
idea that everything foreign is necessarily good for China. 
The way in which women of this kind keep strictly to 
Chinese dress with almost no foreign modifications in- 
dicates their type of mind. They are ready to judge a 
thing on its merits rather than simply to follow a 
fashion. 

™, - , Organizations such as the Women's Suf- 

Organnations frage and the Women's Rights Movements 
show that the social consciousness is growing. 
Although such movements find a difficulty in securing 
continuity and harmony of conflicting interests, they do 
not differ in this from similar movements in the West, 
which had at first to provide women with a training in the 
art of working together. 

Difficulties Still Society at large is hardly ready for the 
Ahead of ths new women, and indeed how could it be ! 
" New ^ The modern Chinese woman has travelled as 

Woman f ar j n |. en years as the Western woman in 

two generations. So the sheltered woman in her home is 
suspicious of the woman who goes out of the home to earn 
her living. She can hardly believe that two girls working 
in an office with ten men can be "nice." Chattering 
tongues make life hard for many young women who have 
outraged none of the conventions, and yet are given gratis 
the reputation of being too free. Men too are not yet 
ready for the freedom of women. It is not so long since a 
young man practically never saw and certainly never spoke 
to a young unmarried girl of good family, and so there are 
still many men who take it for granted that an indepen- 
dent modern young woman is ready to meet them halfway. 
Here of course a sensible woman is her own protection, 
but the younger, less experienced girl often gets intoc om- 
plicated situations. There have been instances not a few 
of marriages made by mutual attraction and consent, 
without the old-fashioned investigation into the families 



18 CHANGING IDEALS AMONG WOMEN 

on both sides, where after marriage the man has been 
found to have a first wife already, and to have married the 
second under false pretences. If a man is attracted by a 
young woman, he often writes letters to tell her so, and 
she dare not repulse him too forcibly for fear of the 
revenge he may take by making free with her name among 
his friends. While in the realm of ideas and high char- 
acter, probably no men in the world have welcomed 
women's education and leadership more openly and 
simply than Chinese men, on another plane Chinese young 
men need to learn more of respect for women before it 
will be easy for the modern girl. 

Meeting a ^ Western observer watching the tremen- 

New Situation d« us change which is taking place cannot 
refrain from paying a tribute to the balance 
and poise which Chinese women as a whole are showing as 
they meet the impact of the new order. No women in the 
world have been made to move so far in so short a time, 
and it is hard to think of any women of any country who 
could have kept their heads better in the confusion than 
the Chinese women have done. 



CHAPTER IV 

THE CRIMINAL CODE AND THE TREATMENT OF 
PRISONERS 

Thomas C. Blaisdeli, Jr. 

I t f c 'i ^ visitor to one of the civil courts in 
Qod s Peking was informed by the judge in charge 

that as far as the civil law was concerned it 
was necessary for him to pass judgment in accordance 
with his own knowledge of custom and general legal prac- 
tice for there was no code which he could follow. 

C I ti 1 Code * n diking contrast to this uncertainty in 
the Civil Code is the criminal law. The 
Criminal Code is the only one of the six codes which has 
been completed and passed by Parliament. It is the only 
one which is legally in operation. Other legal practice is 
based on custom and the uncodified laws. The police law 
which is very active is determined by each city. There 
is a special court for the trial of officials, which sits only 
in Peking. The result is that officials are seldom brought 
before it and that when officials are tried it is not accord- 
ing to due legal process but by the military courts. These 
courts operate parallel with all other courts and, due to 
the tremendous power in the hands of military officials, 
almost any offense may be brought before them for 
judgment. 

M t' i L Over and above even the military courts is 

martial law and at times the trials under 
this law may be called " trials " only by courtesy. This 
would seem to indicate that there is no " due process of 
law." However, in the great majority of cases criminals 
are brought to trial and judgment is passed with an ex- 
peditiousness which some Western countries might well 
envy. 



20 CRIMINAL CODE AND TREATMENT PRISONERS 

Miscarriage of . Miscarriage of justice tends to take place 
Justice ° in cases where there is a change in the 

political government and former officials are 
being tried. Labor leaders and student "agitators" on 
whom officials look with suspicion also suffer at times. 
However, foreigners should not forget similar miscarriages 
in Western countries. Notable instances are the Dreyfus 
and more recent Caillaux cases in France, and the slight 
attempts to do justice in the case of " reds " in America. 
Treatment of Along with the advance in the codification 
Prisoners of the criminal law has gone the advance in 

the treatment of prisoners. Prisons as places 
of punishment were not known under the Manchu Dynasty. 
Only the few years before the Republic saw an attempt to 
introduce Western methods of dealing with criminals. 
Manchu prisons were used only to hold the criminal until 
he could be brought to trial and punished. Little atten- 
tion was given to him. He and his friends were respon- 
sible for his food and care and in case he had no friends 
he had to depend on fellow prisoners. These detention 
prisons still exist in some places although their manage- 
ment has been reformed. They are usually several long 
rooms with the usual k'ang (brick bed), on which as many 
as twenty or thirty sleep. Connected with these rooms is 
a court in which the prisoners are allowed some freedom. 
The sleeping rooms have wooden bars across the front 
which give them the appearance of large cages. The mud 
walls which surround the court are usually topped with 
nothing more^ than bramble bushes and the locks on the 
doors are of simple construction. At times prisoners have 
been kept in these prisons without trial for as long as 
three or four months. To-day the food is properly cared 
for and the degree of cleanliness is high in at least some 
cases. 

Penitentiary ^ ne Penitentiary system has been worked 

System out with a considerable degree of thorough- 

ness. Beginning with the early years of the 
■Republic there has been a building program which has been 
consistently carried out. Some of these penitentiaries have 
accommodations for more than a thousand prisoners while 
the smaller ones hold about two hundred. At least those 



CRIMINAL CODE AND TREATMENT PRISONERS 21 

in the Peking district cannot be said to be crowded. Al- 
together some forty-nine of these modern prisons are 
scattered in the eighteen provinces. If those in the Peking 
area are fair samples they are certainly on a par with the 
best prison buildings of the west. 

p . The treatment of prisoners is in accordance 

^st/m with reformatory practice in the Western 

world. The Chinese delegates to Interna- 
tional Prison Congresses brought the reformatory system 
back to China. The result is that reformatory labor has 
been introduced into at least some of the prisons. Theo- 
retically it is in all of them. A large variety of trades is 
taught the prisoners, including printing, lithographing, 
tailoring, carpentry, shoemaking, toymaking, basketry 
and bricklaying. Juvenile prisoners have a certain amount 
of schooling and are kept separate from the adults. 
According to the daily schedule the prisoners are out of 
their cells and at work from eight until four-thirty during 
the winter months and from six in the morning till five 
at night during the summer months. They are given a 
half hour period in the morning and afternoon for exer- 
cise which consists in marching around a court. At all 
times the rule of silence is in force. Good behavior and 
good work may result in privileges for the men and in 
shortened terms. Parole is being used increasingly with 
very satisfactory results. 

The whole prison system has benefited by 
Freedom from ft comparative freedom from interference by 
Interference tne military officials who have been content 

to have special places for detention of pris- 
oners in whom they are interested. 

Increased O ne °* ^ ne outstanding features of the year 

Number has been the number of arrests and trials of 

of Political political cases by the military authorities 
Prosecutions a ft er changes in political power backed by 
military successes. The most striking of these are the 
arrest and imprisonment of former officials of the Chinese 
Eastern Railway and some of the officials of the Ts'ao Kun 
government in Peking after the coup tfetat of October 23rd. 
Both under the Ts'ao Kun government and the new govern- 
ment, newspaper editors have been imprisoned for printing 



22 



CRIMINAL CODE AND TREATMENT PRISONERS 



news which the authorities disapproved. Under the former 
Peking government the action taken against labor or- 
ganizers and government university students who took 
part in labor organizing was severe. These people have 
been seized and held without trial in a number of cases. 
These instances of the overruling of judicial procedure by 
a strong government remind one of similar actions of 
recent months in Europe. 



CHAPTER V 

THE LABOR ORGANIZATIONS AND THEIR ATTITUDE 
TOWARD SOCIALISM 

H. C. Shen 

The political conditions of our country have a great 
influence over the activities of labor organizations. In 
February 1923, General Wu Pei-fu prohibited the opening 
of the Laborers' Union in Hankow which resulted in a 
fight where over 40 people were killed. He also dissolved 
by force all the labor organizations in the provinces which 
were under the control of the Chihli Party, and ordered 
that the active members of these organizations be arrested . 
Until to-day there have been no formal labor organizations 
North of the Yangtze River. Although some groups of 
laborers have carried on the movement secretly, they have 
done very little work. Of these groups, the railway laborers 
are the strongest. But the formal laborers' association 
cannot be organized for another two months. 

Canton is the place where the labor movement of our 
country started. But on account of the righting, the 
labor movement there has had no further development 
during these past few years. As every class of laborers 
in Canton has its own organization, the number of labor 
organizations there exceeds that of any other place of our 
country. In these organizations, there are many leaders 
who really have done some work for the welfare of the 
laborers. The Engineering Workers' Association is the 
strongest among all labor organizations in Canton. The 
laborers of that city have a strong faith in the three 
principles of people promoted by the Kuomingtang — that 
is, the right of the people, the livelihood of the people, 
and racial equality among the people, especially the 
second clause, because it gives the laborers protection. 
The propaganda of the Kuomingtang for the laborers 
has borne much more fruit than that of the socialists 



24 THE LABOR ORGANIZATIONS 

and communists, because the ideas of these two groups 
are not suitable to the conditions of our country. 

Shanghai's labor organizations date from 1905, but 
only a few of them have lasted long. They were organized 
when the laborers were stimulated for different reasons, 
but their ardor soon cooled off and the organization 
failed. Although some of them maintain their name, 
most of them have disappeared entirely. Some of them 
were dissolved through the oppression of employers. As 
a general rule, when the laborers found they could not 
maintain their living on their income and became aware 
of the necessity of making a united effort for the increase 
of their w T ages, they organized an association, but when 
their demands met with either success or failure, they 
became disinterested in the organization and did not pay 
the fees. So most of the organizations were not main- 
tained for long. But during these past three or four years, 
the laborers in Shanghai have been a little more interested 
in organization w T ork than they were three or four years 
ago. They organized not only an association for each 
class of laborers, but also a union of organizations. Those 
organizations which were not established chiefly for the 
welfare of the laborers were not allowed to join. The 
union publishes a wet^kly, which, although it does not 
oppose socialism and communism, does oppose the com- 
munists, because the communists of our country do not 
aim at the application of their principles, but at making 
money by fraud. For example, the General Associa- 
tion of the Laborers of the Peking-Hankow Railway 
was organized through promotion of the communists. 
When it was organized, the communists claimed that the 
association belonged to the communistic party. After the 
tragedy of February 7, 1923,* they raised money from the 
people on the pretense of using the money to support 
the victims and their families, but they put the money in- 
to their own pockets, leaving the families of those workers 
who were in prison in hunger and cold. Therefore the 
workers of the Peking-Hankow Railway hate communists 
very much, and most labor organizations of our country 



See following chapter. 



THE LABOR ORGANIZATIONS 25 

thereby suspect communism and socialism. Many 
socialists regret this very much but thejT cannot clear 
away the laborers' suspicion at the present time. 

The labor movement in Hunan and Hupeh was very 
successful from 1921 to 1923. But after General Chao 
Heng-ti, the Governor of Hunan, killed Hwang and Pong, 
two laborers, and General Hsiao Yao-nan, the Governor 
of Hupeh, killed many workers of the Peking-Hankow 
Railway and dissolved all the labor organizations by force, 
the labor movement in these two provinces has made no 
progress. As the laborers of these two provinces have not 
made a deep study into socialism, and as the socialists there 
have not propagated their ideas on a large scale, it is not 
clear whether the laborers favor socialism or not. 

In a word, most laborers of our country have not been 
very active during these past two years, the chief reason 
being the oppression of the militarists and the chaotic 
conditions of our country. Except the laborers in Canton 
who believe in the three principles of the people, most 
laborers are not intelligent about any principles. They 
are doubtful about socialism and communism, because 
some communists took advantage of the laborers' name for 
making money. This is the general condition of laborers 
with regard to their attitude concerning socialism. 



CHAPTER VI 

THE LABOR MOVEMENT AND MILITARISM 
T. C Blafsdeil 

" A thorough reconstruction will be carried out. The 
party of militarists and those imperialists will be over- 
thrown and cleared away. Then will come the true 
democracy.' 7 These words are taken from a proclamation 
issued by the Kwangtung General Labor Union in support 
of the 'People's Conference" advocated by Dr. Sun Yat- 
sen and his followers. They are significant of the attitude 
of the organized workers towards the military authorities. 
The depth to which this antipathy goes can only be shown 
by a brief review of the development of the labor movement 
in China within the last few years. 

Th2 Hongkong T^ e l a k° r movement dates from the 
Ssam'n's Stride strike of the seamen in Hongkong. The 
Seamen's Union, representing only a minority 
of the workers, presented demands to the employers for an 
increase in wages and a conference was called. It failed to 
bring agreement and on January 12, 1922, sailors, firemen, 
stewards, and all other workers in Hongkong harbor 
left their ships. Attempts on the part of the Hongkong 
authorities to mediate failed. In the frantic efforts which 
followed to break the strike, crews were brought from 
North China and the Philippines, British navy men were 
used, and union organizers were arrested for going on 
board ships to call out workers. On February 2nd the 
waterside workers came out in a sympathetic strike. 
Finally the government outlawed the Seamen's Union and 
arrested anyone found wearing its button. During most of 
the month approximately 250,000 tons of shipping lay 
idle in Hongkong harbor. After the assassination of a 
wealthy Chinese who had been instrumental in securing 
strikebreakers the government placed the colony under 
what amounted to martial law. A crowd of several 



THE LABOR MOVEMENT AND MILITARISM 27 

hundred who tried to cross British territory in violation of 
emergency regulations were fired on by the authorities and 
eleven were wounded, of whom four died. Two days later 
a settlement was arrived at granting substantial increases 
in pay and taking the ban off the seamen's organization. 
Testimony has been given again and again to the remark- 
able order which was preserved throughout the strike. 
One writer says that " in spite of great provocation there 
was apparently extraordinarily little in the way of 
violence." The leaders of the men were unceasing in their 
attempts to have the workers "maintain self-control." 

While the strike was in progress there 
0^°P rt~°of were unmistakable signs of sympathy from 
the Co«ntry° workers all over the country. On January 
20th the Guilds of Canton issued a state- 
ment urging the strikers to hold out for a favorable 
settlement. During February the railroad workers at 
Kaifeng, Chengchow and Changhsintien took up collections 
for the benefit of the men who had been out of work so 
long. At one time the workers hoisted a flag on their 
train. " We support the Hongkong Seamen." In addition 
to the Peking-Hankow and Canton-Hankow railway 
workers, those on the Lnnghai and northern lines, the 
Peking-Mukden and Peking-Suiyuan, came forward with 
contributions for the encouragement of their brother 
workmen in the south. 

Throughout the year 1922 there was a 
A Labor succession of strikes affecting the Hanyang 

Comedo Steel and Iron Works ' the water works, and 
Being tne electric light plant in Hankow, the 

Peking-Hankow and Canton-Hankow Rail- 
roads, and the silk filatures of Shanghai. Shanghai also 
witnessed a continuation of the Hongkong seamen's strike 
when the workers on Chinese coastwise vessels struck 
because of a failure to live up to the Hongkong agreement. 
In this strike also the newspapers commented on the great 
orderliness of the workers. 

At times university students helped in the organization 
of unions, but in most cases the workers themselves were 
the leaders, as was shown by the repeated instances of 
strikes being precipitated by the dismissal of union leaders 



28 THE LABOR MOVEMENT AND MILITARISM 

working in the mills. In spite of "communist propaganda," 
on the whole these strikes were directed at improving 
working conditions, and getting shorter hours and higher 
pay. Usually the demands included the recognition of the 
workers' organizations. 

In much of the literature distributed there were 
exhortations to the workers to fight for their own class as 
opposed to the capitalists. There was some talk of 
world revolution " but in spite of inflammatory words 
there was little violence on the part of the strikers. So 
much can not be said for the military authorities, and thus 
the workers linked up in their minds the capitalists and 
the militarists. In most of the strikes the forces of the 
government, the military, the police, all who are said to 
stand for "law and order," seem to have been on the 
side of the employers. A judge in a Chinese court in 
Shanghai is quoted as having said during the trial of 
arrested union leaders that " inciting to strike is punish- 
able by death. 7 ' Again and again the troops were called 
in to protect property," or to protect strike breakers from 
being influenced by strikers, which to the workers meant 
taking the side of the employers. 

The Militarist The workers had come to regard the 
Reaction military who were in power as their enemies. 

The militarists saw this movement under- 
mining their authority. When further disturbances took 
place their full force was thrown against the workers' 
organizations. A meeting of the union representatives at 
Changhsintien on February 7, 1923, was broken up by the 
military forces and several men were killed and more 
wounded. 

With equal ferocity the strength of General Hsiao 
Yao-nan in Hankow was thrown on the labor represent- 
atives there and a regular "round-up" of labor leaders 
took place. The lawyer, Yang Shih, who had been legal 
counsel for the Ricksha Men's Union and who had taken 
an active part in the labor movement was arrested and 
beheaded after a " trial " by military court. Marshal 
Wu Pei-fu said that "after the execution of the ring 
leader, Yang Shih, there will be no serious labor dis- 
turbances in the Centra' Yangtse Valley for a long time to 



TEE LABOR MOVEMENT AND MILITARISM 



29 



come." The statement of the Shanghai judge that 
"inciting to strike was punishable by death" had come 
true. ■ 

At the same time Marshal Ts ao Kun issued a telegram 
to the government warning against a nation-wide labor 
movement which on the surface would be a demand for 
troop disbandment and the abolition of the tuchuns but 
would in reality be directed against the government. The 
Kuomintang were being accused of complicity in these 
strikes. , 

Shortly afterwards when the Wn Pei-fu-Ts ao Kun 
combination came into nominal as well as actual power, 
the attitude of uncompromising opposition to the labor 
movement continued. In North China it was driven 
completely underground. The railway union headquarters 
were closed. The officials were arrested early in 1923 and 
held. So severe was the opposition that in Tientsin it was 
impossible for welfare organizations to do elementary 
educational work in factories. 

After the overthrow of the Chihli clique by the forces 
of Chang Tso-lin and the "National Armies" the union 
leaders were released, — it is supposed through the in- 
fluence of Dr. Sun Yat-sen. They immediately went to 
work to re-establish their weakened union. 1924 closed 
with a slightly more liberal policy in evidence towards the 
unions. 



CHAPTER VII 

CHINA'S NEW TREATIES 
M. T. Z. Tyatt 

Until the beginning of the Great War in Europe nine- 
teen States enjoyed treaty relations with the Republic of 
China. These are, in the chronological order of their first 
treaties with Peking; Russia, Great Britain, the United 
States, France, Belgium, Norway, Sweden, Germany, 
Portugal, Denmark, Holland, Spain, Cuba, Italy, Austria- 
Hungary, Japan, Peru, Brazil, and Mexico. To-day the 
number of such States has increased to two dozen and 
the names of the late comers are Chile, Switzerland, 
Bolivia, and Persia. 

The treaties between China and these latter states are 
very much shorter than those concluded between China 
and their predecessors, with the single exception of an 
unratified agreement between China and the former Congo 
Free State (1899) which consisted of merely two articles. 
As in the case of the earlier treaties, these new treaties 
are not all uniform. For example, both the Sino- 
Bolivian (December 3, 1919) and the Sino-Persian (June 
1, 1920) treaties provide that the French text shall be the 
text of authority in the event of any divergence of inter- 
pretation between the other corresponding texts. On the 
other hand, both the Sino-Chilean (February IS, 1915) 
and the Sino-Swiss (June 13, 1918) treaties provide that 
any such disagreement shall be decided according to the 
English text, " which shall be obligatory for both Govern- 
ments." The former, it will be noted, were concluded 
between 1919 and 1920, while the latter were concluded 
between 1915 and 1918. 

Refusal to ^ ne prevailing national sentiment against 

Grant Further the further grant of extra-territorial rights to 
Extra-territorial the new comers is reflected in these and 
Ri 2 hts other new treaties. In the case of Bolivia, 



china's new treaties 31 

the rights of extra-territoriality were expressly withheld 
in an exchange of notes effected after the signature of the 
treaty; in the case of Persia, such rights were expressly 
denied to its nationals in the treaty proper itself. 

A Declaration annexed to the treaty between China 
and Switzerland reads as follows: — " The Plenipotentiaries 
of China and Switzerland have further agreed upon the 
following Declaration: With regard to consular jurisdic- 
tion, i. e. extra-territorial rights, the Swiss Consuls shall 
enjoy the same rights as are or may be conceded to the 
Consular Agents of the most favoured Powers. When 
China shall have improved her judicial system, Switzer- 
land shall be ready with the other Treaty Powers to give 
up the right of consular jurisdiction in China." 

The treaty between China and Chile is silent on this 
particular point. The question whether or not a Chilean 
consul in China can exercise consular jurisdiction over 
the nationals of his government in virtue of "the same 
rights, privileges, favours, immunities and exemptions as 
are or may be conceded to the Diplomatic and Consular 
Agents of the most favoured Powers," conferred upon him 
by Article II of the Sino-Chilean Treaty seems now to 
have been answered in the negative. For when the 
Chilean Consul, though Honorary, in Shanghai last year 
attempted to exercise such jurisdiction over a Chinese who 
claimed Chilean citizenship, and subsequently invoked the 
assistance of the Diplomatic Body in Peking, his efforts 
proved abortive. 

Post-bellum Apart from the universal treaties to which 

Treaties with China, like many other Powers of the world, 
Germany, j s a i g0 a party — such as the Austrian, Hun- 

and X Russk * garian and Bulgarian peace treaties of 1919 
and 1920, as well as the Washington treaties 
and agreements and resolutions of 1921 and 1922 — the Re- 
public has concluded new treaties with Germany, Mexico, 
Japan and Russia, mainly as an aftermath of the Great 
War. As is well known, China refused to sign the Ger- 
man peace treaty at Versailles because of the Allies' award 
of Shantung to Japan as a spoil of war. In order to 
restore the diplomatic and commercial relations between 
the two States a separate preliminary treaty of peace was 



32 

concluded between them in Peking (May 18, 1921). 
Among other things the former rights of extra-territoriality 
were likewise expressly renounced by Germany, and in 
future " lawsuits in which Germans are concerned shall 
be tried in modern courts and by modern codes, and the 
assistance of German lawyers shall be permitted. '' 

On September 26, 1921, an exchange of notes was 
effected between the Chinese Minister in Mexico and the 
Mexican Foreign Minister, embodying an agreement 
(called "modus vivendi") of fourteen articles for the 
regulation of Chinese labour immigration into Mexico and 
vice versa, and the amendment of the Sino-Mexican treaty 
of December 14, 1899. Part of the concluding article 
reads as follows: — "The Government of Mexico is 
pleased to previously declare to the Government of the 
Republic of China, that my Government is willing to ex- 
press on one of the amendments of the above-mentioned 
Treaty the renouncement that will be made by Mexico to 
the Consular Jurisdiction in China." 

The new treaties (1922) between China and Japan 
relate to the restoration of Tsingtao and the rehabilitation 
of Shantung, including the redemption of the Shantung 
Railway. Their contents are more or less familiar to the 
public. (For the texts of these Si no- Japanese treaties 
and the Washington treaties etc. of 1922, see the " Wash- 
ington Conference Supplement " of the Chinese Social and 
Political Science Review (Peking) April 1923. 
RT ost Perhaps the agreements concluded between 

Sfgniilcant China and Soviet Russia on May 31, 1924, 
of China's New are the most significant of China's new 
Treats treaties. Although the principal treaty is 

designated an " Agreement on General Principles for the 
Settlement of the Questions" between the two States, — 
namely, for definitive settlement at a conference between 
their plenipotentiaries, — yet its provisions bind Moscow 
to renounce not only the former rights of consular juris- 
diction and extra-territoriality, but also " the special rights 
and privileges relating to all concessions in any part of 
China," and the Boxer Indemnity. 

Moreover, Moscow agrees to conclude new treaties etc. 
with Peking "on the basis of equality, reciprocity and 



33 

justice, as well as the spirit of the Declarations of the 
Soviet Government of the years of 1919 and 1920." Such 
new treaties w T ill include a redemarcation of the boundaries 
between the two States and the drawing up of a new 
customs tariff for each other's goods. 

It is interesting to note that the text of authority in 
all these new treaties with Mexico, Japan and Russia is 
English. In the case of the first two States, this is merely 
continuing their former practice, but in the case of Russia 
it is a departure from her traditional custom of adopting 
French as the authoritative text. 

A signatory of the Austrian peace treaty, China is an 
original member of the League of Nations. As such she 
has affixed her signatures to numerous universal conven- 
tions, notably the Protocol of Signature relating to the 
Statute of the Permanent Court of International Justice. 
in virtue of his election in September 1921 by the 
Assembly of the League of Nations, ex-Premier Dr. Wang 
Chung-hui is at present assisting the Court as a Judge. 



CHAPTER VIII 

THE GOOD ROADS MOVEMENT 

Mr. ¥u Shan 
[Translated by Garfield Huang] 

The National Road Construction Association 
Beeinnines of China had its beginning through the 

influence of the Pan Pacific Road Construction 
Association and was started in May, 1911. It registered 
with the Peking Government in September of the same 
year. Soon after that the Minister of the Interior instructed 
the different provincial authorities to promote construction 
of new roads in their own territories. In this way the 
name and purpose of this organization was first made 
known to the whole nation. In December of the same year 
the chairman, Dr. C. T. Wang, and Mr. Wu Shan, general 
secretary, in conjunction with the initiators of this move- 
ment, started the first membership campaign which lasted 
for four weeks and as a result secured a membership of 
11,000 and fees amounting to over $30,000. A little later 
branch associations were started in several provinces and 
several motor road companies were soon formed. Much 
publicity work was done through Chinese and foreign 
newspapers and through the monthly magazine and annual 
report of the Association. 

, At present there are twenty-six branch 

Aviation associations established in different provinces 

and more than forty branch associations in 
process of formation. The number of members amounts to 
more than 1.10,000. Membership fees amounting to 8100,000 
have been received. Through the efforts of this Association 
more than 38,000 li of highways have been constructed and 
over 30 motor road companies have been formed. The 
charts, pictures and statistics of the Association ^ were 
exhibited in a special room reserved for the Association on 
the third floor of the Commercial Museum Building, 



THE GOOD ROADS MOVEMENT 35 

General Chamber of Commerce, Shanghai. Under the 
auspices of this Association a special course on road con- 
struction engineering was started with Mr. Kuang Chiao Shi, 
one of the officers of the Association, in charge. At present 
that course has an enrollment of more than forty students 
sent by the different provincial authorities, different branch 
associations and also some self supporting students. 

The monthly magazine has more than 5,000 subscribers 
many of whom are living abroad. 

Membership Tne fcnirt1 membership campaign has recent- 

ly taken place. The military and civil 
authorities in different provinces organized their own teams 
to secure members for this organization. Even the Japanese 
and A merican merchants in Shanghai organized into teams 
to support this work. Up to the present many requests 
have come from Chinese abroad, (from the .South Sea 
Islands, America and Europe) asking to join the 
Association. 

Any person who is in sympathy with this work is 
welcome as a member no matter whether Chinese or foreign 
or to what political party he belongs. One reason why this 
work has grown so rapidly throughout the whole nation 
is that it has received the moral and material support of 
people from all walks of life in different provinces. 
Program ^ ie P eo P ie of the whole nation have given 

the fullest support to the proposed program 
of the Association to construct national boundary highways 
and to rehabilitate the territories in the north formerly 
occupied by Russia, and to the suggestion that the Boxer 
Indemnity funds be devoted to road construction and the 
income from the roads be used for educational purposes. 
It is a matter for satisfaction that despite the political 
rivalries between the South and the North and the dis- 
turbances in different provinces, the work has gone on 
successfully. 

This four- fold program for the construction of good 
roads throughout the whole nation has been carefully 
worked out and is stated briefly in the following pages. 

1. Construction of New Roads by Military Labor \ The 
Association strongly urges the Minister of the Interior to 
consider the suggestion of converting the military into 



36 THE GOOD ROADS MOVEMENT 

laborers for road construction. The magazine of the 
Association has from the beginning tried to arouse people's 
interest in this aspect of the question. It is believed that 
this is one hopeful means of solving the problem of 
disbanded soldiers. Several pamphlets have been published 
for distribution to the whole nation regarding the work 
already accomplished in Shansi and Chekiang by this 
method. Through this publicity preparations have been 
begun for the construction of new roads by military labor 
in the Provinces of Hunan, Kwangtung, Kiangsi, Szechwan, 
Yunnan, Kweichow, Chihli, Honan, Fengtien, Kirin, 
Shensi, Kansu, Kiangsu and Fukien. The Association has 
also requested the Minister of War to instruct the military 
leaders throughout the whole country to carry on this road 
construction program according to the methods already 
practiced in Shansi and Chekiang. The future is most 
hopeful. We feel that in this critical time when the whole 
nation is clamoring for the disbandment of soldiers, the 
conversion of these soldiers into laborers for the construc- 
tion of new roads is the best if not the only means for the 
salvation of China. We hope that in a few years' time the 
military leaders of the whole nation will see the importance 
of this work, throw away their guns and take up picks, 
turn away from the road that leads to destruction and 
construct roads that will give this nation life. 

2. Construction of New Roads in Every Magistracy. The 
Association has sent from time to time literature to the 
Minister of the Interior requesting them to instruct the 
provincial authorities throughout the nation to establish 
in each province a Provincial Road Construction Bureau 
and Magistracy Road Construction Bureaus, so as to promote 
and carry out the new road program. These suggestions 
are being carried out in ten provinces. Other provinces 
have also taken steps to organize the same kind of bureau 
for road construction. We believe that in two or three 
years' time national road construction bureaus will be 
established in the whole nation, but just now among the 
more than 1800 magistracies only those in Honan, 
Chekiang, and Kiangsu have such bureaus; many new 
roads have been constructed in these provinces. The rest, 
on account of political and military disturbances and 



THE GOOD ROADS MOVEMENT 37 

financial difficulty, have not as yet been able to follow this 
lead. It is hoped by the Association that the people will 
rise up and push forward this important piece of work and 
not stand aside waiting for the action of the government 
and provincial authorities. 

3. Road Construction by the People. In recent years 
through the publicity given by this Association the people 
in the whole nation have to some extent awakened to the 
necessity and importance of communication. Many motor 
road companies have been established with big capital. 
Some are running their business in conjunction with the 
local authorities; some are just private business enterprises. 
They are established in most of the provinces. This shows 
us what is possible. The time has come and the demand 
must be met. 

In many places the enterprise of constructing new 
roads has met many obstacles, such as the superstition of 
"wind and water", the unreasonable price of land, in 
some places opposition from village elders etc. As soon as 
the Association is informed of these difficulties it either 
telegraphs or sends somebody to the place to help solve the 
problem. Pamphlets and magazines are distributed so as 
to enable the people to understand the purpose of the 
enterprise. Should the construction of new roads become 
general throughout the country we believe there would be 
no trouble of this kind in the future. 

According to reports received from different provinces 
the local motor road companies are all doing satisfactory 
business. Travellers and merchants all depend upon them 
as the best means of communication. Every time a call is 
sent out to raise money for this purpose it is met with a 
most enthusiastic response from people in this country as 
well as from Chinese abroad. If our program in this 
respect can be realized it will be a great help in the im- 
provement of communication and also in general progress. 
Before long we hope to see China stand side by side with the 
other Powers. 

4. Tearing Down City Walls. For several thousand 
years the capital cities and magistracy towns have been 
kept in very unsatisfactory condition, both in regard to 
sanitation and communication. Peking was the first city 



38 THE GOOD. ROADS MOVEMENT 

to adopt a new municipal system and construction of new 
roads, but what has been done is far inferior to that at 
Canton. The Association urges that capitals and big cities 
take Canton as their example for the construction of new 
roads, and that the magistracies and towns should take 
Nantung as their example. Since 1913 the Association 
has through the cooperation of all the newspapers tried to 
arouse the whole country to the necessity of reconstructing 
their provincial capitals after the model of Canton, and of 
taking down the city walls to allow for expansion as has 
been done in Nantung. By doing this the inhabitants will 
avoid over-crowding and can enjoy the well-constructed 
broad roads. It will help to free them from bad habits and 
superstitions and will give an opportunity for increasing 
business. We all know that the municipal achievements 
of Paris and New York are all from human labor. We 
must not think that we cannot get to such a state as New 
York or Paris, or even surpass them, if we will only break 
our old conservative habits and rise up for some real 
constructive town planning. Otherwise the dirty, 
narrow, crowded streets will remain the same even 
thousands of years hence. In addition to Tientsin, 
Shanghai, Nanking, Hankow, and Canton, which had 
already torn down their city walls, the following cities have 
also done it through the efforts of this Association: 
Hangchow, Changsha, Kashing, Yangchow, Tsinan, 
Chiaoching, Wuchow. Chengtu, Yunnan, and Wuchang 
are all in process of tearing down their city walls and are 
enforcing a new municipal system. We earnestly hope 
that in a few years' time all other cities will follow in their 
footsteps so as to break the superstitious habits of the 
people and abolish all useless relics of ancient times. It 
will not then be difficult to attain to the standards of the 
cities of the West. At least we can enjoy the conveniences 
of modern cities like Hongkong and Shanghai. 
^ 4 A L . . L . This is a brief summary of the four- 
S:4tSd KS foH program of the Assertion. The 
Association is also trying to tackle this 
problem from other angles, such as establishing a road 
construction bank, organizing automobile manufacturing 
companies, opening road construction model exhibits, 



THE GOOD ROADS MOVEMENT 30 

standardizing the terminology of road construction engi- 
neering, publishing a series of books on road construction 
engineering, experimenting in and recommending available 
materials for road construction. We feel that the solution 
of this problem is even more fundamental than deciding 
upon what kind of government we shall adopt, —such as 
the Presidential system, Committee system, etc. whether 
we shall have a national constitution or provincial con- 
stitutions. We believe that until we can solve the 
problem of communication we can never unify the 
language of the nation. Without better means of com- 
munication how can we expect a central government to 
function effectively throughout the whole nation ? 
Certainly this is a big piece of work, even bigger than 
the constructing of the Great Wall and the digging of the 
canals. 

More Helt> Although we have at present over 100,000 

Needed members and several hundreds of officers, 

still the number is too small to carry out 
such a big program, which means the constructing of two 
hundred million li of good roads to do away with those in- 
conveniences which have handicapped this great nation for 
the past 5,000 years, the taking down of more than 800 city 
walls, the improving of every city and magistracy to the 
grade of Canton and Nantung. We can only achieve this 
through the cooperation of the people throughout the 
nation who are interested and can see the urgency of this 
need. We feel that if we, the Chinese, will not rise up and 
solve this problem of our own, the day will come when 
other people will come in and do it for us. So in order to 
save China for herself we hope the people of the whole 
nation will give their fullest support to this great cause, 
which is the most fundamental way to promote agriculture, 
commerce, and industry, and to uplift the old Chinese 
civilization, as well as to make use of foreign culture and 
civilization. 



CHAPTER IX 



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PART II 

RELIGIOUS THOUGHT AND ACTIVITY 

CHAPTER X 

CHINESE STUDENTS AND RELIGION TO-DAY 
Herman C. E. Liu 

In reply to the question, " What is your impression 
of the attitude of Chinese students toward religion? " some 
say Chinese students have practically no religion nowadays, 
while others say they are deeply interested in religion. 
Both statements contain some truth. Asa matter of fact, 
it is difficult to classify students on the basis of their 
religious attitudes, for each student i^ a type in himself. 
This is especially true to-day, because the ideals of life and 
civilization to be found, are not only those of a large and 
complex country, but those as well of many other nations 
which have met and mingled together in various propor- 
tion in different minds. So one might well expect to find 
every kind of attitude toward religion that has been known 
at any time and in any land. 

A careful analysis, however, shows that, on the basis 
of their attitude toward religion, Chinese students may be 
roughly divided into three classes: favorable, indifferent, 
and antagonistic. It is interesting to note that in the 
distribution, comparatively few are shown to be favorable 
or antagonistic, by far the largest percentage being in- 
different to_ religion. The actual number may vary 
in different institutions, Government, Christian or private, 
but the ratio for the different groups remains almost the 
same. Of course, there are special schools to which this 
statement does not apply. These facts are shown by the 
following table : 



CHINESE STUDENTS AND RELIGION TO-DAY 



43 



School 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
Average 



Favorable 

30% 
10% 
10% 

15% 
25% 
15% 
10% 
15% 



Indifferent 

50% 
80% 
80% 
75% 
50% 
75% 
80% 



Antagonistic 

15% 
10% 
15% 
10% 
30% 
10% 
10% 
14% 



L Students 
Antagonistic 
Toward 
Religion 

this year. 



Students who are antagonistic to religion, 
are, as a rule, very active in the anti-religious 
movement. This movement was started in 
1922, hung fire for a time, but was revived 
It appears to be a joint affair of the Young 
China Society, The National Student Union, the Anti- 
Imperialism Federation and the left wing or Communistic 
section of the Kuomingfcang.* A summary of their argu- 
ments is given as follows : 

A. Reasons Against Religion Itself: 

(1) Religion hinders human progress. It is conserva- 
tive, ignorant and dogmatic. 

(2) Religion is against peace because each religion 
claims the supremacy for itself and excludes all others. 
This causes war. For example, the Thirty Years Religious 
War in Europe, the Crusades and so forth. 

(3) Religion is against science. It teaches mysticism 
and encourages superstition. 

(4) Religion hampers the development of individuality 
because it requires prayer, repentance, and dependence 
on the Supreme Being. 

(5) Religion is against life. It emphasises the future 
and neglects the present. It emphasises the spiritual and 
neglects the physical. 

B. Special Reasons Against Christianity: 

(1) Christian teachings are contrary to logic and in- 
consistent with assured results of modern science, for 
examples, the book of Genesis, Virgin birth, miracles, and 
Resurrection. 



* For a fuller treatment see the next Chapter. 



44 CHINESE STUDENTS AND RELIGION TO-DAY 

(2) Christianity has proved the advance guard of 
militarism. It seems to be that missionaries come first, 
then gunboats and treaties, and finally domination by 
Foreign Powers. 

(3) Christianity is not adaptable to China. It is a 
foreign religion imposed on the Chinese, so it is unnatural 
ana dangerous. 

C. Special Reasons Against the Christian Church: 

(1) The Church has committed many crimes in 
Western countries, such as the Inquisition in the Middle 
Ages. 

(2) The Church supports capitalists and militarists 
and tavors the aristocratic class. 

(3) The Church makes use of various tricks to influ- 
ence people to become Christians, such as giving money to 
the poor, and making Christian girls marry non-Christian 
men m order to win the latter to the Church. 

*i. r£ M ? St C £ inese Preachers and Christians consider 
the Church a rice-bowl." Their character is bad, in- 
consistent and hypocritical. They are the " running dogs » 
of capitalists, and tools of foreigners. 

(5) Missionaries of different churches have threatened 
o&ciaJs, engaged in law-suits, and protected criminals 
borne even have smuggled ammunition and stirred up 
civil war. ^ 

(6) Most Christian students in missionary institutions 
are not patriotic because the foreigners give them a wrong 
point of view, and they are not allowed to participate in 
patriotic activities. 

The above points seem to be the main arguments and 
oi course there is nothing new in them. However it is 
interesting to note that the revived movement is different 
from that of 1922. They may be compared as follows: 



1922 



1924- 



Platform— Against all re- Against Christianity, es- 

hgions on account of super- pecially its educational 
stitution and capitalism. work on account of im- 

perialism and foreign ex- 
ploitation. 



CHINESE STUDENTS AND RELIGION TO-DAY 



45 



Publications — writings 
and hand bills appear in 
different papers. 

Promoters — students from 
government and private 
schools. 

Organization — not 
definite. 



Little support from other 
bodies. 



Regular weekly and spe- 
cial bulletins. 

Students who have at- 
tended Christian institu- 
tions. 

Definitely organizod, 
with Central Committee in 
Shanghai and fifty branches 
in different parts of the 
country. 

Close cooperation with 
Communistic section of 
the Kuomingtang, Student 
Union and so on. 



What is really significant of the anti-Christian move- 
ment ? Is it a permanent or a transient tendency ? In 
response to a request for comments on these questions, a 
prominent Chinese educator, (Christian) says, "the anti- 
Christian movement is going on like wild fire. If it is not 
checked or re-directed, it may unite with the reds, and 
stir up another Boxer trouble." Most people do not take 
it so seriously. It appears that the young students who 
are quite active in the ostensible movement, are more anti- 
foreign than anti-religious, and perhaps it is engineered by 
politicians as a means to an end. If these suppositions were 
true, such a movement could not be permanent. How- 
ever, we think it is very significant, and will affect the 
Church of Christ in China. We should give serious con- 
sideration, not to the half-baked arguments put up by 
hot-headed agitators, but to the arguments advanced by 
mature students and thoughtful scholars such as Liang 
Chi-chao, Cheng Tu-siu, Hu Shih, regarding religion 
against science and philosophy and religion, especially 
Christianity, against Chinese civilization. 

In " indifferent students " we include those 
who are neither interested in nor antagonistic 
toward any religion. In other words they 
are the agonostics. It is interesting to note 



Indifferent to 
Religion 



46 CHINESE STUDENTS AND RELIGION TO-DAY 

that there is a large percentage of these among Chinese 
students. What causes their indifference? A synopsis of 
a few selected cases studied, is herewith presented: 

Case 1. Second-year student in a Christian senior 
middle school: " My father is a Confucianist, and my 
mother believes in Buddhism and Taoism. I was an 
adherent of these religions at home, but since I have come 
to this school, I am not antagonistic to nor interested in 
any religion, but in science." 

Case 2. Third-year student in a Government Middle 
School: "Some are enthusiastic about religion and some 
are antagonistic to it. Both must have some good reasons. 
What is the use of quarrelling anyway? Let everybody 
nave his own way. What we should care about is good 
character. As for me, I think my character is fair, so I 
am indifferent to any religion." 

Case 3. Junior in Christian College: " The only re- 
ligion that has appealed to me a little is Christianity, its 
philosophy and love of service; but I am full of doubt 
regarding the existence of God, the personality of Christ, 
and the infallibility of the Bible." 

Case 4. Sophomore in a Government college: "Re- 
ligion may appeal to some people, but I am not interested 
in nor opposed to it. What I am trying to get is the right 
sort of philosophy of life." 

Case 5. Junior student in Government college: 
" What China needs most, is not the revival of Buddhism, 
nor the introduction of Christianity, but universal educa- 
cation. I quite realize that religion, from past to present, 
has greatly influenced mankind. I wish somebody would 
apply the scientific method to study the history of religion 
in order to ascertain what results have been good and 
what bad." 

Case 6. Sophomore in a Christian college: "Science 
cannot be the only solution of human problems because it 
is too materialistic, and tends to make people hard- 
hearted and pessimistic. Religion may solve some of 
them, but the personality of God and Jesus are a puzzle 
to me. The anti-Christian movement influences my view- 
point a good deal, so I remain indifferent." 



CHINESE STUDENTS AND RELIGION TO-DAY 47 

Case 7. Freshman in a Government college : "I was 
a Christian before. Lately I found many of my Christian 
friends are atheists and wear the cap of religion. I began 
to wonder whether the majority of Christians were hypo- 
crites, and am questioning my own faith. " 

Case 8. Sophomore in a Christian college : " I have 
not yet given much thought to the problem of life, nor 
have I experienced any trials and difficulties in life, so I am 
not sure whether religion is of any use to me or not." 

The causes for indifference to religion as cited in the 
above cases, may be summarized as follows: — 

1. Intellectual difficulty. 

2. Lack of adequate knowledge. 

3. The influence of materialistic philosophy. 

4. Bad example of nominal Christians and preachers. 

5. Anti-religious atmosphere. 

6. Home influence. 

7. Nationalism. 

III. Students ^° statistics are available for the number 

Favourable of students who believe in different religions, 
toward As a matter of fact, it is very difficult to 

Religion divide the Chinese, except Christians, into 

separate mutually exclusive churches or religious com- 
munities. The three old religions in China, Confucianism, 
Buddhism and Taoism, are rather complimentary than 
antagonistic to each other. Consequently, no clear line of 
demarcation properly exists between them. For general 
purposes, we may say that the shrines of each one are 
open to all and availed of by all. There are, however, a 
small number of advanced students who are strictly Con- 
fucianists and who heartily despise both Buddhism and 
Taoism. This number is gradually increasing. Lately, 
there is also the movement for the revival of Buddhism, 
but very few students have joined, though some like to 
read its classical literature. 

During the past year, there were a few new religious 
movements in which a small number of students were 
interested. We refer first to the Society of Universal God. 
It is a society professing to extract the good element of all 



48 CHINESE STUDENTS AND RELIGION TO-DAY 

the religions of China, Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, 
Mahommedanism and Christianity. Its followers believe 
that all religions contain some truths. They plan to 
gather together the good points of each and create a new 
religion Phis society attracts many student adherents, 
especially in the interior cities. Another society of like 
nature is the World's Great Religious Union. This was 
started m Szechwan. The leader taught that by medita- 
tion one could live without food and medicine, and avoid 
death. A few students are found to believe in it seriously 
and practice meditation with folded hands like Buddhist. 
I here is again another movement which is called Taoyuan' 

iVorTf f "!? VVOr | h l P ° f the most Ro] y P'imevai 
Father, the founder of the five religions, Christianity, 

Confucianism, Taoism, Mahommedanism, Buddhism and 
the gods, the saints, the worthies, and buddhas of the 
whole world throughout all generations.* 

Christianity has a far larger number of student ad- 
herents than other religions in China. According to the 
report of the Chinese Educational Commission, there were 
214,254 students m Christian schools in 1922 If we 
estimate a quarter of them to be Christians, then there 
would be m 0re than 53>000 of tw ^ t|]e WorM 

htudent^ Federation Conference, held in Peking in 1922 
the Christian students have come to realize a verv strong 
National consciousness. They requested the National Com- 
mit ee of the Y. M C. A. to appoint student commissions 
to study their problems. As a result of the work of these 
commissions the National Student Christian Movement 
was launched. Its purpose is (a) to create a living faith 
in a living God (b) to develop a spirit of loyflty to 
Christ and (c) to inculcate the spirit of service among 
students. During the past year, the movement has been 
very active Through the local student associations in 
different schools, they have promoted the following 
program: vwmg 

tvm (a ) J he * nculcation of habits of private devotion, 
Bible study and personal evangelism among students. 

Book F ° r a fUller account of these faiths > see the 1924 Mission Year 



CHINESE STUDENTS AND RELIGION TO-DAY 49 

(b) Life-work guidance and recruiting for Christian 
service. 

(c) The furtherance of popular education and citizen- 
ship training. 

(d) The investigation of social and industrial con- 
ditions, and the promulgation of industrial justice and 
social welfare. 

(e) The educating of public opinion toward the 
abolishing of moral abuses. 

(f) The promotion of international peace, and the 
study of all causes of war. 

A study of individual Christian students has revealed 
many interesting facts. It seems there are four classes of 
Christian students: 

1 . Blind followers. 

2. Shallow believers. 

3. Forced believers. 

4. Truth seekers. 

The last are true Christians, but very few in number. 
Probably not more than 10% of the whole Christian group 
belong to it. These bona-fide Christian youths as a rule, 
are very faithful and active in religious work, but they 
are not satisfied with the church and the religious in- 
struction in the school. They say that they do not get 
much help from the sermons. They get sick of compulsory 
Bible classes, religious services, and the Western brand of 
religious atmosphere in the schools. The following is a 
summary of replies made by a group indicating the 
demands which Christian students make on the Church: 

1. To have a real indigenous Church. 

2. To adopt a rational faith. 

3. To preach a social Gospel and practice it personally. 

In view of the above facts, what policy should Chris- 
tian workers adopt regarding students ? Are we going to 
ignore the anti-Christian movement because its followers 
are, after all, so few in number? Are we going to despair 
because the majority of Chinese students are indifferent to 
religion, and the real Christians so scarce? Our reply is, 
emphatically, No. This is the time of all times that we 



50 CHINESE STUDENTS AND RELIGION TO-DAY 

should strengthen our student work with a new spirit. 
We should study the psychology of our students and adapt 
our program and method to suit their spiritual need. Let 
us minimize our denominational differences, cease the 
quarrel between fundamentalists and modernists, and 
bring the love and spirit of the Living God to the millions 
of future leaders of China. 



CHAPTER XI 

THE ANTI-CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT IN CHINA 
A BIRD'S-EYE VIEW 

N. Z. Zia 

Since the outbreak of anti-foreign and anti-Christian 
feeling which culminated in the Boxer uprising in 19C0 
there has been until recently very little outward expression 
of any such sentiment. In the last two or three years, 
however, a movement animated by a somewhat similar 
spirit, but entirely different in its manifestations, has 
arisen. The contrast between the Boxer uprising and the 
present anti-Christian movement can easily be seen by 
stating a few of the outstanding contrasts. 

Scope: In 1900 the movement was limited to a few 
provinces, mainly in North China; now it has spread to 
practically all the large cities in the country. 

Composition: The movement in 1900 brought in mainly 
loafers and country people; now educationalists, leaders of 
thought and the majority of students are affected. 

Motives: The movement of 1900 was largely inspired by 
superstition and led by unthinking religious reactionaries; 
now the new spirit of nationalism and the scientific spirit 
are the most important factors. 

Method: In 1900 it was largely a question of mob 
psychology and fear; now the movement is one of searching 
inquiry and logical analysis. 

Expression: In 1900 the expression took the form of 
physical force; now the means chiefly relied upon are 
propaganda through literature, lectures, etc. 

The anti-Christian movement in its present manifesta- 
tion may be considered under five main headings. 



52 



THE ANTI-CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT IN CHINA 



I. The Period Slnce tne outbreak of the New Thought 
of Incubation movement there has been an emancipation of 
spirit in China manifested by an avalanche 
of literature. The whole country has been covered with a 
flood of literature discussing such intellectual problems as 
the relation of science and religion. 

Many who have been abroad have come back having 
seen the worst side of Christendom. The foundations of 
faith have been shaken. In the year 1920 the Young 
China Association, organized by a number of leading 
students in Peking and elsewhere, passed a resolution by 
which the membership of the Association was limited 
to those who have no religions faith. This act stirred up 
a definite opposition movement which led to a period of 
very keen but inconclusive discussion on the problem of 
religion. Three series of lectures were arranged in the 
following year by the same Association. In these 
prominent scholars such as Wang Sheng Kung, Liang Hsuh 
Ming, Chow Tso-jen, Tu Hsiao-shih, Lee Shih-cheng, and 
others dealt with religion from different points of view. 
The Nanking Branch about the same time invited 
Dr. C. W. Luh to give a series of lectures and the Society 
for the Study of Philosophy in Peking National University 
asked Prof. Bertrand Russell to lecture on the same subject. 
These lectures revealed very different points of view, some 
of the lectures being strongly anti-Christian while others 
were more independent or more noncommittal. 

The magazine, "La Jeunesse " which has been 
recognized as the chief organ of the New Thought Movement, 
published February 1920 an article by Chen Tu Hsiu on 
Christianity in China. In this he urged Chinese to take 
into their lives the personality and passion of Jesus. 
Shortly afterwards an article on Christianity and the 
Christian Church was published by the same author in 
which he vigorously attacked the evils of the church, 
pointing out that it could not be regarded as representative 
of Christianity. 

The same year a poem entitled " Amen ; ' was published 
in the Weekly Review (published by the Republican Daily 
News), the author being Mr. Tai Tien Chou. This poem 
called for the complete abolition both of the Christian 






THE ANTI-CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT IN CHINA 53 

Church and of Christianity itself. The following October 
The New Buddhist Society of Ningpo issued a volume in 
which Christianity was severely criticized from the Bud- 
dhist standpoint. 

It will be seen that during this period various points 
of view were represented in the discussion and while doubts 
were freely expressed, no one opinion prevailed. 

U. This period may be roughly divided again 

The Outbreak into that which began with the meeting of 
of the the World's Student Christian Federation in 

Movement p e king early in 1922 and closed about the 
end of 1923, and a second period beginning in 1924 and 
coming down to the present time. During the first of 
these the opposition was largely occasioned by the Con- 
ference of the World's Student Christian Federation ; during 
the second the attack has centered mainly upon the 
Christian educational movement as a whole. 

On March 10th, 1822 a telegram was sent out 
TteWcdJs from Shan g hai as a manifesto against the 
Student Chris- World's Student Christian Federation. The 
tian Federation telegram was signed by the Anti-Christian 
Federation. Five days later a fortnightly 
magazine called " The Vanguard " came out with a special 
number on the Anti-Christion Student Federation, publish- 
ing the manifesto and the names of the constituent organiza- 
tions as well as three articles on the Anti- Christian 
movement and a reprint of three others which had appeared 
elsewhere. The mainline of argument was (1) that science 
and religion are incompatible; (2) that Christianity is the 
tool of imperialism and capitalism and is a means of 
oppressing the weaker nations. 

On March 21st a telegram was sent out from Peking to 
all parts of the country signed by seventy- seven persons 
connected with various educational institutions in Peking. 
This announced the organization of the Anti-Religious 
Federation, its object being as therein expressed to further 
the truth of science and to do away with the moral 
restraints of religion. On the 9th of April a convention 
of the Anti-Christian Federation was called in Peking and 
lectures were given by Tsai Yuen Pei, Lee Shih Cheng, 
Lee Siu Chan and others. This was followed by a wide 



54 THE ANTI-CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT IN CHINA 

response from students in other centers. The following 
June the first edition of "Anti-Religious Essays" was 
published including many important articles written by 
Bertrand Russell, Tsai Yuen Pei, Chen Tu Siu, Lee Shih 
Cheng, Wang Ching Wei, and others. 

Following this outbreak of activity very 

ChHstiaa 11 ° Iittie was done in an °P en wa y un ^ tn ^ 
Education summer of 1924. In a number of places 

mission schools suffered from strikes and 
there was a tendency towards concentration upon Christian 
education as a point of attack. In October 1923 The 
Young China Association issued a book entitled " National- 
istic Education" (Chung Hwa Book Company). Two of 
the articles in this book contained virulent attacks on 
Christian education in China under the titles, "Christianity 
and Emotion y, and the "Problem of Missionary Educa- 
tion " respectively. From this time on many attacks were 
made against the administration of Christian education 
largely by students who had withdrawn from Christian 
schools through dissatisfaction with the authorities. The 
agitation for the "restoration of educational rights " has 
been no less popular latterly than that for the restoration 
of customs rights and of extra-territorial rights. 

During the summer and autumn of 1924, four important 
educational conferences took a distinctly anti-Christian 
line. 

The fifth annual conference of the Young China 
Association held at Nanking in July 1924 passed the 
following resolution: " That we strongly oppose Christian 
education which destroys the national spirit of our people 
and carries on a cultural program in order to undermine 
Chinese civilization." 

The third annual conference of The National 
Association for the Advancement of Education held at 
Nanking in July 1921 passed a resolution petitioning 
the educational authorities in Peking to insist on the 
registration of foreign schools and colleges in China, 
It was recommended that this registration should only 
be granted on condition that religious teaching be excluded 
from tlie curriculum of studies. 



THE ANTI-CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT IN CHINA 55 

The sixth national conference of the Students' 
Union held in August 1924 in Shanghai decided to start 
a movement for the restoration of educational rights and 
for the denunciation of educational enterprises started by 
foreigners in order to spread religion. 

The tenth joint meeting of the provincial educa- 
tional associations of China held in October 1924 at Kaifeng 
considered a recommendation brought up by five different 
associations aimed at a strict regulation of foreign 
education in China. The recommendations as modified 
after discussion were to the effect that (a) education should 
be entirely separated from religion, and (b) that foreigners 
should not be allowed to control educational enterprises 
in China. 

HI, Most of the leaders in the Anti- Christian 

TheOrganiza- Federation have at some time been students 
t 2 on < °* th r.. in Christian schools. In many cases they 
Federation and leffc these schools and participated in the 
Other Anti- Anti-Christian movement because they were 
Christian dissatisfied with their experience of Christian 

Bodies education. They formed a committee in 

Shanghai with a chief executive, secretary, two publicity 
agents and one librarian. Fortnightly meetings are held, 
the first being on the 2nd of August, 1924. This 
meeting passed a manifesto and decided to issue a 
weekly anti-Christian paper. Their purpose is to oppose 
Christianity and its various activities from the point of 
view of both patriotism and science. On the one hand 
they determined to study the Christian rel'gion and 
activities, and on the other hand to carry out a campaign 
of publicity through lectures and literature. City, school, 
and college branches have been started in many centers 
in the provinces of Anhwei, Chekiang, Honan, Hupeh, 
Hunan, Szechuen, Kiangsi, Shantung, Shansi, and Shensi, 
as well as in Canton, Peking, and Tokyo. Among other 
places college branches have been formed in Southern 
University and the College of Law in Shanghai. 

In order to stir up a nation-wide agitation against 
Christianity the week December 22nd to 27th, 1924 
was set aside as an Anti-Christian Week, the whole nation 
being urged by telegram to carry on an active propaganda. 



56 THE ANTI-CHUISTIAN MOVEMENT IN CHINA 

A pamphlet entitled "The Anti-Christian Movement" was 
published by the Federation in cooperation with the 
China Young Men's Society. The newspapers reported 
parades, lectures, and the distribution of handbills in 
Tsinan, Wuchang, Hankow, Kiukiang, Shanghai, Soochow, 
Hangchow, Hsuchow, Shaohing, Ningpo, and elsewhere. 
In some places the movement went so far as to interfere 
with the Christmas celebrations in churches. In Changsha 
the Federation adopted as its slogans: "Overthrow 
Christianity which kills people without shedding their 
blood"; "Stamp out the mission schools which make 
men the slaves of foreigners"; "Bring to an end the 
foreign cultural program which saps the national spirit." 
The foregoing facts give some idea as to the strength of the 
Federation. 

There are in addition to this a number of 
other organizations whose object is not solely to attack 
Christianity but who adopt a somewhat similar attitude 
toward it. A few of these may be mentioned : The New 
Student's Society, organized by Cantonese students and 
publishing a monthly magazine, "The New Student"; 
The China Young Mens Society, located in Shanghai and 
issuing a weekly, "China's Youth". This publishes 
articles against Christianity. It was this society which 
cooperated with the Anti-Christian Federation as mentioned 
above. The Society for the Theory and Practice of Knowledge, 
organized by students in the High and Normal College, 
Canton, and publishing articles against Christianity in the 
supplement (The Voice of Education) of a commercial 
journal issued by seventy-two trade organizations; The 
Communist Party, which opposes all religion including 
Christianity; China Young Men's Union, which issued a 
manifesto against Christianity at its third national 
conference; The Youth Club, of the Republican Party of 
Canton (Kuomingtang). It is reported that this club has 
approached the Civil and Educational Commission of 
Canton asking it to insist on the registration of mission 
schools, involving the prohibition of Bible courses in the 
curriculum and all religious services, and also depriving 
foreigners of the right to hold administrative positions 
in such schools. The Young Men's Union of Canton for 



THE ANTI-CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT IN CHINA 57 

Combating Cultural Agression which sent out a telegram 
against Christian education on the 11th of July 1924. 

Anti-Christian r ^ ne literature of which we have informa- 
Literature tion includes the following; 

p , ,. . , The Anti-Christian Supplement of the 
Magazines Republican Daily News of Shanghai, entitled 
" Self Awakening" . This was issued weekly 
from August 19th to December 25th, 1924, These, twenty 
numbers contained sixty-one anti-Christian articles. The 
supplement has now been changed to a fortnightly issued 
every other Wednesday. The paper itself occasionally 
contains editorials critical of Christianity. 

The China Young Men's Weekly issued by the China 
Young Men's Society. Seventy numbers have been 
published containing eighteen articles against Christianity. 

Young Men's Light, a fortnightly issued by the Young 
Men's Literary Society of the First Middle School of 
Canton. Three articles against Christianity appeared in 
the second and third numbers. 

The New Student Fortnightly, issued by the New Student 
Society of Canton. The twenty-seventh number contained 
two anti- Christian articles. 

The Guide, issued weekly by Chen Tu FTsiu and Chu 

Chiu Pei and others. Its aim is to attack imperialism 

and capitalism and it occasionally publishes anti-Christian 

articles. 

id t.r * j "The Anti- Christian Movement" containing 
Pamphlets and ,, .. , . , , ., . .. r ,* ... ° 

B 00 k s five articles issued by the Anti-Christian 

Federation and China Young Men's Society; 

"Nationalistic Education", by Yui Chia Chu (Chung 

Hwa Book Co.), Containing two anti-Christian articles; 

"Collected Essays" by Chen Tu Hsiu (East Asia Book 

Co.), containing two anti-Christian articles; "Buddhistic 

Christianity," by Chang Chiun Yi, containing among other 

articles one strongly criticising Christian literature; 

"Errors of Christianity" with a special appendix concerning 

Christian prayers, by C. C. Nieh. 

The articles referred to above may be classified 

according to their nature as follows: against Christian 

education — 36; against tiie church — 5; against the Bible — 



58 THE ANTI-CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT IN CHINA 

1; against missionaries — 5; against Christian literature— 
2; against Christians— 11; against Jesus — 3; general 
attacks on Christianity — 34; total— 97 articles. 

v< There are three main ideas behind the 

Th j Platform movement: anti-imperialism, science as op- 
of ths Aati- posed to religion, and the preservation and 
Christian rebirth of Chinese civilization. The argu- 

Movement ^^ ^ may bg broad]y c l assifie d as 

follows : 

(1) Religion stands for the old conservatism and 
opposes us in our effort to develop the new culture and to 
make progress. Religion stands for division while we are 
working for the harmony of mankind. Religion stands for 
superstition while we desire the development of science. 
Religion stands for the attitude of dependence expressed in 
prayer, while we are working for self-reliance. Religion 
belittles life while we are seeking to develop individuality. 

(2) Christianity is the forerunner of imperialism. 
China has suffered the loss of territory and has had to pay 
large indemnities to other countries on account of the 
missionary enterprise. These countries use Christianity as 
their tool in seeking to destroy the independent spirit of 
the Chinese race. 

(3) The doctrines of the creation of men by God and 
the eternal life of the soul can never be explained by 
biology or psychology and are opposed by the theory of 
evolution. It is untrue to say that the man who commits 
sin can be redeemed, and this theory encourages sin. 
Christians are not alone in possessing altruism, the 
sacrificial spirit, and the desire to serve mankind. The 
Christian doctrine of turning the other cheek and giving 
up one's cloak is unreasonable- 
CD Christians claim to belong to the higher class 

and associate with rich men and officials; they tempt 
people with material benefits; they like to sit in high 
places. The church by the use of gifts to the poor urges 
them to join. By interfering with marriage arrangements 
the church sometimes brings about tragic results. (A case 
in Chengtu is quoted). The Church having been at work 
in China for over four hundred years has only succeeded 



THE ANTI- CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT IN CHINA 59 

in leading a number of persons of the lower classes to 
substitute one God for another. Beyond teaching many 
people to worship the foreigners, the church has apparently 
done nothing valuable in China. 

(5) Backed up by the imperialistic forces of foreign 
countries, the Christian preachers threaten local authori- 
ties and compel them to decide according to the foreigners' 
idea of right, not paying attention to the laws of the land, 
and thus protecting criminals. In some cases munitions 
have been smuggled in for the fostering of civil war. (The 
case in Using Yang is quoted) . Christians do not practice 
what they preach but live in hypocrisy. Returning to 
their own land they emphasize the dark side of the 
Chinese people in order to raise money for their own 
support. This has created a bad impression of Chinese in 
the minds of foreigners. 

(6) The administration of Christian schools is auto- 
cratic, conservative, and domineering. Christian teachers 
use threats and ill treat the students. Christian education 
opposes the patriotic movement and hinders the develop- 
ment of the individual. Christian schools are nurseries for 
traitors. 

(7) The Jesus of history is unimportant. The Jesus 
described by Tolstoi and also Chri&t as set forth in modern 
teaching are used merely as a means to an end. The Jesus 
who is actually set forth by preachers both old and new, 
Catholic and Protestant, is narrow minded, hypocritical, 
selfish, revengeful, a mere idol. 

(8) Christianity has always depended upon op- 
pression. It exists for the strong. It has helped the 
feudal classes to take advantage of the common people. It 
is to-day a faithful servant of the capitalists in helping them 
to exploit the laborers. Thus a false church and a 
discredited Pope are maintained. 

(9) Christianity teaches that women should be 
obedient and submissive. They are not allowed to teach. 
(Quoting the Epistle to Timothy). In Exodus xxii it is 
said that with money one can buy a woman, thus showing 
that Christianity does not regard women as human beings. 



60 THE ANTI-CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT IN CHINA 

(10) The doctrines of Christianity are not so com- 
prehensive as those of Buddhism. Its philosophy is less 
profound. The teachings of Christianity are artificial, 
narrow, idealistic, impractical, and hypocritical, caring 
more for outward expression than for inward reality, 
grasping at the trivial and neglecting the fundamental. 
They are entirely unsuited to the mentality of the Chinese 
people. Confucianism meets the need of the educated 
people in China; Buddhism that of the common people. 
Christianity on the whole does more harm than good. 

For the above summary the writer has drawn from a 
number of different sources. Concerning the Anti-Chris- 
tian movement naturally there are yet many things to be 
learned. The writer will value any additions or correc- 
tions which should be made in this attempt to summarize 
the views of others. 






CHAPTER XII 

THE EFFECT OF THE PRESENT SITUATION OF PUBLIC 

AFFAIRS IN CHINA UPON THE WORK 

OF MISSIONS. J924 

A. J* Bowen 

Unsettled - e P resen * (1924) situation of public affairs 

Condition m China is one of considerable disturbance 
over very widespread areas owing to brigandage, 
warring military factions, and general poverty caused by 
these factors and by famines. Brigandage is fairly general 
in nearly all of the non-coastal provinces except Shansi, 
while Fukien and Kwangtung are also badly affected, and 
there is more or less fighting in most of the provinces, 
both on the coast and in the interior. 

This study of the effect of the situation upon the work 
of missions is based upon twenty-one replies to a ques- 
tionaire which was sent to missionaries living in widely 
separated areas, upon newspaper and magazine accounts of 
disturbances and discussions of the situation, and upon 
some personal interviews with thoughtful Chinese. Many 
of the replies indicate that the disturbed conditions have 
hindered in varying degree the work of missions. 

E rr . The missions have found it more difficult to 

Church Work finance the work from local sources, as often 
not only have the Christians fled, but friendly 
offiicials and men of wealth as well; and also because 
local currency has depreciated very seriously, affecting the 
support of pastors and churches. Fear and uncertainty 
have very greatly upset the people. The general outlook 
on life of Chinese Christians has been adversely affected. 
Many seem to have far less hope than they had a few years 
ago. This is manifested chiefly in a tendency to sit still 



62 THE EFFECT OF PRESENT SITUATION 

and wait for better conditions. There is also a sag. in an 
aggressive will for progress and for overcoming or counter- 
acting unpropitious circumstances. One feels there is too 
much of a spirit of helpless, if not hopeless, submission to 
prevailing conditions and this vitally affects the general 
work of the church. There is no evident decrease in the 
willingness of the people to hear the Gospel, possibly they 
are more sincerely eager to hear it, but during the year it has 
been very difficult in many places for Christians, and non- 
Christians too, to attend the churches and chapels, either 
by day or night, owing to disturbed conditions, to martial 
law, and to actual danger to life and property. Looting 
and burning have occurred in many places. Many people, 
including some Chinese Christians and a few missionaries, 
have been carried off by bandits, and the distraction of 
mind that danger and confusion bring has undoubtedly had 
a bad effect. School work in not a few regions lias been 
seriously interfered with, though government schools have 
suffered more in this respect than private and mission 
schools. Because the money for the support of much of his 
work comes from abroad, the missionary has been able to 
carry on his educational work with less disturbance than 
his fellow educationalist in the employ of the government, 
and his presence has been a stabilizing force in the 
surrounding confusion. Travelling and itinerating in the 
country districts have been made very difficult and in many 
areas rendered impossible. In some sections the increased 
difficulty of securing elementary justice, both for church 
members and non-church members, owing to more easily 
corrupted courts and court officials, has led to the temptation 
to use the influence of the church to help secure justice. 
In general, therefore, the actual carrying on of missionary 
activity has been hindered, though in not a few places new 
circles of influence have been made possible so that 
more people have been given an opportunity to know 
something about Christianity. Provincial and local authori- 
ties and magistrates have generally been friendly and as 
helpful in their attitude as could be expected. There has 
been indifference on the part of a few but rarely any active 
hostility, except where officials have compelled the cultiva- 
tion of the poppy. In such cases, when the church has 



THE EFFECT OF PRESENT SITOATION 63 

protested and opposed such officials, they have frequently 
retaliated in ways harmful to the church. 
Church and Apparently political parties have not 

Politics separated Christians and have not as such 

affected mission work. However, in the 
Canton area there has been some party alignment of 
Christians, chiefly because of force of circumstances and 
so-called patriotic requirements. So far, in general, the 
average Chinese Christian seems to be an interested 
spectator rather than an active participant in political 
matters. Chinese Christians, like other Chinese citizens, 
do not greatly care what party is in power so long as their 
ordinary routine is undisturbed and a moderate amount of 
justice can be secured. When this is impossible the 
attitude is one of inability to change conditions and there- 
fore of suffering silently. 

r ^ Outside of educational associations few 

Christian W vo ^ un tary associations of a non-political 
Education nature have so far affected Christian work. 

The church, rather, has stimulated to some 
extent such associations to good deeds and suggested ways 
of public helpfulness. At least two Chinese educational 
associations, the National Association for the Promotion of 
Education, which met in Nanking in July 1924, and the 
National Federation of Educational Associations, which met 
at Kaifengfu in October 1924, have very specifically dis- 
cussed Christian education. Their proposals, looking to 
the future control and more thorough nationalization of 
Christian education, are as yet tentative and have affected 
Christian work as. yet only by calling greater and more 
widespread attention to it and probably by creating an 
unfavorable impression about it, especially in relation to 
its emphasis upon religious teaching, its foreign character, 
and its wrongly supposed tendency to denationalize many 
of China's youth. This movement on the part of Chinese 
educationalists, distinctly anti-foreign and anti-Christian 
in the minds of many, is very likely to grow in the next 
few years and to affect adversely mission educational work 
and policy. The actual effect of the movement during 
1924 has not been great, as this year merely marks the 
beginning of its expression. 



64 THE EFFECT OF PRESENT SITUATION 

While in some centres, chiefly those of the 
BoiXvism coast and foreignized cities, there is recorded 
considerable Bolsheviki and Soviet propa- 
ganda, it is as yet of relatively little importance in its 
effect upon Christian work. Apparently the younger 
students are more open to Bolsheviki ideas than others, 
though workmen in some industrial centres are being af- 
fected, and some Christians see both good and evil in these 
socialistic teachings. It would seem that a large part of 
the anti-foreign and anti-Christian talk and writing is 
inspired by this propaganda, and yet we possibly jump to 
conclusions too easily at this point. The general lawless 
situation — lawless tuchuns, lawless officials, lawless 
students, lawless soldiers, and lawless unemployed — is 
quite sufficient to breed most of the general lawlessness that 
undoubtedly exists. Christianity itself is felt by the most 
radical elements to be a disturbing and corrupting influence. 
The total effect of this anti-Christian movement upon 
Christian work in 1924 has not been very < great, but 
because it accuses Christians of being agents of imperialism 
and of capitalism, and connects missionaries with anti- 
nationalistic teachings, it creates an unfavorable atmosphere 
for Christian work. Also the fact that this propaganda is 
entirely anti-religious, attacking all religions as useless and 
as superstition, weakens the faith of many of the young in 
any religion and is creating a new generation of irreligious, 
even anti-religious, people that is making the task of the 
religious teachers more difficult, whether they be Buddhist 
or Christian. 

A very serious and fundamental adverse 
How can China effect has been that of making it very difficult 
Use to the lull f or the best modern-trained young men to 
Trained Youth function in Chinese society. The government 
(both national and local) has been too chaotic 
and disorganized to develop industries, schools, and the 
many things modern governments promote. Through the 
closing of many schools numbers of these eager young men 
are unable to find work. China as yet is unable to use in 
any adequate or constructive way her growing body of 
modern, well-educated youth. Any beginnings of a 
solution of this problem — the adequate use of young men 



THE EFFECT OF PRESENT SITUATION 65 

with modern education — has been retarded in 1924. 
Unless these young men who are full of ideas and boundless 
energy are put to useful, nation building work they will 
become a menace to society as well as to themselves. 
A t* Ch * t' ^ ^ eas ^ 25% of the centres reporting wrote 

Movement that there was no unusual anti-Christian or 
anti-foreign attitude or activity. Such attitude 
or activity exists largely in student centres and in port 
cities, and because its promoters are prone to rush into 
print and break forth in fervid oratory, it receives an 
emphasis that one is led to believe the facts in the case 
do not warrant. Moreover a great deal of it is merely an 
indication of a most hopeful growing national conscious- 
ness. A good deal of it is not so much anti-foreign or 
anti-Christian as it is pro-China, growing out of a sense of 
injustice suffered by China at the hands of Western nations 
and of a legitimate resentment of Anglo-Saxon assertiveness 
and push. The total effect of the whole movement, it 
would seem, is much more beneficial than harmful to the 
cause of Christianity in China, for it is bringing the claims 
of Christ very vividly to the attention of multitudes who 
otherwise would not hear of them. It is most effective in 
its tendency to separate the true and significant in the 
teachings of Christ from the false and incidental interpre- 
tations, and it is compelling Chinese Christians and missiona- 
ries alike to give much more serious attention to interpret- 
ing Christ in the thought and spirit of China's own 
civilization — of allowing Christ Himself to make His own 
appeal to the Chinese mind, and to rid Christianity of 
much of its Western garb, expression and interpretation. 
This, at bottom, one believes is the real objective of much of 
the agitation against Christianity and, if so, is encouraging 
and extremely hopeful. Even at its worst, criticism, 
persecution, opposition have through histor# rather fostered 
and developed true religion than retarded its legitimate 
functions, and one feels that real persecution of foreign 
missionary and Christian believer alike would not be an 
unmitigated evil. Unfailing good will, perseverance in 
good works, genuine love rather than pity, and understand- 
ing sympathy — all of the fruits of the Spirit — need 
constant cultivation and many kinds of stimulus before 



66 THE EFFECT OF PRESENT SITUATION 

"Christ is formed in" the Chinese church; and how may 
He be made known except through Christlike lives, 
reborn by reincarnating His experiences in us His follow- 
ers? And what better opportunity can there be than when 
opposition, criticism, danger, and disorders assail the 
church ? 

To the credit of the Chinese church and of 
Activities of the missionaries we need to record that during 
tiauld to iSpite the wars and disturbances of 1924 Christian 
of Adverse men and women have been active and useful 
Circumstances in relief and reconstruction work, in affording 
refuge and protection, in allaying fear by 
remaining calm and at their posts, opening church and 
chapel, running school and hospital. Possibly it would 
not be an overstatement of fact to say that during the year 
the church has been the most stabilizing organization in 
China, as well as the most constructive in maintaining and 
supplying many of those elements that are needful for a 
united and a strong China. 



PART III 

THE CHURCH IN CHINA 

CHAPTER XIII 

THE PRESENT STATE OF THE CHURCH 
IN WEST CHINA 

Leonard Wigham 

Owing to . lack of time, it has not been possible to 
obtain adequate up-to-date information about Yunnan and 
Kueichow. In those provinces, besides the work among 
Chinese, it is well known that large and self-supporting 
churches have risen among the Aborigines. This move- 
ment is still continuing, and has already effected a great 
and happy transformation in the lives and outlook of many 
of the people. Two or three letters which have been 
received lead one to think the Chinese work in the South- 
west meets with similar encouragements and exhibits 
similar deficiencies to that in Szechwan province with 
which the writer is better acquainted. It would be well 
however that this article be regarded as dealing with 
conditions in the latter province only. And it should be 
added that lack of time has made it impossible to consult 
with Chinese Christian leaders and obtain from them the 
facts that they could abundantly supply as to the state of 
the Church. Opinions have been collected from rep- 
resentative missionaries, and, though the views hereunder 
given are thus those of foreign workers and observers onlyj 
yet those foreigners are in constant touch with Chinese, so 
that the survey need not be discounted as merely a 
foreign one. 

Numb Latest reports give the number of full mem- 

bers of the Protestant churches in Szechwan 
as over 17,000; about 1,600 Chinese Christian workers 



68 THE PRESENT STATE OF THE CHURCH IN WEST CHINA 

are reported and about 500 foreign missionaries. The 
annual percentage of increase has been large in former 
years, but of late the figures have not risen so rapidly. 
This arises partly from the removal of names of those who 
were on the books but cannot now be looked upon as 
Christians. 

Evan elistic ^ tne usua * activities of Christian 

Vork 8 Churches are being pursued in Szechwan. 

Evangelistic work in all its branches, itinera- 
tion, colportage, visiting homes in town and country, street- 
chapel and guest-room preaching. All are being done, in 
many places with great energy, by both Chinese and 
foreigners. To support and raise the quality of these 
endeavours, much attention is given to Bible Schools, and 
the preparation and dissemination of literature, (including 
at least one West China Christian journal) . 
Education Education receives probably as much atten- 

tion in the Szechwan Church, as in that of 
any other province. The university and schools of all 
grades flourish. Vocational and other special branches of 
education are receiving more and more attention. Free 
schools for the poor, young and old, and for the illiterate, 
men and women, are not forgotten. The co-ordination of 
all the educational work in the province, through the West 
China Educational Union, is proving of the greatest help 
in keeping up standards and in other ways. 
Social Work Social work is being discussed and practi- 

cally carried on in many cities and towns, 
and the Churches are making a stand against the 
menacing inroads of opium. Not in all cases, however, 
have church members been able to stand against the 
terrific pressure of officials in the matter of opium planting. 
Medical Work Medical work in all its branches holds a 
high place in the Szechwan Christian Church, 
and the number of Szechwan -taught Chinese doctors is 
steadily growing. The University is pressing forward 
with medical education and in several centres Chinese 
medical graduates are doing useful work. 
Hindrance of Among the hindrances the Church has to 
Militarism contend with, militarism is probably the 
greatest; in many ways it is harassing the 



THE PRESENT STATE OF THE CHUBCH IN WEST CHINA 69 

church, scattering its members, and weakening its forces. 
Yet amongst the soldiers are not a few officers and men 
who profess adherence to Christianity, and there is much 
cordial co-operation between these and the Christian 
workers. 

w . . IQ . Financial troubles loom too large in the 

financial btress consultations and in the mindg of the chris- 
tians. The cost of living is extremely high. The support 
received from abroad is strictly limited, and does not go 
nearly as far as it formerly did. The Christians, mostly 
poor, do not find themselves able to supply the lack. 
Hence it comes that Church meetings which should be 
engaged with problems of evangelization and training of 
young workers for the Lord's service, have to give their 
time and thought rather to questions of how to make ends 
meet, to the detriment of the real work the Church should 
be doing. 

w<I j. Yet in spite of hindrances, the power of 

to Giv? QeSS the l° ve °* Christ moves the churches to give 

many gifts, (often out of their deep poverty). 
And their charity beginning at home does not end there. 
West China has sent contributions, perhaps small in 
themselves, but meaning much to the givers, to relieve the 
distress of the Japanese Earthquake, the floods in the 
North, and other such purposes. 

c .. n Co-operation among the Missions and among 

Intei^mtelon the Churches has long been approved and 

practically carried out in Szechwan. It is 
becoming increasingly effective, and more than ever the 
oneness of the Body of Christ is recognised as not merely a 
beautiful doctrine, but a tangible fact. 
T . .. , Co-operation in management of and re- 

lnternational .«•*•*« • i 1 £ 

sponsibihty for mission work, between foreign 
missionaries and Chinese Christians has been much more 
largely practised than formerly. While the changes thus 
introduced are not universally regarded as altogether 
advantageous, yet it is evident to most that this kind of 
union must continue and develop, until the goal of a 
self-governing and self-supporting Chinese Church is 
reached. The first West China Christian Conference 
representing both missionaries and churches is to be held 



70 THE PRESENT STATE OF THE CHURCH IN WEST CHINA 

in January, 1925, and Commissions have done much 
preparatory work for the Conference.* 
State of Life T^e missionaries rejoice in cases where real 

of the Church spiritual life and progress is seen. In some 

churches and many individuals very clear 
and cheering evidence is given of growing spiritual under- 
standing. Lives are being lived that bear the fruits of the 
Spirit. But very generally, not in a few stations or missions 
only, but in nearly all, there is a strong sense that the spiri- 
tual life is weak. The outlook is material. The thoughts 
are centred on the world's affairs, not directed to "the things 
that are above. " Undoubtedly the large majority of our 
enrolled members are Christians and nothing else. They 
will hold to this profession through life; many of them would 
do so in the face of fierce persecution. But their lives are 
too much like those of the surrounding population, " They 
are conformed to the world " not "transformed by the 
renewing of their mind." There is far too little regard 
for Bible reading and prayer, and they make but little 
effort to observe Sunday. Their business methods, one 
fears, are but little raised above the level of those 
commonly practised by their non-Christian neighbors. 
This lack of spiritual vigor is felt by many to be most 
deplorable, and many are the prayers being offered that a 
new and brighter life may transform the Church. 
Influence of . Considering the above-mentioned condi- 
the Church tion s it is not surprising that the Church is 

weak. A Christian has not, because he is 
a Christian, any great influence or respect among his 
neighbors. In some places indeed, the Jives and actions of 
nominal Christians are bringing dishonor and shame upon 
the name by which we are called. Nor has the Church 
as a body any strong influence. Only fitfully, and but 
feebly, does it come forward and lead the people in social 
or other ameliorative movements. Reformers outside the 
churches often rather hold aloof from the Christians. 
Needs What does Christianity in West China 

chiefly need? More and better education. 
Leaders endowed with spiritual power, and trained as well 

* For an account of this gathering see Chapter 28. 



THE PRESENT STATE OF THE CHURCH IN WEST CHINA 71 

as the Church can do it for the special work each has to 
do. Good government and peace, so that it may be 
possible to carry on the work without hindrance. A still 
greater willingness on the part of the Christian body to 
give money, time and strength to the work of the Lord. 
All these are greatly needed, and we should pray and 
work for them. But most pressing is the need for a real 
spiritual revival. Would that the Church might be filled 
and inspired and constrained by the Holy Spirit of God, 
so that it may become a " royal priesthood, a holy nation, 
a people for God's own possession," that it " may shew 
forth the excellencies of Him, who called" us "out of 
darkness into His marvellous light." 



CHAPTER XIV 

PRESENT STATE OF THE CHURCH 

IN NORTH CHINA 

C* A. Stanley 

In spite of floods and war and all the miseries which 
lie in their train there is in general a cheering report 
from the Church organizations over this North country. 
In some sections more than others aggressive work has 
been interfered with because of the above two scourges, with 
a little banditry thrown in for good measure. The report 
which follows is the result of considerable correspondence 
with Christian workers, both Chinese and foreign, scattered 
over as wide and varied an area as possible. It is an 
attempt to correlate facts disclosed by those on the 
spot who should be competent observers and intelligent 
interpreters of the movements around them. It makes no 
claim to comprehensiveness and contains probably all the 
faults of any attempted generalization. At least it may 
claim to be true to the facts wherever the facts happen 
to be! 

w There has been advance in two directions 

Church* e and several dimensions, in a growing con- 
sciousness on the part of both the " insider " 
and the "outsider" of what is involved in the church 
and in this message of Jesus. Increase in membership of 
course there has been, but there is evident, along with 
this mere external accretion, this growth in consciousness 
which has many facets. On the part of the church 
member there is a growing group consciousness, — very slow 
but there; a wider initiative; a broadening capacity to 
try to think the hard things through and an eager 
desire to question; a slowly forming conviction that the 
4 Church" is his for better or worse; fairly general 
increase in giving, — from five to fifteen per cent; a sobering 
sense of the evangelistic task which confronts the church 



PRESENT STATE OF THE CHURCH IN NORTH CHINA 73 

and of the part the church should play in forming public 
opinion on all social questions; a deepening, though 
sometimes almost helpless, desire for more autonomy, and 
a steady increment of conviction that at least some 
missionaries mean what they say when they encourage this 
desire ; a considerable willingness in some sections to control 
Mission funds without much regard for increase in Chinese 
contributions ; a deepening sense of spiritual things, — 
one Chinese estimates that about one-tenth of the church 
is growing, seven or eight-tenths are stationary, and one 
or two tenths are in retrogression; — a steadily increasing 
desire for cooperation ; and last but not least a conviction 
on the part of some church leaders that they have been 
inadequately prepared for their task. All the above is 
more characteristic of the city church and less so of the 
country church. Church premises within the "war 
areas " have proven to be regular " cities of refuge.' ' 
Th- O tside Many outsiders have a widening interest 

in the church recognizing in it one of the 
great groups which make for social progress and which 
must be reckoned with. There is considerable, rather 
wild, un-reasoning criticism from the student class which 
taken at its best is rather a good sign, — it is forcing the 
Christian group into the open to show what of worth it 
really does possess. There is much misunderstanding and 
some distrust of the church as an organization while there 
is a very real conviction that China must in some way 
have Jesus Christ. The use of church premises in the 
areas of disturbance as asylums for women and children 
has deepened sympathy. The " Tao Yuan," " T'ung 
Shan She" spiritualistic cults are experiencing some 
expansion, how long-lived remains to be seen.* 
Cit , The city church, because the financial 

Country problem is lighter, seems to function more 

easily. Because the more superficial ills of 
society are so patent it finds much which it might do 
crying for attention right at its doors. It is to be hoped 
that the superficial and more patent will not blind the 
eyes of the city church to the deeper thought and the 



* See article in China Mission Year Book 1924, p. 



74 PRESENT STATE OF THE CHURCH IN NORTH CHINA 

more essential effort. There is an increasing sensitiveness 
to its task. The country or village church group is lost 
and has yet to find itself. It has had insufficient nurture 
and inadequate training and lacks the sympathetic leader- 
ship of minds trained to the rural environment. It has 
as yet scarcely visualized its opportunity for service 
and consequently is benumbed by the absence of any 
conviction of its huge task in evangelism and the immense 
contribution it may make to its economic, social, and 
spiritual environment. 

This need is being met by increasing facilities for the 
instruction and training of men and women from the 
country who are given the best there is, not with the idea 
that they should become the employees of any church or 
mission organization, but that they should go back to 
their homes and villages to work out in that environment 
the principles which have been impressed upon them. 
Emphasis There is general expression of the necessity 

and difficulty of reaching women outside the 
Christian constituency, and of adequately training and 
nurturing those within. Illiteracy and social custom 
prove to be most serious barriers, toward the overcoming of 
which no high road has yet been found. In some sections 
people, both men and women, are leaning heavily on 
the "Thousand Character " course for illiterates. It is 
interesting with what unanimity two primary needs have 
been pointed out, * — one the necessity for a deeper spiritual- 
ity and an appreciation of the facts of the spiritual life 
on the part of the whole church, and the other the 
appalling lack of adequately trained, consecrated leaders. 
One organization is so convinced of this second need that 
it is raising a special fund to be devoted entirely to 
helping men and women to get the most complete training 
available. Up to the present ninety per cent of this 
fund has been contributed from Chinese sources. This 
unanimity of opinion shows very clearly where the 
emphasis is being laid and is perhaps the most hopeful 
harbinger of that Chinese church which is even now 
becoming, and which is to be, — a church which will think, 
and act, and visualize for itself. 



1 



CHAPTER XV 

PRESENT STATE OF THE CHURCH IN EAST CHINA 
Edwin Marx. 

As the period of this report closes, all other 
Political and considerations are overshadowed by the ohao- 
CondSons tic political conditions. Bast Central China, 
embracing the provinces of Anhwei, Kiangsu, 
and Chekiang, is generally one of the most favored sections 
of the whole republic. Apart from the occasional floods 
in the Hwai River valley, with their attendant distress to 
the population, this part of the country is remarkably free 
from natural calamities. It is said never to have ex- 
perienced a famine; and except for some bandit restlessness 
in parts of Anhwei and northern Kiangsu during the past 
two years, the ravages of war and banditry, so prevalent 
in other parts, have not been seriously felt. There are 
parts of Southern Kiangsu and Chekiang provinces that 
have not experienced the hardships of lawlessness since the 
Tai-ping rebellion. Consequently, business has flourished, 
and the people have been, as compared with most parts 
of the country, very prosperous and contented. 

How all this was upset last September, by the outbreak 
of war between Kiangsu and Chekiang provinces, which 
was taken up later by the Anfu-Fengtien parties against 
the Chihli party in the north, is history that need not be 
repeated here. As a result of these conflicts, there has 
been a practically complete change of officials in all these 
provinces; the military operations and the uncertainty as 
to authority have aided lawless elements to terrorize and 
prey on the people; communications are interrupted; 
travel is difficult and even dangerous ; business is demoral- 
ized, many once prosperous firms and individuals having 
been forced into bankruptcy; a large percentage of the 
schools are closed indefinitely, and the people are nervous 



76 



PRESENT STATE OF THE CHURCH IN EAST CHINA 



and apprehensive, not knowing what a day may bring 
forth. 

Statistics . Ifc * s no } Practical to attempt here to com- 

pile statistics regarding the number of 
churches, their membership, and missionaries. That in- 
formation is collected and reported in other ways. Cor- 
respondents however from all parts of this area report 
gradual and steady growth in church membership, but 
practically no change in the number of churches and 
foreign missionaries. The only correspondents who deal 
in figures as to membership of churches, report 5 and 15 
per cent net increase in their respective communities. A 
writer from Ningpo says: " This section does not need 
increase in the number of churches so much as increased 
activity, larger membership, and more preaching points 
maintained by local churches.'' Some mission work has 
had to be closed because of decrease of funds from abroad ; 
but on the whole, work has remained about stationary in 
this respect. 

Cooperation . No striking developments are discernible 
and Unity in the field of cooperation and unity. Co- 
operation in school work between Baptists 
and Presbyterians is becoming well established in Ningpo, 
and in hospital work between Baptists and Methodists in 
Huchow. One somewhat new development is the holding 
of certain types of union meetings, such as young people's 
meetings and evangelistic meetings. These are reported 
to be quite common in Ningpo and Hangchow. The spirit 
of cooperation appears particularly strong in Hangchow, 
where there is a union organization of all the churches. 
There is a similar organization in Nanking. The evange- 
listic forces in Wuhu have established a union committee 
to coordinate their efforts in that city. Under its direction 
a very successful meeting was held in March, 1924, at 
which about 1200 persons signed cards to receive baptism 
or to enroll in instruction classes. Meanwhile, there are 
very few or no definite steps to report in the direction of 
church union. Some say there is very little sentiment 
for it, while others say the desire is there if any practical 
way toward it could be seen. One correspondent suggests 
that a way to accelerate church union is for the foreign 



PRESENT STATE OF THE CHURCH IN EAST CHINA 77 

missionaries to insist on denominational distinctness, as 
this will make Chinese solidarity assert itself, and anion 
will come about ! 

L> , - From nearly all the urban centers come 

Thought reports of the activities of new religious- 

ethical societies, such as those described in 
this Year Book for 1924, chapter VIII. Those most com- 
monly mentioned are the T'ung Shan She (|*) # jjir.) and 
the Red Swastica Society (& W H"). These movements are 
still too young to predict what the probable scope of their 
influence may be, and whether on the whole it is increas- 
ing or decreasing. 

The anti-Christian movement which has been smoul- 
dering under the surface for several years broke into 
sporadic eruptions toward the end of the year. These took 
the form of articles in the vernacular newspapers, demon- 
stration meetings, and the distribution of literature. 
Such efforts were particularly noticeable in Ningpo, Hang- 
chow, and Shanghai.- Special demonstrations were planned 
for Christmas time. Up to the time of writing, the move- 
ment has not furnished cause for serious concern to the 
Christian forces. Many of the meetings have been failures, 
so far as attendance and interest were concerned, and in 
some cases the demonstrations are said to have caused 
helpful reactions toward Christianity. Thus far the move- 
ment seems to be, as nearly as we can judge it, solely 
negative and destructive in its methods; obviously pre- 
judiced in its attitude ; and ignorant of the cause it opposes, 
if not determined deliberately to misrepresent it. As 
long as these things appear to be true, the movement 
can scarcely present a serious challenge to the progress of 
Christianity in China. At the same time, the possible 
influence of such a movement should not be under- 
estimated, and neither should the Christians ignore 
whatever truth there may be in the criticisms of their 
opponents, for among those who are genuinely perplexed 
and questioning are many sincere and good people. These 
questionings have not been allayed by the recent records 
of such prominent adherents of the Christian movement 
as General Feng Yu-hsiang and C. T. Wang. 



78 PRESENT STATE OF THE OHUKCH IN EAST CHINA 

n^Jki 8 ? olI T? g re Port from a missionary in Wuhu 
probably is a fair picture of the life and thought condi- 

ChTna:° * ** ° hUrCheS generalI r throughout Bast 

,, v, " T A e u thi ^ g that P leases me most as I try to com- 
prehend the situation is the conviction that multitudes 

rL P r? ar - C< Tu ng t0 see much more Nearly what 

nd hn T ,S - The ? T COming t0 realize ^e high 
and holy purpose of the church and to judge our 
preachers and members and our work by our own 
standards. Our ideals and preaching are thu taken 
seriously. I hear people talking on boats and in tea 
houses and private conversation in such a way as to 
show a growing comprehension of what the church is 
PrJLltnu-- aid °" e man telJ anoth er that the 

foiotnPnnl Ti anS "T "^ ***' ^ Md dl(1 " ot 

tmce people. This understanding is due in part to 
travel, conversation preaching, distributions of 
scripture magazines and newspapers). In spite of the 
poor educational system general intelligence is in- 
creasing. Multitudes are feeling the need of more 
education and consequent dissatisfaction with things 
now nv a '^- , At Hu Chi* Ten for instance there Z 
now 0V er thirty newspapers taken where a year ago 
here were only half a dozen. Business undertakings 
and foreign management have also helped. Since the 
mines were opened at Ti Kan there is a wholly dif- 

SrmuTha 11 th , 6 Pl r; k Eig hty-rs ago eve,/little 
girl must have her feet bound while now there is 

A T /* Hwang Hu aIso the custom ha 
had fn h« St J T 1 ". ,gh l- ° Ur girls ' sch °o]s have 
thank r! if u\T m th u eSe Changes for wh ich we 
record, 1, m ° h ^T' th °" gh sh °™ ™ no church 
are a r, fl r° • Tu T*° ■ 6 ™ i ? 1 the heart of God and 
are a part in the bringing in of His Kingdom. At 

Son^? ?}*? Wh61 t - leSS than ten y ears 4o no one 
rf.W-2 ? W °o hlp as bad - » a »y n «w under- 
stand d^erently. On the other hand the sale and 
use of opium have greatly increased. Formerly I never 
saw it used openly nor smelled it. Now I can hardly 



PRFSENT STATE OF THE CHURCH IN EAST CHINA 79 

go along a street or especially on any boat without 
being nauseated by the smell of it. And many people 
are being debauched by secret traffic in this drug. It 
develops trickery and slyness. Also social immorality 
has I fear not decreased but rather increased. Social 
freedom and liberty for all classes has grown. Even 
the war has awakened some people to the need of 
taking larger interest in the affairs of their fellows." 

All districts report progress in the direction 
Self-support, f c hurches supporting and managing their 
D^XtfoT 6 ' local affair?, and propagating and expressing 
the gospel in ways adapted to their own 
needs. The progress in these lines is principally among 
the churches; there is relatively little of it yet among the 
missionary institutions, such as schools and hospitals. 
From Hwai Yuan, in Anhwei, is reported a home mission 
movement that was launched more than two years ago. 
The field selected was Ting Yuen Hsien, and two Chinese 
workers are laboring there now. The interest is deep, and 
efforts of this kind would seem to mark a significant step 
forward in the christianizing of China. The Chinese mem- 
bers of the Christian (Disciples) churches have for a 
number of years supported and directed a work consisting 
of church and schools at Hsia Kwan, Nanking. Probably 
there are not a few other undertakings of this nature if 
they were all reported. 

A point on which reports from all sources are agreed, 
is that the supply of adequately trained and dependable 
leaders is not keeping pace with the growing needs ot the 
work. This need is felt more by the churches than by the 
schools and hospitals. The expressions on this point are 
so uniform and so emphatic, that they indicate clearly 
one matter which should receive the serious attention ot 
those who are responsible for policies in the next tew 
years. 

There is apparent a growing appreciation 
National of the National Christian Council, sufficient 

Coanrii n to give encouragement to those who are sup- 

porting it, and those who are investing their 



80 



PRESENT STATE OF THE CHURCH IN EAST CHINA 



lives in it. But far too many of the churches know little 
ot its program and its purposes, and care less. Those who 
are informed about the N. C. C. need constantly to exert 
their enorts to make the churches in China acquainted 
with the national organization. 






CHAPTER XVI 

THE PRESENT STATE OF THE LIFE OF THE CHURCH 
IN SOUTH CHINA 

A. J. Fisher 

In considering the present state of the life of the 
Church in South China I wish to repeat what is written in 
the 1924 China Year Book pages 114 — 119, with regard 
to such phrases as: "The consciousness that the Church 
is Chinese," "The Church is becoming indigenous,'' 
"The tendency to self assertion, " and '* The increase in 
self support." Each one of these aspects of the situation 
is more marked now than when those phrases were 
first used. 

Th» Ch h ' ^ ie South China Church believes in the 
Evangelistic wide spread and continuous preaching of the 
Gospel. We usually think of this as one of 
the peculiar functions of the missions, but I think the 
Chinese Church is at present outstripping the missions in 
its zeal for this work. The wholehearted way in which 
the Church has taken hold of the work of the Evangelistic 
Association is one of the evidences of this. This Associa- 
tion exists for the purpose of the evangelization of the 
masses. It was started with funds from abroad but the 
budget is now almost entirely underwitten by the Chinese 
Churches, practically every denomination sharing. Their 
method is that of holding special evangelistic meetings in 
city and country, where possible uniting the churches of 
the locality in one cooperative effort. This has been one 
of the most fruitful means for bringing men and women 
into relation to the Church. Three men are employed 
for full time. Two of these spend their entire time in 
preaching; one gives part time to the secretarial work of 
the Association. One of the evangelists, the Rev. Chau 
Tsuen Hing, thinks that the people have never been so 



8% THE CHURCH IN SOUTH CHINA 

hungry for religious teaching. They want something that 
will help them m this time of turmoil, unrest and change, 
lhe Rev W. H. Tipton of the Southern Baptist Mission 
Tw ri - ere 1S a decided interest in the winning of the 
lost to Christ. As a tangible evidence I would cite the 
interest shown in our tent evangelistic work, which for 
the last lew years has been a most popular form of 
endeavor to spread the gospel and gather in the 
multitudes Our entire membership has responded most 
heartily both m the matter of contributions and personal 
service . 

Not everywhere does one meet with such optimism. 
One correspondent expresses the feeling that there is 
a lack of real spiritual life ; a lack of the — 4 1 believe and 
therefore have I spoken ' kind of evangelism. Organization 
is being over done in some places. There is too much copy- 
ing of foreign plans, shallowness of spiritual experience, 
lack of knowledge of the Bible and lack of real exposition 
of the scriptures in preaching." One can not escape the 
feeling that these are real facts and they constitute a 
problem of tremendous import to the Church. On the 
other hand we should know that the leaders in the 
churches realize these shortcomings and are trying to 
overcome them. Quite a number of RETREATS have 
been held for the deepening of the spiritual life. One 
hears a great deal said nowadays about the mystical 
element m the Christian religion and an emphasis is laid 
on the meditative religious mind as peculiarly fitting to 
the Chinese. One of the religious weeklies has for one 
of its objects the combating of materialism in the Church 
Statistics show a continual increase in the number of Bible 
classes and the numbers attending them. Many of the 
Churches are putting large emphasis on religious education 
by improving the Sunday Schools and the use of the 
Christian Endeavor for the development of religious 
knowledge There has been a marked increase in the 
activities of the work for and by women in the last few 
years. Many of the Churches are using the popular 
education method for reaching the masses. In all the«e 
activities service to humanity for Christ's sake is the 
dominant note. 



THE CHURCH IN SOUTH CHINJl 83 

Educational work is receiving a great deal 
Bdicve^hf 1 of atfcenfcion h y the Church. Mr. Tipton says 
Education 1 °* ^e Baptist Church : M The growth of our 
schools has been almost phenomenal . . . 
There is a genuine desire on the part of the Christians to 
carry their own responsibility for the education of their 
children ; \ What is said of the Baptist Church may be 
said of the churches in general, though it has taken the 
lead in getting under the burden of the higher education 
for boys and girls. Most of the churches have day 
schools for boys and girls in connection with their church 
work. In the Church of Christ in China there is a 
movement on foot for the establishment of a general Board 
of Education that shall take care of the educational work 
of the Church, taking over as soon as possible the entire 
responsibility for the educational work that has been 
started by the cooperating missions. The large number 
of returned students, many of whom come back with a 
heart and will to help their own people, the large number 
of prosperous Chinese abroad and the increasing material 
wealth of the Church ought to make this a matter not 
impossible of accomplishment in the near future. 
M . . . The Church is making progress in material 

Progress things. Within the year several very large 

churches have been completed. One in Canton 
is of the institutional type costing over $70,000 — entirely 
raised from Chinese sources. It has become the exception 
for the missions to put large sums into church buildings. 
Cooperative Stock Companies, composed largely of 
people of moderate means, have discovered the power 
of united effort and strength in business. There are a 
dozen or more such companies in the province composed 
entirely of Christians. Almost without exception these 
give a definite percent of their net income to the work 
of the Church. Some see a danger in this, as material 
prosperity does not always foster spiritual growth. This 
is not necessarily so however, and in these cases their 
wealth is generally used for good purposes. 
Self-s t as Self-support is of course a very desirable 
an End thing but it is not an end in itself. It is 

preached so much, and so often- that some 



84 THE CHURCH IN SOUTH CHINA 

congregations have got the idea that when the church 
budget which has been presented at the beginning of the 
year has been subscribed the object of their existence has 
been reached. They feel as if they can rest for the 
remainder of the year forgetting that it is required first of 
all to give themselves to the Lord. 

M j In some places there has been a lowering 

Standards of moral standards, partly due no doubt to 

the times in which we live. We have had 
war and one revolution after another. Righteousness, 
truth and honour have been degraded, life cheapened, and 
the whole social life of the people has deteriorated. Can we 
wonder then that the Church has not escaped scatheless? 
The Anti-Christian movment is having 
Christian ~ ? n . ef ? ec t both good and bad. Some are 
Movement intimidated by it. Some are inclined to 

compromise as to some of the fundamentals 
of their religion. The majority are being led to reexamine 
the reasons for the faith that is in them and come forth the 
stronger and better for it. On the whole it may be looked 
upon as a blessing in disguise, and also as a sign that 
the Church is really gaining in influence to such an 
extent that its opponents are becoming alarmed and are 
trying by this means to counteract it. 

Christian truth and ethics have never 
Eagerfor uV exerte d more influence or been more widely 
Truth sought after. The circulation of the scriptures 

has been far above that of any previous year 
in the history of the Bible Societies in Kwangtung. The 
increase has largely been in the sale of colloquial New 
Testaments. The evangelistic workers report on every 
hand an eagerness of the people to listen to the presenta- 
tion of the Gospel message. 

Christian work is rapidly passing from the 
Mission *° missions to the Churches. Many of the 

functions of the mission are now being taken 
over by the Church — the mission either cooperating with 
the Church or handing the work over entirely. 
Summary ^ ° sum up ^ e present state of the Church 

in South China in a sentence I would say that 
on the whole one should take courage and be glad for 



THE CHUfeCH IN SOUTH CHINA 



85 



splendid progress, for its fine and courageous leaders, for 
the realization of its great task and the willingness to 
shoulder it. There are many things that one can point out 
that are not what they ought to be or might be. These 
should not be overlooked for honest facing of hard facts is 
a necessity, and will help towards better things. 



CHAPTER XVII 

THE YEARNINGS OF THE CHINESE CHURCH* 
K. T. Chung 

As a pastor of a local congregation for eight vears I 

£MT™ ° Pp0rt " nit y t0 *»*» ontside the Church 
and get a bird's-eye view of the situation. The impres- 
sions I give are based upon my travels touching Thirty- 
tilt CltleS £ th <l lowing eight provinces : Kwlnfi 
SWung! HUPeh ' KiangSi> Chekian ^ Kiangsu'cthlf: 

well L^hekilv ^ ThZ ?° ns0iousn f ss a ™ng the clergy as 
wen as the iaity. Ihere is a prevailing conviction that the 
Church is not equivalent to Christianity; Christian tv s 
not equivalent to Christ. Christ is Life; ChristknHy is the 
way of expressing the Life and the Church is a A W 

3e n rssib h r 8h whioh expr ~ ° f that &£% 

the m=t th i e .7 iSt ° ry ° f , Mi fT and Churches in China for 
rZ£T I ■?*?. has lecI non-Christians as well a* 
Chnst.ans to ident.fy the Church with Christianity Jd 

wH°h Chtt^Ther / yPe ° f Ch » 8tia ^ S P-ached 
S ,„„" r Therefore no matter whether the Church is 

SpT^sttn^ ''- 8 * 6 is , stmf «^« to the Chinese 
of China Thn^. " lnt f egral P a /.t of the community life 
oiohma. thus she is not yet indigenous. 

faith inwh'th T e6P f? 7 ^? *? the reaJit y of Christian 

Church M av r ^ 6ly • 6 l th . e yearning of t^ Chinese 
Church. May I express it ,n the three following points: 

To see Christ l - \™ Chinese Christians are longing to 

see Christ. Christ is the living God Certain! v 

He can manifest himself to us Chinese and™ can ^H* 

omnipresence. He promised His presence where two or 

of ^S^uZL^^^ * the a„„ ua , mee ti„ g 



THE YEARNINGS OF THE CHINESE CHURCH 87 

three are gathered together in His name. Again, He promis- 
ed to be with His disciples until the end of the world. If 
Chinese Christians have no vital experience of the living 
Christ, where is the strength of the Chinese Church to 
come from? In this time of controversy between the 
liberal and conservative, Chinese Christians are compelled 
to go back to Christ and back to the Bible. Otherwise it 
simply means that those who are acquainted with con- 
servatism will be classed as fundamentalists. What has 
new or old, liberal or conservative, to do with the Chinese 
Church? Neither of them are the real expression of our 
own spiritual relationship with the Lord Jesus. The 
Chinese Church is like the Hellenes of old who came to 
Philip, saying, "We would see Jesus." This is the 
yearning of the Chinese Church — to see^ Christ with our 
own spiritual eve and to call Him "My Lord, my 
God." 

II. The deep yearning to find adequate 
To Find expression for our spiritual experience in a 

Indigenous language which is inherited from Buddhistic 
Expression and Confucian literature. The gospel of Christ 
ought to be preached in the people's own 
language. I do not mean that hitherto we have not been 
preaching in Chinese, but I mean that the type of 
preaching is not able to touch the heart of the vast 
majority of the people because it is interpreted from a 
language other than our own. Who is the Chinese 
Wesley? Who is the Chinese Moody? How many 
Chinese Bible expounders are there ? The non-Christians 
know more about the presence of foreign evangelists than 
of the Chinese. If the Church is not able to produce its 
own Chinese leadership in Bible exposition and preaching 
for the arousing of the nation to their responsibility to God, 
as the prophets of old, we have not much hope of winning 
"China for Christ." 

The Chinese Church is not only yearning for adequate 
expression in words, but for daring application of 
Christianity to meet the needs of rural life, home, industry 
and various other problems of society. The Church with 
8,000 pulpits reaching a community of one million every 
Sunday is a tremendous force in creating, moulding and 



88 THE YEARNINGS OF THE CHINESE CHURCH 

guiding public opinion which according to the old classic 
is the voice of God. 

Who will lead China from her sojourn in the wilder- 
ness to the Land of Canaan? The whole country is 
looking for a Moses and a Joshua. What is to be our 
message and the adventure of faith today? 
~ n , fJ III. The yearning for a model Chinese 

M°oderChuf P ch Church. The Church is undergoing rapid 
change in its organization in order to adjust 
itself to the growing consciousness of the laity as to their 
relationship to it. There is the wide-spread demand for 
more worship in services, the need for sacred music and 
architecture to represent the aspirations of Chinese Chris- 
tians. There is also friendly dissatisfaction with the present 
type of ministry. It touches the whole problem of finding 
an adequate outward expression for the inward spiritual 
experience. Everywhere is questioning, " What is the 
status of the Chinese Church ? " " What is the relationship 
of Church and Mission ? JJ " What type of western Church 
is to be perpetuated in China ?" Therefore this is a time 
of adjustment between Missions and the Chinese Church, 
between laity and clergy, between men and women, 
between young and old, between members of the Church 
and non-members, — for it is said there are more Christians 
outside the Church than inside it. 

It is wonderful to think how the young Church of 
China during the past 117 years has been nourished by 
more than 130 missionary societies. Every branch of the 
missions gives its best in strengthening her. 

We can look forward to seeing the Chinese Church a 
bigger and more inclusive Church which can express the 
deepest aspiration for world citizenship,— a Church like 
the New Jerusalem coming down from heaven. 

Let us all live in Christ and be so hidden in the Lord 
that the message preached through us may be the bubbling 
up of living waters to quench the thirst of the masses. We 
are not only to release the latent spiritual power which is 
ours if we yield ourselves to Him, and express it though 
the gifts with which He has endowed the Chinese race in 
her unique history of 6000 years, but also to find means to 
try daring experiments to witness to our fellow countrymen 



THE YEARNINGS OF THE CHINESE CHURCH 89 

that Christ is the dynamic for our social reconstruction 
and the ultimate hope of China and the world. Should 
not we as different branches of His Church in China love 
one another, and give our best to the model Chinese 
Church which is created in our hearts, so that she may 
be able to get the fullest nourishment from each denomina- 
tion ? We can then look forward to the day when the 
indigenous Church which we all pray for, study for, and 
work for, will actually be incarnated. 



CHAPTER XVIII 

THE PROBLEM OF THE CHURCH IN RELATION 

TO RURAL LEADERSHIP 

John H» Refsner 

Rural , ? his article assumes that Christian leader- 

Leadership fehl P> Dotn religious and secular, for the rural 
Essential masses of China is desirable and that there- 

. * ore such leadership is a worthy object of 
the organized Christian church. These premises will not be 
universally accepted, but the activities and piograms of the 
Rural Church Committee of the National Christian Council 
J?? °* . committee on Agricultural Education of the 
China Christian Educational Association, and the increasing 
interest on the part of a growing number of missionaries 
and Chinese pastors, evidence the deepening conviction that 
the rural church is responsible for more than the work of 
evangelization and the gathering of Christians into organ- 
ized church groups for Christian worship. The rural church 
must accept the responsibility for community improve- 
ment, whatever the need may be, otherwise it cannot 
attain to a place of rural leadership. Nor can this place 
ot leadership be secured without taking agriculture into 
account. If such leadership detracts from the spiritual 
message and functioning of the church,— as so many fear, 
then it is no worthy leadership. 

Recent Progress Tlle recen t trip of investigation among 
n •** /, ,p hurches ma de for the Rural Church 
Committee of the National Christian Council by the Rev. 
Morton Chu of the Hankow Diocese of the American Church 
Mission and the Rev. Chang Heng-chiu, secretary of the 
American Board Mission of North China, indicated clearly 
that very many of the rural Chinese pastors and preachers 
themselves feel a tremendous need of being able to offer 
help and leadership to the rural peoples in their every day 
problems of living and getting a living. This applied 



RURAL LEADERSHIP IN THE CHURCH 91 

both within and without the church membership. The 
present movement in Canton for a Normal Bible Training 
School for rural workers is a sign of the need for a type of 
Christian worker, the preacher-teacher, who should be 
able to assume a larger leadership in rural communities, 
and who, for the services he renders to the church, the school 
and the community, receives full financial support 
locally. A few theological seminaries are assigning faculty 
to newly organized Rural Church Departments, thus recogniz- 
ing the importance of the rural church and the respon- 
sibility to their graduates who go to the country to work. 
Within recent months the American Board Mission has 
approved the development of, and already has made 
a start on, a rural training school for their workers at 
Tungchow, North China, and has approved a second center 
at Fenchow, Shansi. The Interior Mission of the Southern 
Baptist Convention has approved and made a strong 
beginning of a rural training center at Kaifeng. The Central 
China Teachers' College at Wuchang has recently added 
agricultural work as part of its requirements. The 
Reformed Church Mission at Yochow and Shenchow in 
Hunan is providing special work in agriculture. The 
Nanhsucbow station of the Kiangan Mission of the 
Presbyterian Church, North, is carrying on a program 
of rural evangelism in which agricultural work has 
a definite place and purpose. The thirty odd agricultural 
missionaries in China are still further evidence of the 
more and more widely acknowledged fact, that definite 
responsibilities rest with the Christian movement in China 
to provide a better rural life. 

Training ^e i mme diate problem of the rural church 

Centers m relation to rural leadership is becoming 

clearly recognized as largely one of training 
rural workers. Outside of mission college work in agri- 
culture, interest in the special training of rural workers is 
the outstanding development in agricultural mission work 
of the past year. Evidences of this were indicated in the 
preceding paragraph. The China Christian Educational 
Association at its last annual meeting approved nine centers 
for the establishment of rural training schools in China. 
These were the Central China Teachers' College, Wuchang, 



92 RURAL LEADERSHIP IN THE CHURCH 

to serve Central China; the University of Nanking, Rural 
Normal School, to serve East China; the Point Breeze 
Academy, Weihsien, to serve Shantung; the Kaifeng 
Baptist College, Kaifeng, to serve Honan ; and one center 
each to serve West China, Shansi, Chihli, Fukien and 
Kwangtung. Definite progress has been made in each area, 
and special training is already being provided in four 
of them. 

Summer Schools .}} should be noted that the above centers 
will provide special training more particularly 
to the teachers who will lead our Christian country schools. 
Much less progress relatively has been made to provide any 
special training for the future preachers and pastors. A 
perplexing and yet very important problem is to provide 
some special training for the thousands of preachers and 
teachers who now man our rural churches and schools. It 
is proposed to meet this problem, however, by summer or 
other vacation or special schools of one or two months, 
when special courses on rural problems and improvement 
will be stressed. These have already been attempted but 
the big work still lies ahead. During the Summer of 1925 
the University of Nanking will offer special courses in 
agriculture and related subjects in at least eight different 
centers in cooperation with local missionary bodies. 
Requirements in A . Chr * stian leadership in the rural corn- 
Rural Leader- munity does not presume the necessity of a 
ship highly technical agricultural training. It 

does presume a knowledge of methods and 
agencies that can be used to bring about rural improve- 
ment and ability to use them, It presumes on the part of 
the pastor or teacher, what is of even greater importance 
than training, a loyalty to and belief in the rural people 
and a conviction that great progress in their economic, 
social and religious life is possible. The farmers, for ex- 
ample, now believe and have for centuries believed, that 
smut in wheat is sown by the roving and dissatisfied 
spirits of those who died without offspring to provide for 
them. Here is a social, religious and economic problem 
all in one, and the key to the quickest solution is in the 
control of the smut by recognized methods of seed treatment 
that have been used successfully in the West for many 



RURAL LEADERSHIP IN THE CHURCH 93 

years. Any teacher or pastor, if he wanted to exert himself, 
could easily learn how to demonstrate the treatment. 
Incidentally, the subject of diseased wheat and its control 
could provide excellent discourses for sermons. Christ 
used similar ideas with telling effect. To lead the rural 
people out from their present economic, social and religious 
restrictions, either by personal demonstration or by helping 
them to help themselves, should be a prime effort of the 
Christian rural church. The pastor or preacher-teacher 
or teacher who will help these farmers in their every day 
problems and thus gain their confidence can be assured of 
a following in religious matters. 

Christian missions in China have never wanted their 
preachers to do anything else but evangelize and preach 
and organize churches, nor have they expected much more 
of their teachers than to teach in the school, and cooperate 
with the pastor or the itinerant evangelist; at least, this 
has been so until recently. It is interesting to note that 
requests for the services of the Department of Extension 
of the University of Nanking, College of Agriculture and 
Forestry, have come most frequently from evangelistic 
missionaries and that at least seventy-five per cent of the 
field work of the Department is done in connection with 
conferences of pastors, or on country church circuits. The 
reason for this is fairly clear, namely, a desire to bring help 
and promise of better things to the farmers through the 
church. It is further evidence that the church is beginning 
to try to serve the wider interests of the rural people and 
it is a fair assumption that its own strength will increase in 
proportion to the services it can render the country side and 
to the leadership it can train and have used. 



CHAPTER XIX 

SELF-SUPPORT - IS IT GROWING ? 

James Maxon Yard 

My subject as given me by the Editor was, "Recent 
Developments in Self-Support." After making investiga- 
tions in various parts of China and in various missions I 
discovered that there had been no marked development 
during the past two years. 

What is T ^ e more ! stud y the matter the more I 

Self-Support ? realize that the question of self-support goes 
___ de ep down into the very heart of the Church. 

We are very far afield if we think of this subject in terms 
of dollars and cents. One Chinese correspondent wrote 
that there was progress in his field "because the people 
begin to realize that the Church is theirs." Usually they 
regard it as a sort of club whose work is largely done by a 
well-paid foreign secretary. The rank and file do not 
know much about its working; they have not much voice 
m its management — they see no reason why they should 
support it. Most of the members are poor. The foreign- 
ers seem to have plenty of money. " What do they care 
if I do not contribute my mite?" is the attitude of the 
average man. 

Can we establish real churches? Have we come to 
the place where we can give authority and responsibility 
to the local church, so that the pastor and the members 
will all realize that it is theirs? The authority, the plans, 
the responsibility, the burdens — all theirs. How Jong 
must such statements as the following flay U3 with their 
cords of truth? "The church in Fukien is surely an 
example of the vitality of an exotic growth with its 
financial roots in an alien soil some ten thousand miles 
away. It flourishes after a fashion, but at a terrible cost of 
inwardness and indigenous life,— and no Moses in sight 
yet to get it out of the Wilderness," 



SELF-SUPPORT — IS IT GROWING ? 95 

Some think we should solve the problem 
Scfre the °y Dooks on tithing. Others say that we 

Problem must preach more sermons on sacrificial 

giving. That is all very well; but I think 
the root of the difficulty is more obscure than that — it is 
not so easily uncovered as those pious observations would 
lead one to believe. It is my opinion that missionaries 
can do very little toward actually finding a solution. The 
root of the matter is buried deep in the social and family 
life of the Chinese people and unfortunately missionaries 
are too far removed to understand some of the most 
important matters involved. Whenever any church or any 
group of churches becomes really Chinese, whenever any 
local Chinese community becomes really Christian, there 
the church will be self-supporting. I doubt if self-support 
in most cases will be attained by any merely mechanical 
process of reducing grants by 10% each year. It might be 
achieved that way if it were purely a financial problem. 
It will, in many cases, come suddenly, like the sunrise, 
when the hour has struck, when certain conditions have 
been met. # Of course, the spirit of sacrificial giving is one 
of the conditions but not the only one by any means. 

Another matter that needs to be kept clearly in mind 
is that we are discussing self -support as it relates to 
churches. Many Christian communities are disturbed and 
discouraged when they think that self-support means 
becoming financially responsible for hospitals, schools, 
universities and the entire unwieldy and expensive 
organization that missionaries have established. Such 
institutions should be eventually turned over to Boards of 
Trustees or Foundations and not to churches. In the West 
such work is largely supported by Christians but the 
responsibility is not borne by local churches — not very 
often even by groups of churches. 

Little Visible There is not much visible progress to re- 

Progress port, but there is much intelligent apprecia- 

tion of the real difficulties involved, and 
many Chinese and missionaries are diligently at work on 
the problem. The National Christian Council is prepared 
to help by studying special fields and particular social 
conditions; by sending speakers to meetings met to 



96 SELF-SUPPORT — IS IT GROWING ? 

consider self-support; and by making available through 
printed reports all methods that have been successful and 
all experience that bears on the subject. 

It is early dawn, and some churches already see the 
shining light of the new day. 



CHAPTER XX 

SOME EXPERIMENTS IN DEVOLUTION OF 

MISSION RESPONSIBILITY 

IN THE 

NORTHERN BAPTIST MISSION IN EAST CHINA 

J. T. Proctor 

The task of transferring responsibility from the 
missions to the churches or to organized groups of Chinese 
is at once the most important and the most fascinating 
task of mission administration to-day. The task is essen- 
tially two fold ; the mission must be prepared to give up 
the responsibility and the churches or organized groups 
must be prepared to receive it. The solution of the latter 
task involves practically all that is really essential in the 
mission objective. In the nature of the case these two 
tasks must be carried on simultaneously. It is one thing 
to let the mantle fall from shoulders which have long 
carried it; it is another thing to see to it that the mantle 
falls on other shoulders where it will fit and stick. The 
editor of the Year Book has requested me to give a very 
brief statement of some experiments of an ordinary 
mission in meeting these responsibilities. 

The Northern Baptist Mission in East China is 
composed of 94 missionaries, including men and women, 
with a total Chinese staff of 441 workers and with an 
expenditure this last year, including salaries of missionaries, 
board grants, and all fees from churches, schools and 
hospitals, of Mex. $631,913.00. This mission has been 
experimenting for some years, along with most other 
missions in this part of China, with joint departmental 
committees reporting to the mission. These committees 
have been composed of Chinese and missionaries. They 
were supposed to meet once or twice a year and reports 
were made to the annual mission meeting. In this annual 



98 EXPERIMENTS IN DEVOLUTION 

meeting the Chinese who were on the joint committees 
were not present. This plan has been faithfully tried out 
and has been abandoned. For obvious reasons the 
Chinese serving on these committees were working at a 
serious disadvantage and they never seemed to get really 
under their responsibility. There was considerable awk- 
wardness in the effort to make place for two pairs of 
shoulders under one mantle. 

The mission is now making experiments along three 
lines which will be in turn briefly described. 
, . „ , r The more promising middle schools con- 
Gontfol° af ducted by the mission either alone or jointly 

with other missions, have boards of control. 
The same is true of the Shanghai College and the Univer- 
sity of Nanking in which the mission is cooperating. 
On all of these boards of control there are Chinese serving. 
In most instances these Chinese are appointed by the 
provincial association representing the churches. In this 
way they are responsible back to the appointing bodies while 
at the same time they serve on boards which have real 
responsibility. So long as Chinese were serving on joint 
departmental committees reporting direct to the mission 
the responsibility was in a very real sense taken out 
of the hands of the Chinese as they were not members of 
the mission which finally acted on their report. Those 
conditions in the system of joint departmental committees 
which made it so difficult, if not impossible, for the 
Chinese members to assume real responsibility do not 
obtain to anything like the same degree in the case of 
the boards of control. The actions of these boards of 
control, while not absolutely final, are so nearly so that 
it has proved possible to develop in some degree a sense 
of real responsibility on the part of those serving on them. 
There are 4'2 churches connected with the 
Complete WO rk of this mission. These 42 churches are 

fof S EvangeUsUc organized into four district associations with 
and Primary an average number of 10 churches each. 
School Work of These district associations are delegated 
the Mission bodies composed of some five to ten members 
Use of Board from each local church, making an annual 
Grants attendance of approximately 100. In this 



EXPERIMENTS IN DEVOLUTION 99 

annual association meeting there is elected a district 
executive committee composed of from six to eight 
Chinese members. The evangelistic missionary in each 
district is ex-officio a member of this district executive 
committee. All the churches in these four district 
associations are organized into a provincial association 
which also meets annually. This provincial association 
elects an executive committee of seven Chinese to which 
the mission executive appoints two missionary members. 
This committee thus composed is known as the association 
executive committee. The total appropriation made by 
the board for evangelistic and primary school work is 
transferred by the mission in a lump sum to this 
association executive committee. The amount involved 
for the current year is $25,286. This association executive 
committee has full responsibility for all matters concerned 
with evangelistic and primary school work. All its actions 
are printed as information but they are not reviewed by 
the mission. This association executive committee in 
turn makes grants in lump sums to the four district 
executive committees. These district executive committees 
in turn make grants to the local churches or for the 
support of evangelists and other such activities. These 
committees have full responsibility for employment, 
appointment and transfer of evangelists, for the stimulation 
of the missionary spirit in the churches and for furnishing 
the required leadership in all the activities of a growing 
Christian constituency. The district committees must 
report fully to the district associations which elected 
them. There is no question of their not being held 
accountable for the way in which they discharge their 
obligations. The same is true of the provincial executive 
committee. It is safe to say that no experiment 
in the whole history of the mission has been more 
successful in locating responsibility on the shoulders of 
, the Chinese churches or in developing a more real and 
vital sense of proprietorship in the work which the 
churches are attempting to do. 

y, r r About three years ago the mission, in 

Station" ° * consultation with the association executive 

committee, decided to make another experi- 



100 EXPERIMENTS IN DEVOLUTION 

ment. This consisted of transferring to the association 
executive committee all the work of the mission in one 
of its stations including, in addition to the evangelistic 
work, a boys' middle school and a hospital. At the time 
of transfer the mission was fortunate in having an 
unusually good Chinese staff in both hospital and middle 
school. In the hospital there was a returned Chinese 
student who is now superintendent of the hospital, a 
graduate of the Nanking Union Medical School and 
a graduate of the Tsinan Union Medical School. In the 
boys' middle school as principal was a graduate of the 
Shantung Christian University. The point of differentia- 
tion between this experiment and the one previously 
mentioned is that responsibility is transferred for 
institutional work involving both larger amounts of money 
and the use of a much more highly trained staff. It has 
not been found possible as yet to dispense entirely with 
missionary workers. A short-term lady teacher of English 
has been retained in the middle school under the Chinese 
principal and a foreign nurse has been retained in the 
hospital. It is only fair to say that this experiment has 
not as yet reached a stage of such complete transfer of 
responsibility as has been reached in the case of the 
evangelistic work. The responsible Chinese in connection 
with these two institutions have insisted on keeping up, 
for a period of three years, at least, a double relationship 
with the association executive committee and with the 
mission. It is fully expected, however, that within a 
very brief time the association executive committee will 
assume as full and unquestioned responsibility for the 
entire work of this station, including its two institutions, 
as it now has for the less highly organized evangelistic 
work of all the districts. 

, For some time both Chinese and mission 

Unde" men leaders have had under informal consideration 
Consideration a contemplated fourth experiment. This will 
involve the transfer to a board of education 
of the full responsibility for the administration and 
conduct of the eleven middle schools connected with the 
mission. In these eleven schools there is now being 
expended a total of $258,661 including salaries, grants, 



EXPERIMENTS IN DEVOLUTION 101 

and all fees. The difficulty is to get an educational board 
composed in such a way and so related to the churches 
and the whole Christian constituency that it can and will 
assume real responsibility. This of course involves the 
necessity of the board's being in a position to meet deficits 
in current expenses and to secure funds in limited 
amounts at least to make possible increases in plants. 
Merely to ask so many Chinese individuals to constitute 
a board and to vote on questions which are now the 
responsibility of the mission without this new board's being 
in any sense accountable for the consequences involved in 
its use of funds, is not a solution of the problem. The 
composition of the board now under consideration is as 
follows: two Chinese members appointed by the provincial 
association executive committee, two missionaries appointed 
by the mission, and five additional Chinese to be appointed 
in the first place in joint consultation between the 
association and the mission. Vacancies in the case of 
these five to be filled by the remaining members of the 
board. To this board thus composed of nine persons, two 
missionaries and seven Chinese, there will be added as 
ex-officio members without vote, the Chinese general 
secretary of the provincial association and the executive 
secretary of the mission. It is hoped that this board will 
have the confidence of the churches in such degree and 
that it will have such contacts both with the whole 
Christian constituency and with friendly non-Christian 
patrons and supporters of these schools that it can 
gradually secure in a large degree both moral and financial 
support from the entire communities which these various 
schools serve. 

These four experiments, including the one under 
contemplation thus roughly and briefly described, give 
abundant evidence that this mission has not yet solved 
its problem. The writer feels that in a sense an apology 
is due for thus intruding on the general public this 
description of imperfect experiments, in doing so he is 
trusting the judgment of the responsible editor of the 
Year Book that such a description may in some mysterious 
way be helpful to at least some of the readers of the Year 
Book. In addition the writer is so vitally interested in 



102 EXPERIMENTS IN DEVOLUTION 

this whole fascinating problem that he is willing to endure 
the embarrassment and to incur the criticisms which will 
be inevitable, in the hope, which he trusts will not be in 
vain, that others may be persuaded to make public the 
results of similar experiments and that very many may 
be stimulated to concentrate on this one outstanding 
problem of missions for the generation on which we are 
now entering. 



CHAPER XXI 

MISSION DEVOLUTION IN NORTH CHINA 
THE QUESTION OF ORGANIZATION 

Rowland M. Cross 

A study of recent mission history in North China 
shows that the Missions have made progress in devolving 
upon the Chinese Church responsibility for the direction of 
the affairs of the Church. This move has proceeded along 
different lines in the various missions. 
Y.M.CA. * fc * s a significant fact that the Y.M.C.A. 

when it was organized in Peking in 1907, had 
from the start, a board of directors composed entirely of 
Chinese.* 

Ths L.M.S. ^ ne London Mission with its emphasis upon 

the indigenous church and the autonomy of 
the local church made it easy and natural for their stronger 
churches to become independent of mission control. In 
1912, two of the churches in Peking which had been 
fostered by this mission became independent and their 
example was followed by the larger Mi Shih church two 
years later. A number of the most important of the 
fourteen churches in the North China Federation of the 
Chung Kuo Chi Tu Chiao Hui are the outgrowth of London 
Mission work. 

A h BCFM * n 1914, the American Congregational 

* • • • ' Mission became a part of the joint Chinese- 
foreign organization known as the North China Kung Li 
Hui. The responsible bodies are the Station and District 
Associations and the North China Council with their 
committees. The membership of each of these groups is 
half or a majority Chinese. The Mission as a separate 
organization has practically ceased to exist. Requests for 
new missionaries, the location of missionaries and the in- 

* See also Chapter XXX. 



104 MISSION DEVOLUTION IN NORTH CHINA 

vitation to return after furlough, the control of nearly all 
property, the disbursement of funds and even such 
personal questions " as language study are all under the 
direction of Chinese-foreign groups. 

T . MFWI A study of the reports of the Methodist 

NLBM * Episcopal Church conferences shows marked 
progress in mission devolution. The enlargement of the 
powers of the Eastern Asia Central Conference of the M. E. 
Church in 1920, and the appointment of a joint finance 
board for all of China have greatly increased the powers of 
the Chinese members of that church. They have gone far 
in the development of a trained Chinese leadership. For 
instance, in the North China Conference (1920) out of 74 
ordained men, 35 are graduates of Peking University. It 
is the policy in this Conference to have Chinese district 
superintendents with a missionary as associate. 
_ p . In 1922, the Policy Committee of the China 

ter ian S c"h Council of the Presbyterian Church (North) 
suggested to the missions the formation ^ of 
"cooperative associations " of Chinese and foreigners which 
should, with the presbyteries, absorb the functions of the 
mission. In Peking, such an association formed of 12 
members, six Chinese chosen by the Chinese churches and 
six foreigners chosen by the Mission, has had real powers. 
Within the past year, action has been taken looking to the 
transfer of Jarger authority to the presbyteries. The 
Manchurian Presbyterian Mission (United Free Church of 
Scotland and Irish Presbyterian) in 1922, adopted anew 
plan of relationship of church and mission, in which it is 
to be noted that only special questions such as missionary 
salaries and language study are to be left in the control of 
the mission council. 

Th SPG In the En S usn Anglican Mission (S.P.G.), 

e # * * in Peking, increasingly important functions 
have been assumed by the Diocesan Board of Missions. 
This board has special responsibility with regard to evan- 
gelistic work. It is composed of the Bishop, the diocesan 
treasurer, two clergymen and one deaconness anointed by 
the Bishop, and two laymen and laywomen elected by the 
synod. Funds raised in China are under the direction of 
this board and funds from abroad at the discretion of 



MISSION DEVOLUTION IN NORTH CHINA 105 

the bishop. The tendency is for all funds to be put in 

charge of this board. Another interesting development 

has been the new missionary diocese in Shensi, 

where the responsibility is borne entirely by the Chinese 

Church and where it is hoped that ere long there may be a 

Chinese bishop. 

a u u 4. • From these instances of devolution in the 
A. cnur cn-centr ic . . . . . . i-» -i • • i «ii 

Period various missions operating in Peking, it will 

be seen that we have entered upon what might 
be called a church- centric period. The missionary is going 
to be identified more and more closely with the Chinese 
organization. At a meeting of the Peking Missionary 
Association in November, 1923, 90% of those present voted 
that the missionary should become a member of the local 
church. 

But although we are becoming church-centric, it must 
be observed that we have been far too slow in this process 
of mission devolution. At the Foreign Missions Conference 
of North America in 1923, a leading Chinese pastor made 
this statement, " Let us say with all kindness that the 
Missions have been altogether too fearful of surrendering 
their control. '■ A careful study of the minutes and reports 
of the Peking Missions for the past twenty years shows that, 
while there has been frequent sensing of the need for closer 
cooperation with the Chinese Church, very often there has 
not been a willingness to pay the price of thoroughgoing 
change. 

Financial Intentionally or unintentionally, the con- 

Control trol, in many cases, is still kept in the hands 

of the missionary. It may be through the 
fact that the Chinese members of joint-committees are 
" mission-paid ", or it may be because decisions made in a 
joint committee are referred back to a missionary or to a 
mission council for final action. It may be through the 
means of " specials " or " specifics ; ' as they are sometimes 
called. The missionary who gets a large number of these 
special gifts from the home constituency feels that he alone 
has the right to disburse them, as holder of the money-bag, 
and he has thus an undue influence. In one of the North 
China Missions there is a determined move in several of the 
stations to bring even these specials under joint committee 



106 MISSION DEVOLUTION IN NORTH CHINA 

control. This will go far toward removing the justification 
for the statement made by a Chinese Christian member of 
that Mission Church some years ago, when he said, "If 
these foreigners say that they have no money for this, 
don't you believe them. They have money for what they 
want to do." 

Wh j D< There are a number of questions which we 

Mission Policy are learning to ask ourselves these days. For 
instance, "To what extent should the 
Chinese Church at the present time direct Christian work?" 
In the February number of the Chinese Recorder is an 
account of a True-False test that was conducted in the 
Peking Missionary Association. The results of that test 
are wel] worth our study. Seventy-one out of the eighty 
people who voted said, "all policies and organizations con- 
cerned with mission and church relationship should have 
as their objective the complete elimination of mission 
control." A large majority voted that it is desirable for 
the Chinese Church to have full control of its affairs even 
though a portion of its funds come from foreign boards. 
The old position that control should be based on the degree 
of self-support no longer seems to be tenable. Yet one is 
led to wonder just what was understood by " its affairs ". 
For instance, more than half of the group voted that there 
are certain questions relating to the church and mission 
which could be best discussed in a preliminary meeting of 
foreigners only. The danger of these "preliminary" 
meetings is brought out by the statement of one of the six 
Chinese members of this voting group who said that he 
voted affirmatively on the question because he knew that 
the missionaries would have a preliminary meeting 
anyway! Too often important matters have been 
11 decided " in these " preliminary " meetings, Twenty- 
three members of the group felt that it would be unwise to 
give the Chinese Church complete freedom in determining 
the creedal basis of church membership ! On the other 
hand, one of the religious bodies in Peking, two years ago 
in joint meetings in which the Chinese far outnumbered 
the foreigners, prepared an entirely new manual^ of rites 
and ceremonies which is now being used with real 
satisfaction by that denomination. 



MISSION DEVOLUTION IN NORTH CHINA 107 

But another set of questions which we are 
p J2j l S P ar asking ourselves deals not so much with what 
Regard to should be our ideal but with what is our 

Leadership actual practice. How far are we becoming 

church-centric? Are Chinese being placed in 
positions of highest responsibility, such as heads of schools, 
chairmen of important committees, etc.? In church affairs 
do we get responsible Chinese opinion ? Are we enlisting 
the enthusiasm of young, active Chinese Christians in what 
we are attempting to do ? How far are laymen given a 
share in the administration of the church ? To what extent 
are the women of the New China taking their place in the 
church councils ? Two of the striking things about the 
new organization of the Manchurian Presbyterian Missions 
are first, that on both the Policy and the Finance Committees, 
women are given important places, and second, that the 
synods are no longer confined to church officers. 

When the question of mission -church re- 
How Much lationship was being discussed in Peking, one 
DofsCWh of the missionaries asked. " What has been 
Need and Want tne . reason for giving larger responsibility to the 

Chinese? Has it been in order to strengthen 
the denominational organization or has it been to build up 
the Chinese church as a whole ?V One cannot find a 
satisfactory answer to this question from a study of 
minutes and reports and it is probably true that where the 
purpose of change has been to strengthen the denomina- 
tion, the feeling of the missionary has been that in this 
way the whole church could be most benefited. 

This brings us, however, to a third consideration with 
regard to organization, one that is being urged upon us in 
Peking and in North China generally, namely, " How much 
organization does the Chinese church need and want?" 
Professor D. J. Fleming, author of a book on Mission 
Devolution, asks this pertinent question, " Is the arrange- 
ment (mission-church machinery) simple enough for the 
conditions actually on the field ? " It is this question that 
we must now take up. 

At a recent Peking Missionary Association 
oaMaSEerT meetin & a fading Chinese Christian said in 

effect, :' You Westerners continually think in 



108 MISSION DEVOLUTION IN NORTH CHINA 

terms of organization but this problem of the relation of 
the Church and Mission is not one of organization.'' We 
find our student secretaries and Christian students fretting 
under a burden of complicated machinery. ' Why is it 
necessary to have all of this arrangement of ready-made 
committees etc. in order to carry on Christian work in a 
school? Why have an elaborate city-wide organization? 
Why not let' committees, and the fewer the better, grow 
up to meet felt needs, rather than begin with a large 
organization and then make the activities fit into this 
organization?" Last year one of the Chinese student 
workers wrote an article on the " machine-like life " in 
which he expressed the danger to the spiritual life caused 
by the necessity to keep so much machinery in action. 
The Peking Christian Student Work Union which has 
brought about efficient, united action on the student 
problem of Peking is now trying to reduce its machinery 
of committee meetings, etc. The general Chinese verdict 
would seem to be the less machinery the better. 
n P , . May it not be, too, that in some cases we 
onSize ha ve been thinking in national and inter- 

national terms to such a degree that we have 
built up an organization which presses heavily upon the 
local group? It often happens that men and women who 
are doing remarkable work in local fields {ire drawn away 
to take national positions. Now that we have a heartily- 
supported and valuable coordinating agency in the Na- 
tional Christian Council, is it not time for the separate 
denominations to consider reducing their national organi- 
zations to a minimum ? The loose federation of the Chung 
Kuo Chi Tu Chiao Hui in North China has steadily refused 
to unite with similar churches throughout China to form 
a national organization. They feel that it would be a 
sacrifice of life. They are ready to cooperate but they 
seek local affiliations. The feeling among several Protestant 
religious groups in North China would seem to be that 
the time has come to emphasize the district or section of 
the country with local united effort rather than to stress 
the larger units. 

Burden of Is Jt not welJ fco ask whether the very size 

Institutions of our mission-church organizations does not 



MISSION DEVOLUTION IN NORTH CHINA 109 

bring in serious financial problems which seem to 
make the continued handling of the funds by the 
missionary seem necessary? The size of our plants, our 
equipment and our annual budgets present almost in- 
superable difficulties to our Chinese colleagues. The 
anti-Christian leaders, also, are prone to point to our great 
organizations as evidence that Capital is back of the 
Christian church. 

j. ... The retirement of the missionary may call 

for greater sacrifice than he has yet thought 
of. It may mean not only the turning over of responsi- 
bility for our church-mission organization to the Chinese 
but it may involve further, the willingness to see radical 
changes in the organization which is dear to us — changes in 
the direction of something that is much simpler and more 
suited to Chinese life. The Peking missionaries on the 
questionnaire referred to above, voted almost unanimously 
that their " own present plan of mission-church re- 
lationship " is " transitional." The problem of self- 
support, of self-propagating life, of self-direction on the 
part of the Chinese church may require not only the 
retirement of the missionary but the retirement, as well, of 
much of the elaborate machinery which he has built up. 
This may be a necessary step in the ■ transition " to an 
indigenous church in China. 



CHAPTER XXII 

THE VALUE OF THE RETREAT AS A METHOD 
Luelia Miner 

A Method for what ? Not for transacting routine 
business. Much misapprehension and consequent pre- 
judice must be overcome before the type of retreat promoted 
by the National Christian Council will be widely wel- 
comed. As a method a so-called "Retreat" has often 
been used to get busy people together to work through the 
agenda of a board or university, to " put over " some 
new project, or to change some undesirable situation. 
Just enough religion was brought in to excuse the use of 
the term "retreat," but not enough to create an atmosphere 
or prove the value of the retreat as a method. The 
suggestion that the annual meeting of a certain mission 
station be preceded by a retreat led by a National 
Christian Council member, to which about twenty of the 
eighty delegates should be invited, met strong opposition, 
which was explained by the fact that a senior missionary 
of the station had often held a private preliminary 
conference at which the important questions pending were 
discussed, and at the annual meeting those delegates who 
had not been invited to this " caucus " felt that they were 
voting on matters more or less " cut and dried." 
Retreats One otner point on the negative side may be 

Must be mentioned. The exclusiveness of the twenty 

Limited member retreat is only seeming, — unlike that 

in Size f ^ caucus# its inclusiveness works through 

its spirit if the members are truly representative of all 
classes which it is desired to bring into deeper fellowship 
and more effective cooperation. For "sharing" is the 
watch-word of the retreat. The fellowship starts in the 
group but spreads to the larger body, the sharing is a 
process which centers in the retreat but knows no 
frontiers. It is not a " holier than thou M type which 



THE VALUE OF THE RETREAT AS A METHOD 111 

forms the nucleus, but a group chosen because the 
individuals are representative and themselves feel the need 
of that which the retreat can bring. 

To the value of the retreat as a method science and 
experience, psychology and history, bring their witness, 
which we attempt to outline under four heads. 

In withdrawal the soul asserts its freedom. 
'i w^ VaIwe f U is nofc the slave of routine, of the telephone 
and laienc* and the chit-book. If the retreat can be held 
where nature's primeval spaces are not barred 
by city walls, and no sound of bell or clock jar the 
silence, the soul escapes, to some extent, the limitations 
of space and time, and enters into a divine experience^ in 
the mere escape. Before the group meets for the first 
time hearts are being brought into harmony with the 
deeper music of life. If such physical withdrawal is not 
possible, and nature cannot furnish the freedom and the 
atmosphere, the artificial, or perhaps one should say 
the self-determined, silence of the first meeting must 
furnish them, and it can do it if free souls, attune with 
the Divine, are there to share their gifts. 

With true withdrawal comes first the sense of freedom, 
then a new perspective. In the hectic routine through 
much of which you whirled yesterday like a soulless atom, 
certain values shine like stars, and much sinks from the 
new vision as worthless. 

As yet we know too little of the new psychology which 
stresses the functioning of the sub-conscious or unconscious 
to ultilize its witness to the value of the retreat as a 
method ; but it is certain that, in its quiet, powers which 
lie dormant in the storm and stress of the daily routine 
awake to active service. All that is new or creative in the 
realms of truth, goodness, and beauty is born in brooding 
silence. Edman in "Human Traits" says; — "Quiet 
seems to be for most men an essential condition of creative 
thought," and Wallas writes; — " No man is able to produce 
creative thoughts, either consciously or sub-consciously, if 
he is constantly interrupted by irregular noises." To 
those who are interested to study the psychology and 
technique of silent communion with God, Evelyn 
Underbill's "The Life of the Spirit in the Life of 



112 THE VALUE OF THE RETREAT AS A METHOD 

Today " is recommended. The so-called mystical vision, 
the realized conversation with Christ, demand, at least 
for their beginning, absolute quiet in the realms of both 
sense and spirit. No effort of the will can make the soul 
oblivious to the alien sights and sounds which break 
through the spiritual ether with such disturbing power 
that the soul is blind and deaf to all else. 

The Christianity of the nineteenth and twentieth 
centuries which has been introduced into China is largely 
practical, and rightly aims to prepare men and women 
for " the crowded ways of life ", but may we not question 
whether it has brought the full values which should arise 
from growing appreciation of the silence and solemnity of 
sacred places in time and space, in nature and in souls, 
which would fortify the soul in its ministries on those 
crowded ways ? The turning back to Buddhism, or to the 
delusive promises of modern Spiritualism, of many who 
have failed in our churches and schools to find satisfying 
realities in Christianity, suggests that the retreat, which 
integrates mystic communion and active service in a 
harmonious rhythm, might bring into Chinese Christianity 
an element which it much needs. In the proclamations of 
the present anti-Christian student movement it is stated 
that terms like " God JJ , " Jesus " and " Love " are empty 
names to Christians, things which they cannot touch or 
realize. Perhaps this is true of many, but in the retreat 
they may experience the "fee] 5 ' of God. "The highest 
cannot be spoken," says Jacks, neither can it be written; 
but it can be realized in a retreat, and lived through 
every hour of every day. Dr. Hodgkin has said that 
there fresh forces are set free to work in the spiritual 
realm, that God is waiting to press in with fresh power 
for the daily tasks. The waiting in this silence is not 
passive, but active, urgent, rich in the thrill and tang of 
the life that is life indeed. 

Out of the creative quiet of the retreat 
E i ,e f comes the new thought. The group atmos- 
thTcomfnon P ner e with its subtle interpenetrations 
Mind produces corporate thought. In "The New 

State' ' Miss Follett says, "The essential 
feature of a common thought is not that it is held in 



THE VALUE OF THE RETREAT AS A METHOD 113 

common, but that it has been produced in common . . . 
As long as we think of difference as that which divides 
us, we shall dislike it . . . Differences must be integrated, 
not annihilated or absorbed ". In the round table 
conversation of the retreat, which should never degenerate 
into a debate, differences are inevitably brought out as 
each makes his frank contribution; and each contribution 
should bring not strife but enrichment, while we wait for 
that high moment when differences will be " integrated 
into a unity '\ The Spirit which brooded over the chaos 
out of which the cosmos evolved blends these mental and 
spiritual elements into that most wondejrful creation of 
Divine and human minds, a corporate thought. This 
thought finds first expression through the lips that react 
most quickly to that which is in the hearts of all: then 
this common mind finds varied but harmonious expression 
as one after another again makes his contribution, speaking 
of that which has just been born in his soul. And this 
spiritual whole is greater than the sum of all its parts. 
"Creating is the Divine adventure"; and never is the 
sense of Divine fellowship keener than when with reverent 
awe one sees his little contribution integrated into what 
he now recognizes as the Divine will; and never is the 
sense of human fellowship deeper than when he sees fused 
into the common mind elements springing from the 
convictions of a brother who once seemed opposed to him. 
Under the second head the intellectual 
3. The effect of interpenetration and fellowship was 

Experience of g t resse( j . h ere j^s emotional aspect is viewed, 
Communion Du * the two cannot be separated. The 
With God realization of what it means to be a member 
of the body of Christ is a type of experience 
more difficult to attain and more fruitful for service than 
the simple sense of the Divine presence in the individual 
soul. Dr. Hodgkin has said that we get unity only as a 
spiritual experience in Christ, not through organization. 
John and Paul have much to teach us on this subject 
which we have not yet appropriated. Miss Follett says, 
"The emotions I feel when apart belong to the phantom 
ego, only from the group comes the genuine feeling with ", 
the vital sympathy. Because it is vital it is exhilarating 



114 THE VALUE OF THE RETREAT AS A METHOD 

and joyous. Less preaching about unity, fewer conferences 
on faith and order, and more group meetings bringing 
together diverse Christian elements through the vital 
force of the unifying process, will give that experience of 
corporate communion where, as one living body, we feel 
the vivifying power of God, and apprehend His purpose 
*rom the group this experience may enlarge until a vast 
congregation realizes the quiet joy of interpenetrating 
thought ^and feeling, and becomes in very truth a temple 
filled with the Spirit of God. This is real united worship 
and corporate prayer, and it leads to cooperative service. 

Unless the retreat leads to this, its 
intellectual team-work and emotional sense 
of one-ness have been a delusion. On the 
other hand, if they have been genuine, they 
culminate naturally in such a working 
together that Jesus' promise "greater things than these 
shall ye do" seems possible of realization. A study of 
the cooperative work following retreats will prove that the 

r "!f ed rr Plirp ° SeS of men re]ease the dynamic resources of 
God. The cart, organization, is no longer put before the 
horse; but power, working through unified life, organizes 
it to work out its Divine ends, just as the life principle 
in the seed shapes the blade and the ear, and the full 
corn is a natural, not a mechanical, result. The retreat 
helps to remove our work from the dead world of mechanics 
to that world of nature and grace where miracles are 
wrought, those greater things" which in the spiritual 
realm we shall learn to regard as the natural results of 
working out the plans of God with unified hearts. This 
is the revealing of the sons of God for which creation 
waits and groans. 



4, Unified 
Purpose and 
Fruitful 
Cooperation 



PART IV 
COOPERATIVE MOVEMENT IN CHINA 

CHAPTER XXIII 

THE NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL 
A Bird's-eye View 

Henry T, Hodgkin 

0f . Jn The National Christian Council of China 

came into existence in May 1922 as a result 
of the National Christian Conference. That conference 
may be said to have been the first occasion on which the 
Church in China had had an opportunity of discovering 
itself, of becoming self-conscious. For two and a half 
years the Council has sought to carry forward the in- 
spiration and spirit of that unique gathering and to 
accomplish the work specifically committed to it. To what 
extent has it succeeded ? What is the showing of two and 
a half years of work ? 

Perhaps the largest result is that which 
Work can l eas k easily be tabulated or weighed. 

Close co-operation between Chinese leaders 
and the missionary body, growing mutual confidence, the 
sense that we are engaged in a joint enterprise of national 
significance, the joy of standing shoulder to shoulder in 
facing hard tasks, — these are matters which are recorded 
in the deeper consciousness of each one who is drawn into 
fellowship with the Council. They are achievements of 
the first importance, vitally affecting the future develop- 
ment of the Kingdom of God in China — none the less 
because no committee has been at work in planning them 
and no record of them can even be attempted. 



116 THE NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL 

It is not unreasonable however, to seek an answer 
more specific and detailed to the questions asked. In 
giving it we remind ourselves of the fact that two and a 
half years is a very short time in which to estimate the 
value of such work, and that even from that period about a 
year must be deducted during which the Council was 
assembling its secretarial staff and thinking into the 
precise nature of its task. Even now it can scarcely be 
said that the Council's work is more than well begun. As 
a record of beginnings, then, rather than as one of achieve- 
ments let the following summary be read. 
J. The Unless the Council can touch the deepest 

Spiritual needs of the Church it must largely fail. 

Life and There is a general recognition that the 

Wo a rfc g of the evan g elistic s P ij ^ ^ the Church is, in many 
Church places, far below what it should be and that 

actual evangelistic work is left largely to the 
few salaried workers and even by them is often done in 
too formal a way. To answer this need it is not enough 
simply to put on a nation-wide evangelistic campaign. It 
is not so much more machinery or better methods that are 
needed. It is a richer spiritual experience, an overflow of 
life, and better thinking of what the task of evangelism 
to-day really means. The Council has sought therefore to 
touch this vital problem through the holding and the 
stimulating of retreats. What exactly is meant bv the 
term as now used is set forth in the chapter on Retreats, 
by Dr. Luella Miner.* The service of the retreat can be 
thus expressed. It brings together a group of leaders in 
intimate fellowship to pray and wait upon God. It thus 
leads to a deepened religious experience. Further it 
provides opportunity for facing the larger issues which 
often go by default in our busy lives. It helps us to 
discover God's way for individual and corporate advance. 
It is not an end in itself — a spiritual luxury. It is 
rather a practical yet spiritual (practical indeed because 
spiritual) way of focusing thought and prayer on the 
essential tasks of the Church, its needs and weakness, the 
sources of power, the call to advance. 

* Chapter XXII. 



THE NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL H7 

The National Council has persistently directed atten- 
tion to this method. Retreats have been held by the 
secretaries in many centres both large and small. The 
secretaries go to such centres not to " put over" any 
policy or ideas, but to meet with a local group and help 
them to draw more largely on the Divine resources. Such 
retreats have been mainly international, but some have 
been exclusively for Chinese, others for missionaries. 
Again and again they have brought fresh inspiration and 
hope; they have inaugurated some forward step; they have 
led to the reconciliation of differences; they have brought 
light on specific problems ; they have shown what the next 
step should be for the particular group or locality. The 
National Christian Council does not come to any place 
saying, " We can show you how to do such and such a 
thing better." It comes saying, "Let us together see if 
the Lord has some better thing to show us." 

Retreats are now being held in many cases without 
any visitor from the National Christian Council. This is, 
of course, greatly to be encouraged. At the same time the 
service of the N. C. C. in this field does not seem to have 
ended if we can judge by the many requests which come 
for this particular kind of help. 

The evangelistic service of the Committee opens out 
from such retreats . In one or two cases definite series of 
evangelistic meetings have followed. The Committee sees 
several directions in which fresh service may be rendered 
if it has strength to move forward into a wider field. 

The promotional activities of the Council 
Narcotic are anc * mus * De confined to those matters in 

Movement which there is substantial agreement among 
the various constituent bodies. Among such 
questions a few have to be selected as more urgent than 
the others, for it is clear that to occupy the whole of this 
field is far beyond the strength of the Council. Moreover 
it is necessary to discover those problems which especially 
need to be handled co-operatively and which no existing 
group is able adequately to deal with. In this general 
field the narcotic menace seemed to stand out preeminent. 
The curse of opium which had once been dealt with so 
courageously and effectively has come back to China with 



118 



THE NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL 



almost as great a menace as formerly. In addition to 
opium smoking, there is to-day the far more insidious 
danger due to the use of morphia, cocaine, and heroin, 
lhese drugs are very easily smuggled into the country and, 
in the littoral provinces especially, gained a wide prevalence 
during the years of opium prohibition. In fighting these 
evils the Church seemed to be the only body to initiate 
action. If the Church were to lead the Council was 
obviously the organ through which it much work. 

A preliminary survey of the field and the early work 
done by Dr. S. H. Chuan showed clearly the necessity of a 
lar more vigorous attack upon this evil, resting as it does 
upon the military necessities of warring political leaders and 
the avaricious aims of strongly entrenched financial groups. 
JNo skirmishing, no rush campaign, would suffice. The 
Council, therefore, sought to mobilize all the available 
moral forces in the country to combine in a steady and 
determined effort to eradicate the evil. The special article 
y^riapter LX1I) shows what has already been done. Again 
it is only a beginning. But even this beginning could 
never have been made if there had not been a body like 
the Council voicing the Christian sentiment, taking the 
mitative in drawing others together, lending its staff, 
contributing the main part of the finances and generally 
standing into the utmost of its ability, until the national 
movement had gathered momentum enough to go forward 
in its own strength. Looking forward to, it may be, five 
years of strenuous work the N. C. C. hopes still to take its 
lull part as one of the organizations but no longer to bear 
the major share of the burden.* 

3. The Church n hardly anything that the National Christian 
and Modem Conference did has attracted more attention 
Industry than its action in taking issue with the spirit 

of commercial exploitation by adopting three 
industrial standards as the first steps in a policy of 
Christianizing industry. The Committee of the N. C. C. 
which has followed up this action has been an exceedingly 
vigorous one. In Miss Agatha Harrison, Miss W. T. Zung, 

*For a fall treatment of this topic see Chapter LXII. 



THE NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL 119 

Mr. M. T. Tchou and others, the Y. W. C. A. and the 
Y. M. C. A. have made a great contribution to the cause. 
The situation, as it appeared to the committee, was simply 
this. Modern industrial methods were coming into China 
like a flood. In other lands they had led to terrible 
hardship, the suffering of women and children, labour 
conflicts on an ever-increasing scale, a general state of 
unrest. China is beginning to pass through similar 
experiences. The spirit of Christ prompts us to care for 
the little ones who are caused to stumble, to work for 
mutual understanding and peace, to build in His name 
the City of God on earth. If the Church will not respond 
to this call there is not likely to be any other body \ to 
stand for the Christian way of life amidst these perplexing 
problems. 

Thus the situation has been studied in many different 
aspects. Conditions in the factories have been investi- 
gated, the public conscience has been stirred. A notable 
example of this is seen in the child-labour work (see 
Chapter LXIII). Dame Adelaide Anderson, recently 
principal factory inspector in Great Britain, has been 
persuaded to devote months of hard work to a study of 
conditions here and has made invaluable contributions 
towards their betterment. Small local conferences have 
been held to talk out particular local problems. Study 
outlines have been issued and study groups formed. A 
committee which could look at the whole nation, study 
the problem in the large and coordinate the various 
activities was certainly needed if any really effective 
service was to be rendered in this field. This the Council 
has supplied. At the same time local activities are in the 
hands of the various constituent bodies. A very hopeful 
prospect opens up in the work of the Commission 
described in Chapter LXV. If an institute can 
be set up which undertakes continuous research and 
investigation some of the committee's activities can be 
lightened or relinquished. Yet the need of coordination 
and the development of constructive national policies 
. remains. The Council is indebted to Mr. J. D. Rockefeller, 
Junior, for putting into its hands a fund which enables it 



120 THE NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL 

to press forward in this field much more rapidly than 
would otherwise be possible. 

It has been pointed out that in each of these fields 
of activity far more opens out for future service than 
anything which has so far been accomplished. This is 
even more true of other fields in which the Council is 
also at work. All that can here be done is briefly to 
summarize these. 

The Indigenous The main aspect of this large question 
Church which has claimed attention so far has been 

the life of the rural churches and the problem 
of rural church development. Studies are being made 
in many parts of China and results compared.* Other 
problems are being taken up in small group conferences 
in various places. Nearly every worker in China is 
seeking fresh light on some aspect of this far-reaching 
question. Questions of self-support, church government, 
relation of school to church, training of leaders, etc., etc. 
require far more [consecutive, concentrated thinking. 
Light may only come slowly, but the difficulty has been 
that we do not know enough what others are doing nor 
have we got near enough to one another in really facing 
ultimate issues. The N. C. C. is desirous of serving the 
missions and churches in this direction. 

The Homs Life In ^ parfcs of Cnin a family customs are 
changing and Church leaders are perplexed 
as to how to meet the situation. The Home for Christ 
is the ideal which the Church and Home Committee has 
taken. What does this mean? How may it be effectively 
brought about? Literature has been prepared and the 
field is being canvassed. It is very clear that there is a 
demand for help from the Churches.f 

Religious Tne Education Commission which visited 

Education China in 1921-2 pointed out that in the field 

of religious education our missionary work 
was often weakest. Yet if we fail here what is the value 
of success elsewhere? To bring together those engaged 

*See especially Chapters XVII and XVIII. 
t See Chapter LXI. 



THE NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL 121 

in this field, to see wherein our failure lies, to coordinate 
what is being done, to see that gaps are filled — these are 
some of the functions which a body like the N. C. C. 
can fulfil. Its special committee seems only to be at the 
beginning of its task yet already something has been 
accomplished as may be seen by reference to Chapter LI. 

T . f In all parts of the world Christian leaders 

International -> • i • • a A i_ i- 

Relations are being driven to face anew the question 

" What is the will of Christ for our inter- 
national life?" Groups in the Christian colleges under 
the guidance of the N. C. C. are studying these questions 
and a small conference held last summer carried this 
study forward in a helpful and suggestive way. The 
Committee functions as a national group of the World 
Alliance for Promoting International Friendship through 
the Churches. Under the leadership of Professor T. C. 
Chao it is expected that much more will be done in the 
coming years.* 

Oth r Li f ^is record of a start would not be 
Service complete without a few words about some 

other lines of service. The Council has 
issued the monthly Chinese Bulletin under the title 
"China for Christ" and a bi-monthly English one; it has 
edited the China Church Year Book and the China Mission 
Year Book; it has produced the Missionary Directory; 
it is planning again to take up the collection and issue 
of statistics. Its secretaries have devoted a large part of 
their time to travel believing that a national organization 
can only serve as it keeps in close personal touch with its 
constituency. Through Mr. Lobenstine it serves the 
cause of Christian Higher Education to which he is giving 
a good part of his time. Through Dr. C. Y. Cheng it 
serves the Chinese Home Missionary Society of which he 
is President. 

As was said above, the Council's larger usefulness 
cannot easily be put into words. The Church today faces 
an assault which drives us to our knees and which bids 
us look earnestly and critically into all our work. There 



*See Chapter XXXII. 



122 THE NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL 

is need for the kind of patient investigation on which the 
N. C. C. is specializing. There is need that the Christian 
forces stand together, that we understand one another and 
help one another as never before. No racial or sectarian 
boundaries must keep apart those who are one in Christ. 
If the Council can translate this conviction into action 
there need be no question as to the place it will have in 
the life of the Chinese Church of tomorrow. 



CHAPTER XXIV 

THE CHURCH OF CHRIST IN CHINA 

A Movement for Organic Union between the 

Presbyterian and Congregational Churches in China 

C. G. Sparham 

tj r u ,. Although special actions affecting this 

Early History ■ , ~ M .. . TT ° . 

movement have from time to time been 

reported in the China Mission Year Book, it may be well 
briefly to outline the history of the movement, and for this 
purpose two dates should be borne in mind as of outstand- 
ing importance, namely: 1918 and 1922. 

In April 1918 the Federal Council of the Presbyterian 
Church in China held its fifth and last meeting. This 
Council had for eleven years worked for the organisation 
of one Presbyterian Church in China. During the year 
1917 it had become clear that the situation was approach- 
ing a successful issue, and that the formation of a general 
assembly should not be long delayed. 

P ViT f About this same time it was also noticed 
Wider Union tna ^ ^ n many parts of China the organisation 
of the churches associated with the American 
Board and the London Missionary Society was developing 
on lines very similar to those of the Presbyterian churches, 
and informal consultations with a view to exploring the 
possibilities of union took place between members of the 
missions and churches concerned. 

The result of these consultations was encouraging, and 
as the time of the fifth meeting of the Federal Council drew 
near, delegates of the London Missionary Society and of 
the American Board gladly accepted the cordial invitation 
of the Presbyterians to be present with them at the Council, 
which was fixed for April 13th to 18th, at Nanking. 



124 THE CHURCH OF CHRIST IN CHINA 

On Saturday, April 13th, all being gathered 
Agreement together, there was an informal comparing of 
Adopted notes. On Sunday there was a special united 

service at which a Chinese Presbyterian pastor 
preached, and a missionary of the London Missionary 
Society administered the Lord's Supper. On Monday and 
Tuesday, April 15th and 16th, the Council went into 
committee of the whole, Presbyterians and Congregational- 
ists at this stage sitting and voting side by side, and the 
following Articles of Agreement were unanimously 
adopted : 

Articles of Agreement between Presbyterian Council, 
London Mission and American Board Churches: 

We, the representatives of the above bodies, having 
conferred together during the meeting of the Presbyterian 
Council in Nanking, it seems to us that the time has come 
to take action looking toward church union along the 
following lines, which we submit as recommendations to 
our respective constituencies. 

' 1. The Principle. The formation of a union 
between the churches of the Presbyterian Council, London 
Mission and American Board Mission, and the extending 
of a cordial welcome to other like-minded churches that 
may be desirous of entering the union. 

" 2. The Name. The name shall be the Federal 
Council of Christian Churches in China (# ^ # $£ m #). 

" 3. The Object. The object of the Federation shall 
be such comparison of views and adjustment of practices 
as shall prepare the way for ultimate organic union. 

11 4. Committee. A Committee consisting of 12 
members (with 12 alternates) six to be representatives of 
the Presbyterian Churches, three of the L. M. S. Churches 
and three of the American Board Churches shall be 
appointed by their respective Churches. This Committee 
shall confer and make recommendations to their constituent 
bodies as to (a) the formation of a Federal Council; (b) 
Articles of Belief, Constitution and Rules of the proposed 
union. The Presbyterian body is asked to appoint a 
convener from among its representatives. 

"5. Meeting of Council. After the Committee has 
drawn up a plan of union, and after such plan has secured 



THE CHUKCH OF CHRIST IN CHINA 125 

the approval of the constituent bodies, the Committee shall 

call a meeting upon such basis of representation as shall 

have been agreed upon." 

On Wednesday, April 17th, 1918 the Federal Council 

having completed its deliberations, resolved itself into the 

Provisional General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church 

in China. 

fi, tvt ♦ <v* An early acfc of this Assembly was to vote 

1 he Next btep ^ ^ action q| ^ Federal Council with 

reference to union with Congregational bodies be regarded 
as an action of the Assembly. 

The joint committee which had been appointed got to 
work, and in January 1919 met at Nanking and adopted a 
credal statement and plan of union. These were submitted 
to the churches and missions concerned, and were published 
in the China Mission Year Book for 1919 (Appendix C). 
T In 1922 a conference in furtherance of the 

Assembly 6 ™ union was called, to meet at Shanghai from 
April 27th to 29th, during which days the 
Presbyterian General Assembly was also in session. There 
were then present official representatives of the following 
bodies: 

a. The Presbyterian Church in China. 

b. The Synod of the Church of Christ in Kwangtung. 

c. The Synod of the Church of Christ in South Fukien. 

d. The Churches and Church Councils associated with 

the London Missionary Society. 

e. The Churches and Church Councils associated with 

the American Board of Commissioners for 
Foreign Missions. 
This conference worked over the plan of union and 
doctrinal statement which had been presented by the 
Committee of Union. 

~ It was resolved to adopt the name (# lp ^ 

Name # * *) The Church of Christ in China. 

Some of the missionary delegates demurred at 
the idea of any one Church adopting a title of such wide 
meaning. The Chinese delegates asked to be allowed to 
decide this point themselves; and while they disavowed 
any claim to an exclusive use of the name, they refused to 
adopt any other. The doctrinal basis and plan of union 



126 THK CHURCH OF CHRIST IN CHINA 

as adopted by the Committee on Union were reconsidered, 
amended and adopted, with the exception of the clauses 
bearing on the question of the powers of the General 
Assembly. These were referred to the Executive Commit- 
tee of the Provisional General Assembly for examination 
and report. The Constitution as adopted was reported 
to the churches and missions concerned, and was 
widely circulated among interested friends. It was also 
printed in the China Mission Year Book for 1923, 
(Appendix II.). 

Wh t h s been ^ or over ^ w0 y ears ^is question of union 
Accomplishsd nas now Deen before the various presbyteries, 
and the church councils of the Congrega- 
tionalists; while we have not at present the final voting, 
there is reason to believe that the proposals for union are for 
the most part regarded favourably. 

In three important centres, Kwangtung, South Fukien 
and Hupeh-Hunan, union has been accomplished, and 
Synods of the united church have been formed. In each 
case a very vigorous church life functions. 

The Synod of Kwangtung (with which for 
xr \ y *„ ~° fchis purpose the churches in Hongkong are 
included) consists of seven District Associa- 
tions (or Presbyteries), and of 19,733 communicants. 
This Synod is taking up with great vigour the various 
questions of church life and wide and thorough evangelisa- 
tion. It has greatly gained by having the full time service 
of one Chinese, and one missionary secretary, the Rev. 
Chou Kwan Hoi and Dr. A. J. Fisher. The churches formerly 
associated with the following missions are now incorporated 
in this Synod of the united Church: 

American Presbyterian (North) 
Canadian Presbyterian Mission 
New Zealand Presbyterian Mission 
London Mission 
American Board Mission 
United Brethren Mission 
Swedish American Mission 

Note. — The Presbyterians associated with the English Presby- 
terian Mission in Swatow and those associated with the Northern 



THE CHURCH OF CHRIST IN CHINA 127 

Presbyterian Mission in Hainan, while entirely sympathetic to the 
idea of union, and having voted in favour of it, are, owing to 
differences of dialect or distances and difficulty of travel, not for 
the present incorporated in the Synod of Kwangtung. 

The Synod of South Fukien consists of six 
TheSynodol District Associations (or Presbyteries), and 
has 9,600 communicant members. It in- 
cludes all the churches in South Fukien formerly 
associated with: 

The English Presbyterian Mission 
The Reformed Church in America Mission 
The London Mission. 
In addition, two District Associations have been organised 
in North Fukien from churches associated with the 
American Board. This group of churches is not yet 
large enough to form a Synod by itself, and owing to 
difference of dialect between North and South Fukien, 
representatives of the churches cannot fully co-operate in 
the work of the South Fukien Synod. They have, 
however, organised on similar lines, and touch is main- 
tained by exchanging visits of fraternal delegates. 

The Liang Hu Synod consists of seven 
S nod District Associations (or Presbyteries), of 

which six are in Hupeh and one in Northern 
Hunan. There are about 5000 communicants. The 
churches formerly associated with the following missions 
are incorporated in this Synod : 

In Hupeh, 

The London Mission 

The Church of Scotland Mission 

In Hunan, 

The American Presbyterian Mission (North) 

The Reformed Church in the United States Mission. 

The results of the union, wherever they 
Unfaa* nave ^ een ODServe( 3> are specially helpful to a 

fuller, stronger church life. 
When one church organisation is associated with one 
mission, however the constitution may be worded, it is 
almost inevitable that at times the mission dominates 
the church. 



128 THE CHURCH OF CHRIST IN CHINA 

When, however, the churches associated with two or 
more missions are organised as one Chinese church, the 
whole movement becomes church-centric, lhe church 
gains a healthy liberty, and the leaders are soon clear as 
to the thing they want, and as to how they may achieve 
it The cooperating missions then take their place behind 
the Church, and, inasmuch as the common aim is the 
strengthening of the Church, union proposals for educa- 
tional and other work rapidly develop between them. 
Under such conditions the church shows a new initiative, 
and a new courage. It is prepared to accept new responsi- 
bilities and, being thrown back upon God, develops 
spiritual power and true wisdom. 

The result is apparent in wider and more vigorous 
evangelistic work, in philanthropic work and social 
service, and in all efforts for church upbuilding, as, lor 
example, in the securing of a steady supply of suitable 
men for the ministry, and giving more generously to the 
support of pastors and evangelists, and also in the erection 
of new church buildings. 

It must be admitted on the other hand that 
Difficulties to be ^ ere are difficulties. Each group of churches 
Faced is usually found to have formed its own 

traditions and settled its own customs; although the 
differences may not be great an amount # of patience 
is needed to secure the desirable co-ordination. One ot 
the chief problems is in the matter of preachers' salaries. 
Pastors, it may be assumed, receive their salaries from the 
congregations they serve, but the salaries of evangelists 
are often paid from funds of which a proportion comes 
from the foreign mission, and each mission in consultation 
with its church has had its own scale. If this system is 
continued after union has been achieved, lines of demarca- 
tion and spheres of influence will remain within the one 
church. At all costs this must be avoided. The Chinese 
Churches, and if necessary the Mission Boards, must 
increase their gifts, so that all salaries may be paid on a 
similar scale, and after this the Mission should cease to 
make payment to the individual men or congregations, 
and should make its contribution as a grant in aid to the 
synod. This process looks simple on paper, but may in fact 



THE CHURCH OF CHRIST IN CHINA 129 

prove very difficult. Once, however, the point aimed at 
has been achieved, the synod can take over the administra- 
tion of the salaries fund, and rapid progress may be 
anticipated from a church which has now become truly 
autonomous. 

Dateot .T^ e Executive Committee of the Pro- 

Assembly visional General Assembly is to meet in 

Shanghai in May 1925. 
r- *'* *- * Copies of the Constitution of the Church of 

Constitution to pi „• , ^ u . i . , . , p 

Be Obtained Christ in China may be obtained from 

the writer at 23, Yuen Ming Yuen Road, 
Shanghai. 






CHAPTER XXV 

SOUTH FUKIEN UNITED PREACHERS' CONFERENCE 
T. Cocker Brown 

This Conference, which has met annually for the 
last seven years, is the child of the United Missionary- 
Conference of South Fukien, an annual gathering at which 
practical problems are discussed and action taken in 
matters of common interest. 

The Missionary Conference had concerned itself with 
the question of Bible Study for preachers and had planned 
a syllabus for personal study leading up to regional 
conferences for united study. Such gatherings had been 
a regular feature of the policies of all the missions up to 
that date and in earlier days examinations had been the 
normal climax. 

For a long time, however, there had been difficulty 
in maintaining interest and attendance, while the in- 
spirational element, the essential point in the scheme, 
always proved most difficult of accomplishment. 

It was therefore felt that gatherings on a larger scale, 
able to secure the services of well known speakers from 
other districts, and to bring together a larger proportion 
of the leaders in church life, and afford a wider scope 
for social intercourse, would give greater hope of achieving 
both the inspirational and educational aims in view. 

A united committee, under the leadership of Mr. 
T. M. Elliott of the Y. M. C. A. took the matter in hand, 
a generous grant was secured from the Milton Stewart- 
Fund and the Conference came into being. 
Aims of the ^ ne man cn i e ny before the mind's eye of 

Conference those who organized the Conference was the 
average country preacher.* Such a man is 
often completely cut off from his intellectual peers and 



* Note : a "preacher" means an unordained evangelist. 



SOUTH FUKIEN UNITED PREACHERS' CONFERENCE 131 

the stimulating influences of contact with such, while he 
is set in the environment of a "heathen" society and 
a primitive church ; the atmospheric pressure of his 
surroundings tends to crush out any spirtual life he may 
once have cherished and he is exposed to all the poisonous 
infections of his social world. 

To fortify such a man against the adverse conditions 
of his work was the chief aim of the Conference and the 
means used were mainly devotional addresses and Bible 
study, the latter being designed to stimulate his appetite 
for its further pursuit and to give him some idea of 
effective and systematic methods both for his own study 
and in leading others. 

By a common exploration of the main problems of the 
Church, social, ethical, and doctrinal it was planned to 
give the preachers a sense of corporate interest in such 
questions, so that they might face them, not as 
individuals, unequal to the demand for a solution, but 
as members of a large group whose duty it was to find 
the way out with all the strength and wisdom that a 
group, under the guidance of the Spirit, can command. 

The main problem of the Church, the unevangelized 
mass of the population, was the one chiefly envisaged, 
and to this problem it was planned to lead the united 
body of church leaders, to seek a solution in the 
atmosphere of a great inspiration and the confidence of 
hope born therefrom. 

There was a hope too that preachers might learn the 
blessed art of fellowship in holy things, the thing that 
sends men on the quest for truth with a few chosen 
friends and a heart fearless of what his quest may reveal, 
stimulated by and fearless of other men's opinions. 
Achievements That the Conference has scored any 
phenomenal success in achieving its aims 
would doubtless be an extravagant claim, but that it has 
met an urgent and felt need is shown by the level of 
attendance maintained through seven years of constant 
political upheaval. No year has passed without at least 
one district being cut off from all possibility of attendance 
by war or the prevalence of banditry, and in no year 
have preachers been able to leave their churches with any 



132 SOUTH FUKIEN UNITED PREACHERS' CONFERENCE 

sense of security that trouble would not arise in their 
absence; yet the attendance at the Conference has been 
steadily maintained at just a hundred. At last year's 
gathering a photograph was taken of ten men who had 
attended every one of the seven conferences. Under every 
head of its aims as set forth above, the Conference has 
scored notable successes from time to time, but two 
outstanding points call for notice. 

In the very first year, as we faced the problem of the 
untouched masses outside the Church, there^ came a 
quickening of conscience and a clearing of vision and 
the Church embarked upon a five years' campaign of 
preaching to those outside, the aim being to preach the 
gospel in every village within a ten li radius of each 
Church. 

The ceaseless troubles of the period have hindered 
the Church in the attainment of its aim, and there has 
been some failure in organisation and slackness in 
performance, but much has been done. Not a few 
churches have actually accomplished their objective, new 
people have been brought within the circle of the Church, 
and more important than ali, the Church has accepted in 
this effort her responsibility for the evangelization of the 
southern half of the province. 

Another important achievement of the Conference, 
has been the cementing of the newly consummated union 
of the two churches in this area. The union was in the 
last stages of discussion when the first conference was held 
and was completed soon after, but nothing could have 
been more powerful in giving effect and reality to the 
new machinery created than the Conference. By bringing 
together the leaders on both side in an atmosphere of 
spiritual unity and to a gathering where the basis of all 
the thought wa3 cooperation in a common task, the 
Conference gave life to the movement. It is not too much 
to say that the union could scarcely have become effective 
without such a series of conferences. 

The successes of the Conference have in a large 
measure been due to the participation and influence of 
the group of able and devoted Chinese pastors who have 



SOUTH FUKIEX UNHED PREACHERS ' CONFERENCE 133 

helped to plan the Conference and been the most regular 
attendants. 

Organisation of Tne Conference na s met now for seven 
the Conference years and for the first six was fortunate in 
receiving generous grants from the Milton 
Stewart Fund. These it is no longer possible to get, and 
last year the cost was met by subscriptions from some of 
the churches and individual missionaries supplementing 
a generous gift from an anonymous donor. The travel 
and part of the board of those attending the Conference 
has been thus met. 

The place has been a question of great difficulty. 
For the first two years the School of the R. C. A. Mission 
at Tongan was put at the disposal of the Conference; 
then to escape certain drawbacks two large non-Christian 
schools were tried where accommodation was more 
plentiful but the Christian atmosphere missing. Finally 
we have come back to Tongan and find there the Christian 
setting for our meetings and the spiritual atmosphere 
which more than compensates for the few drawbacks that 
attach to the place. 

The list of speakers indicates the purpose of the 
Conference to avoid any narrow line of thought or 
interest; the aim has been to get men who are doing 
effective spiritual work and are able to speak of it in such 
a way as to stimulate others to the great task. 

The Rev. Duncan Macleod, of Formosa, has visited 
the Conference three times and came each time with a 
message full of inspiration and spiritual force. Rev. 
Ding Li Mei, Dr. Warnshuis, Rev. R. A. Jaffray, Mr. E. H. 
Munson, Mr. Peter Ch'uan, Rev. J. Goforth, Rev. C. S. 
Wang, Rev. Ch'en Wei P'ing, Dr. Hodgkin and others 
have brought messages as different as their personal 
characteristics and each with its distinctive value and 
impress. 

The Bible study has been carried out by local men; 
there has always been a series of addresses to the whole 
body of the Conference with group study in addition. 
This is the point at which the Conference has come 
nearest to failure, not that very useful work has not been 
done, but the hope of training preachers in the method 



134 SOUTH FUKIEN UNITED PREACHERS' CONFERENCE 

great hopes of achieving a big mental 1 

■- , sssff-7s^~ 1 jr 1I '- I £rt: 



CHAPTER XXVI 

THH FIRST CHINESE CHRISTIAN CONFERENCE 
IN HUNAN 

J, A. CX Gotteberg 

The First r ^ ie ^ rsfc Chinese Christian Conference in 

Chinese Hunan was held in the auditorium of the 

Christian " Milton Stewart Hall " of the Hunan Bible 

Conference m i nst ituto, Changsha, June 28 — July 2, 1924. 
In 1903, 1907 and 19L3 there were pro- 
vincial missionary conferences, the whole of the proceed- 
ings being in English. In this Conference Chinese was 
not only the official language; it was the only language. 
There was no need for interpretation, as all missionary 
members were conversant with Chinese. 

The Committee Tne Committee on Arrangements, with 
on Arrange. Rev. C. S. Liang, of the Norwegian Missionary 
mentsandthe Society, as its able chairman, had done 
Instit a ut' BfbIS excel]ei " l . t worl 5 ^ preparing everything in 
connection with the Conference, and the 
Hunan Bible Institute cordially invited all the Chinese 
members of the Conference to be its guests during the 
Conference. Everything was done by the Bible Institute 
to make them comfortable, and they had a most delightful 
time. Both the work of the Committee on Arrangements 
and the generous way in which the Hunan Bible Institute 
entertained its guests could not but make this Conference 
a success. 

a Tin 4C -i l.1 Al1 tne meetings of the Conference were 
Halllor a held in the " Milton S ^™rt Hall » of the 

Conference Hunan Bible Institute. This beautiful build- 
ing of ferro-concrete, with sloping floor and 
comfortable chairs for an audience of 500 proved to be a 
most suitable hall for a conference of this kind. The 
lighting is secured by throwing strong lights on the white 



136 FIRST CHINESE CHRISTIAN CONFERENCE IN HUNAN 

ceiling, so that although there is good light everywhere, 
there are no shadows and no lights to bother the eyes. 
The acoustic properties are very good, and even those who 
spoke in an ordinary tone of voice could be heard. 

It was decided by the Committee on 
Members of the Arrangements that the members of the Con- 
Conference ference s h uld consist of 210 Chinese and 60 
missionaries. Of these 266 attended the Conference; most 
of them were Chinese. The Conference was also attended 
by many visitors, most of whom were from the various 
Churches in and around Changsha, but there were also 
quite a few from other parts of the province. 

Mr. M. K. Hsiao, of the Hunan Bible 
An Ideal Institute, was elected Chairman of the Con- 

Chairman ferencts an( ] Rev. j. a. O. Gotteberg, of the 

Norwegian Missionary Society, and Rev. M. S. Cheng, of 
the American Presbyterian Mission, were elected vice- 
Chairmen. Mr. Hsiao was an ideal Chairman and presided 
with dignity and efficiency. 

Rev. G. G. Warren, of the Wesleyan 
Early Work of Methodist Mission, gave on the opening day 
Hunan^" 88 m a review of the early work of missionaries in 
Hunan, which was listened to with great 
interest, especially by the Chinese, to whom most of the 
story wns quite fresh and new. Some of the heroes of the 
story were present in the Conference, including, indeed, 
the Chairman, whose hairbreadth escapes from Chaling- 
chow in both 1809 and 1900 (the Boxer year) were very 
remarkable. 

The morning sessions of the Conference 
Th? Devotional were a jj gj von over t the devotional part of 

Part oi in; , , ri » 

Conference the Conference. 

The Morning worship was most profitably 
conducted by Rev. H. C. Hwang, of the American 
Episcopal Mission in Hupeh. Mr. Hwang was formerly 
for many years in charge of the work of the American 
Episcopal Mission in Changsha. 

Bishop Roots of the American Episcopal Mission, and 
honorary secretary of the National Christian Council of 
China, was another of the special speakers. His addresses 



FIRST CHINESE CHRISTIAN CONFERENCE IN HUNAN 137 

dwelt very largely on the importance of prayer, and he 

always left time at the close of his address for a prolonged 

period of silent prayer. On one occasion he pointed to the 

great world problem of drug using, especially as related to 

the opium curse in China, 

Rev. Marcus Cheng, of the Swedish Missionary 

Society, Kingchow, Hupeh, gave four notable addresses on 

Colossians. The first two addresses were doctrinal and 

the basis for the last two which were intensely practical. 

The first was, " Christ, the Head of the Church, " which 

was followed by the complementary thought, ... The 

Church, the Body of Christ.! 1 Mr Cheng's two practical 

addresses were dependent on these thoughts. The third 

lecture was on " The Christian Home." On this occasion 

the speaker said a great many things that would have been 

utterly out of place for a foreigner to say to a Chinese 

audience, but which need to be said, for the home is still 

the weak point with the Chinese Church. In hi3 fourth 

address on " Financial Repentance," Mr. Cheng pointed 

out in very realistic manner the blessing that there was in 

store for the man who would give all that he had te> the 

Lord, but that the blessing must not be made the object of 

our giving. These four addresses made a great impression 

on the visitors and the members of the Conference and 

were greatly appreciated by all. 

The afternoon sessions were taken up with 

Reports and reports and discussions on city evangelism, 

Discussions v . ,. , ... '? v 

country evangelism, hospital evangelism, 

educational work, and on methods for the suppression of 
popular evils. It was refreshing to see with what 
enthusiasm the delegates entered into the various dis- 
cussions. Sometimes the opinions expressed were not of 
the highest value, but always the earnestness of the 
speakers was worth while. 

In the evenings speakers and members of 
Enthusiastic fcne Confererice 1,acl meetings in some of the 
Voteof Thanks Churches in the City and at the meeting 
place of the Conference. The closing meeting 
the last evening was very fine, and the Superintendent of 
the Hunan Bible Institute, Dr. Frank Keller, and Mrs. 
Keller received a most cordial and enthusiastic vote of 



138 FIRST CHINESE CHRISTIAN CONFERENCE IN HUNAN 

thanks for the great service they had rendered to the 
Conference. 

The Conference unanimously voted for the 
The Hunan formation of the Hunan Christian Council. 

Council 11 This is made ll P of forfcy men and wom . en » 

representative both as to Church, geographical 

district, and type of work. The Constitution of this 

Council is similar to the Constitution of the Christian 

Council of China. Mr. M. K. Hsiao, of the Hunan Bible 

institute, was elected Chairman of the Council, and Rev. 

J. A. (). Gotteberg, of the Norwegian Missionary Society, 

and Rev. M. S. Cheng, of the American Presbyterian 

Mission, were elected vice-Chairmen. 

In closing I would like to state that it was 

Opinions & great pr i v ii e g e to be present at the first 

Co™ce Chinese Christian Conference in Hunan. 

Bishop Logan H. Roots has given Rev. Walter 

T. Steven of the Hunan Bible Institute permission to 

publish his opinion that " the Conference, both as to 

accommodation of delegates, suitableness of meeting place, 

despatch of business, and spiritual helpfulness was one of 

the best that he had known." And Dr. Frank Keller 

writes in an article about the Conference: ' The way 

the Chinese leaders came forward, their real grasp of the 

various problems as brought out in the discussions, the 

high spiritual tone and the spirit of unity that characterized 

all the sessions filled our hearts with joy and hope." 



CHAPTER XXVII 

THE INTER-MISSION PROVINCIAL 
CONFERENCE AT TITAO 

Robert B. Efcvall 

Although a conference composed of the 
Missions and m i ss i ona ries of two missions, the China Inland 
seated *" and the Christian and Missionary Alliance 
together with one independent missionary^ in 
any other province would hardly be styled a representative 
conference of Protestant missionaries, yet in Kansu when 
such a conference met in the C. and M. A. headquarters sta- 
tion, Titao, from July 26th to August 3rd it represented a 
large majority of the work done in this province. True the 
S. A. M. have a number of stations near the Shensi border, 
and there are a number of independent missionaries, some 
more or less aggressively Pentecostal, who were not rep- 
resented, nevertheless the first statement holds. There were 
56 foreign and 37 native delegates and although this does 
not seem to be a very large number it was by far the largest 
representative gathering ever held in this province. The 
territory and work represented were varied. Some had 
spent their time itinerating among uncouth Tibetans, some 
wrestling with the problems of Middle School management, 
and some had been running hospitals and trying to instill 
medical knowledge into the heads of indifferent students. 
All kinds of pastoral work were represented, from that 
where numerous and practically independent outstations 
indicate long established work, to the newest station where 
the Christians can be counted on the ringers of one hand. 
With the exception of a series of devotional 
Sessions both mee ti n gs arranged for the new missionaries of 

DTvo\To S nal both missions, all the sessions of the con- 
ference were held in Chinese to do away with 

the obvious embarrassments of a bi-lingual gathering. The 



140 INTER-MISSION PROVINCIAL CONFERENCE AT TITAO 

day was begun with a devotional service followed by a 
session for the discussion of some allotted subject, until 
noon. In the mid-afternoon there was another business 
session and the day closed with a short period devoted, the 
first few days, to the hearing of reports and when these 
were all turned in, used as a devotional period. The 
schedule was not crowded thus allowing ample time for the 
business and various other committees to meet and expedite 
a considerable amount of business. 

A digest of the individual station reports 
Ye™ a Work s . nows substantial progress along the usual 
and Reports of lines of missionary activity and some note- 
Standing Com- worthy advances in special ways, such as the 
mittees opening of a number of new stations in both 

Chinese and Tibetan work, the establishing of a 
hospital m the Moslem center of Hochow, the opening of a 
Middle School in Lanchow, and a very marked increase in 
out-stations. Unfortunately there was no delegate from 
the C. T. M. work under Dr. Kao in the far northwest 
present, but the conference received a written report of his 
work that indicated very gratifying results in the opening 
and evangelizing of a number of new places. Reports from 
the standing committees on the use of the phonetic script 
in teaching women to read, and the women's home course 
of Bible study were very encouraging. It is to be regretted 
that some of the other reports, namely, those on Moslem 
work, self-support, and self-propagation, were not so 
encouraging. 

The discussion of such subjects as self- 
^ub?*df ff ° m P r °P a g ation > the training of native workers, 
Discussed and the evangelization of unreached areas, the 
Resolutions relationship of our schools to the government 
Adopted educational system, and the Bible in church 

life, naturally resulted in the adoption of a 
great many resolutions that we can only summarize in the 
briefest manner. In the training of native workers great 
stress was laid on the value of Bible Schools in preparing 
both evangelists and Bible women. The matter of self- 
support and self-propagation was investigated most 
thoroughly and a very definite line of advance mapped out, 
including the use of the budget system in church finance, 



INTER-MISSION PROVINCIAL CONFERENCE AT TITAO 141 

proportionate self-government, and the establishing of a 
provincial secretary to correspond with, and advise native 
officers appointed by each church to foster this important 
aspect of Christian life. Discussion of the Bible in church 
life resulted in the making out of a home study course for 
men similar to the one already in use for the women. . In 
the matter of mission schools the conference voted against 
registration and thus coming under government supervision. 
In regard to the evangelization of the unreached areas an 
important decision was reached. The conference strongly 
endorsed the plan that each mission fit and prepare at 
least one evangelistic band composed of from eight to 
twelve members to go into unopened districts and stay in 
each place until there is a nucleus of a self-supporting 
native church and then move on to the next place. 

The devotional services, both the English, 

Is h ^Ss of*th" aI that were attendecl b y nmn y who could 

Conference * hardly be called new missionaries, and those 

conducted in Chinese, were the means of 

much blessing to all gathered. Along with the closer 

understanding of the needs and problems of each other's 

work and the field as a whole came a burden of prayer that 

God would mightily use His servants to the salvation of 

not scores and hundreds, but of thousands, and even at 

this early date results are beginning to appear. 

<; ' itt f We were fortunate in the fact that Mr. 

special features Gibb ^ ^ CJM ^ aWe to be pregent and 

through him the conference had that touch of fresh 
inspiration that comes with a message from the outside. 
His devotional services both in Chinese and English were 
fruitful of much blessing. As the gentry and officials of 
the city were very much interested, a special service was 
arranged when they were all invited to be present; the 
raison d'etre of the conference was stated and an apprecia- 
tion of their interest voiced. Perhaps none of the sessions 
were as thoroughly enjoyed as two of the evening song 
services held in English. Not only was a surprising 
amount of vocal talent unearthed in the various solos and 
quartettes, but the united singing was to many a loved 
echo of the time when we praised God in our own tongue 
to the accompaniment of pipe organ or piano. 



142 INTER-MISSION PROVINCIAL CONFERENCE AT TITAO 

Considerable pains were taken that the 
Arransements continuation committee should not only have 
the responsibility of arranging for the next 
conference to be held in 1928, D.V., but through the work 
of corresponding secretaries to see that some of the many 
fine resolutions of the conference be put into actual practice, 
that working together we may labor more efficiently for 
God to the end that souls may be saved. A publication 
committee was appointed, and a bulletin will be out ere 
long r which can be had by applying either to C. I. M. 
headquarters, Lanchow, or C. & M. A. headquarters, Titao. 



CHAPTER XXVIII 

THE FIRST GENERAL CONFERENCE OF THE 

CHRISTIAN CHURCHES OF SZECHWAN 

K. J, Beaton 

In the city of Chengtu, there was held 
Confer^ January 18-26th, 1925, the first General 
Conference of the Christian churches of 
Szechwan. The unusually peaceful conditions prevailing 
throughout the province at the present time and the fact 
that four of the annual meetings of the various Missions 
working m this territory were held in Chengtu this year, 
made it possible to secure unusually strong delegations. 
In consequence the four hundred and forty-four delegates 
(287 Chinese and 157 missionaries), constituted a group of 
leaders such as had never been gathered together in West 
China before. Considering the poor transportation facilities 
in Szechwan, requiring from three to sixteen days to make 
the journey to Chengtu, it was a great joy to know that 
from at least three of the Missions, practically every 
ordained Chinese minister, every graduate Chinese doctor 
and the Chinese principals of primary and middle schools 
throughout the province were present. 

The Conference opened with a Reception 
Reception given by the Chengtu Christian Council at 

which Yang Sen, the Governor of Szechwan, 
with his military band, the President of the West China 
Union University and others, fittingly welcomed the 
delegate*. A choir of fifty Chinese voices and a foreign 
choir of forty under the direction of Dr. M. F. Yates sang, 
" The Whole Wide World for Jesus ", and the Hallelujah 
Chorus ", respectively. From this first meeting every one 
was tremendously impressed by the potentiality of the 
gathering. 



144 WEST CHINA CHRISTIAN CONFERENCE 

D'-t' ' h»d ^ ne P resence m ^ ne Conference of the 

Vfsitors S ^ ev - K. T. Chung of the National Christian 

Council, Dr. W. W. Peter of the Council on 

Health Education, Rev. J. M. Yard, Secretary for China of 

the World Service Movement of the M. E. M., and Bishop 

G. R. Grose of the M. E. M., helped in creating a splendid 

spiritual atmosphere and gave direction and effectiveness 

to the discussions and subsequent resolutions. Special 

mention should be made of the addresses and interviews of 

Mr. Chung, who was undoubtedly the outstanding figure of 

the whole Conference. His daily devotional addresses, 

which lifted the practical problems that the delegates 

discussed from day to day into the presence of the Head of 

the Church, made us ail realize they are His problems too 

and that their solution lies in our unity in Him. 

A .. . , Some of the more important actions of the 

Actions taken «, . , • j * n 

Conference may be summarized as follows: — 

Recommended to the West China Union University the 
furtherance of research in the economic and social problems 
of the country and the establishing of branch oftices in 
other places. That a course in Rural Church and Country 
Life Problems be given to students of the Union University 
in the Department of Religion, beginning in the Fall of 
1925, also a summer course of one month each year open to 
all Christian workers beginning in the summer of 1925. 

Recommended that the Church as a whole and 
Christians as individuals should unite with the various 
sections of society in each district in the furtherance of 
mass education and in bringing into such efforts the spirit 
of Christ. 

Recommended the establishment of a Council of Public 
Health Education in this province; that the University 
should have a Public Health Department to be in charge 
of the public health work of the province, as well as the 
education of the students in this Department and that the 
Canadian Methodist Mission be asked to release Dr. Wallace 
Crawford for full time work in this field. 

Recommended the revision of the Constitution of the 
Szechwan Christian Council with request for full time 
services of Rev. Donald Fay of the American Baptist 
Mission, Rev. Lincoln Chang of the Methodist Episcopal 



WEST CHINA CHRISTIAN CONFERENCE 145 

Mission and Mr. W. R. Shao and Rev. K. J. Beaton of the 
Canadian Methodist Mission. 

Recommended the organization of a Christian Litera- 
ture Council in Szechwan as a Department of the S. C. C. 
and the conversion of the C. M. M. paper, "Christian Hope" 
into a union project and from a monthly into a weekly. 

Recommended to increase the number of Chinese 
professors in our Bible Schools. 

Rocommended that industrial training be established 
as a part of women's education. 

Chinese ^ u ^ more important by far than any 

Leadership resolutions passed was the spirit and general 
attitude of the Conference. The official 
language of the Conference was Mandarin and all the 
discussions were carried on in that language. Ninety 
per cent of the time in the discussions was taken by Chinese 
members of the Conference. Each one of the eight sub- 
divisions which met separately all day Wednesday had a 
Chinese chairman. Of the addresses given from the 
platform of the Conference the great majority were given 
by Chinese. The two chairmen, Rev. Donald Fay and 
Rev. Lincoln Chang, both graduates of the Union University 
who have had post-graduate study in America, handled the 
Conference with great tact and skill and won the unstinted 
admiration of all. This is the first outstanding revelation 
of the Conference, the number and quality of Chinese 
leaders already serving Jesus Christ in Szechwan, and it is 
surely prophetic of the dawning of a new day. 

The second remarkable feature was the 
Harmony harmony of the gathering. The fact that all 

the delegates, missionary and Chinese, were 
billetted on the campus of the beautiful Union University 
helped greatly in this. From beginning to end the motto of 
the Conference " ZEALOUS TO PRESERVE THE UNITY 
OF THE SPIRIT IN THE BONDS OF PEACE "captivated 
and held all hearts. There was absolutely no missionary 
versus Chinese feeling manifested. There was absolutely 
no hint of denominational rivalry. Four hundred and 
forty delegates realizing in their own lives unity in Christ 
and carrying that spirit out into the resolutions passed and 
back to the congregations represented surely is an augury 



146 WEST CHINA CHRISTIAN CONFERENCE 

of a not very distant time when West China will realize in 
fact as well as in faith " That we are not divided, all one 
hody we ". No other organization except the Christian 
Church could have called together in a city two thousand 
miles inland, a Conference representing four or five 
nationalities, which throughout a week of earnest discussion 
developed a growing consciousness of unity. It was a 
demonstration of the vitality and progressiveness and the 
unity of the Church, not only to the great outside world 
which misunderstands and misinterprets us, but also to the 
delegates themselves whose very isolation makes the vision 
of the Church as a world-wide conquering power very 
difficult to obtain. 

Hopes for ^ne thing more should be said in order to 

Future convey a net impression of the great Con- 

ference. The response of the whole gathering 
to the deepest spiritual appeals made from the platform 
was remarkable. Day by day the intensity of conviction 
deepened and it became increasingly evident that the 
Church in Szechwan is being built on a solid foundation of 
spiritual experience. Jesus Christ is a living reality in the 
spiritual consciousness of these delegates. Through them 
and their colleagues in the local churches He will go on 
building the Kingdom of God in Szechwan with far better 
and more consecrated workmen than ever before in our 
forty years of missionary history. 



CHAPTER XXIX 

PROVINCIAL AND CITY FEDERATIONS 
Henry T. Hodgfcin 

The extent to which the Christian forces in 

lIc^ 1102 ° £ ChiDa realJy believe . in the desirability of 
Federations united work may be judged not only by the 

support given to the National Christian Coun- 
cil and to national movements to bring together various 
denominational groups, but also by the amount of effective 
local cooperation. It would not be fair to press this too 
hard because in many cases the available workers are 
overtaxed with the activities of their own group, and funds 
do not permit of any adequate expenditure on federated 
activities. The development of Christian enterprise has 
been so largely along sectarian lines that it needs something 
more than a passive acceptance of the principle of coopera- 
tion to make new channels. Perhaps the churches will only 
be driven to really strong effort in this direction by the 
pressure of the emergency they have to meet, whether in 
facing grave moral evils such as opium and gambling, or 
in resisting the direct attack of the anti- Christian 
movement. In any case it may be well to look frankly at 
the situation so far as it is revealed by available informa- 
tion on local federations. 
Ext> t ^ e have recor( l °f twenty-four centers in 

which a certain degree of cooperative activity 
has been achieved as a regular part of the organization of 
the Christian forces. In addition to these places there are 
probably a few others which have not reported and no 
doubt there are many where the local forces cooperate on 
occasion, as for example during the Week of Evangelism 
or in the anti-opium campaign. We must remember that 
cooperation is a spirit rather than an organization and 
where the latter is wholly lacking the former may be much 
in evidence. 



148 PROVINCIAL AND CITY FEDERATIONS 

Confining ourselves to the twenty-four centers, it 
is found that in five or six of these the cooperation is 
limited to one particular field and that no attempt has 
been made to form an inclusive federation through which 
the different groups can regularly function together in 
regard to educational, evangelistic, mora], industrial and 
other matters. The cities which have reported local 
federations with a general aim are the following: — Peking, 
Tientsin, Nanking, Hangchow, Tsinan, Nanchang, Yun- 
nanfu, Sian, Kaifeng, Moukden, Kiating. From several 
others which are known to have such work no report is to 
hand at the time of writing. The following statements 
are therefore based upon facts supplied by these eleven 
cities. 

In each case the attempt has clearly been 
Cooperating ^° lm ^e a ^ * ne Christian forces including the 
g Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A. Schools and 
colleges are included in some cases, as for example in 
Hangchow where no less than seventeen organizations 
participate, including five educational units and one 
hospital. In several cases Chinese independent churches 
cooperate. In one or two cases the Y. M. C. A. while 
helping as a uniting factor is not included as a voting unit 
in the federation. In several centers, however, the 
Y. M. C. A. has been the agency through which the 
federation has come into existence and it has rendered 
especial help both in providing workers and a meeting 
place. Usually there is a representative basis though in 
two or three of the cities mentioned above the organization 
is still very loose and while meetings are held regularly, 
there is no formal constitution. 

Aj ms The stated aims are very similar and the 

following may be taken as typical if rather 
fuller than some. 

" The aim of the Nanking Church Council shall be to 
assist the churches of the city in the promotion of a 
true spirit of cooperation. This aim shall be attained in 
three ways. 

(1) By the exerting of every effort in helping each 
church to reach the highest possible standard 
of Christian activity. 






PROVINCIAL AND CITY FEDERATIONS 149 

(2) By establishing and promoting cooperative 
endeavor throughout the city as far as the 
Council's finances will permit. 

(3) By cooperating in all helpful movements of 
Chinese Christians within the city, and the 
federation of the Christian churches throughout 
the province. 

11 The above methods are especially emphasized in 
the hope that people of all classes in Nanking will be 
turned to Christ, looking toward the establishment of an 
indigenous church unhampered by western divisions. 

■' The Church Council exists for mutual helpfulness, 
and not for the limiting of the activities of any denomina- 
tion. Nor does it at this time anticipate organic union. " 

A simpler expression given by a less organized group 
is— <{ 

"To discuss important problems of the churches, to 
foster good will among them and to promote cooperative 
work." 

In one case, Tsinan, the statement is explicit that it is 
" not to take action in matters of policy and doctrine." 

The actual work undertaken shows a wide 
Und^Vfc variety. Peking reports the conducting of 

the "Week of Prayer" meetings, retreats 
for church leaders, industrial study and service, raising 
funds for Japanese earthquake relief, helping the Korean 
church in Peking. The Week of Evangelism figures very 
prominently in most cases. In Hangchow, for instance, 
it was very carefully planned, special literature was 
prepared, publicity in the local press was organized, and 
in addition to the use of 70,000 tracts locally, a hundred 
thousand were sold to other centers using those prepared 
for the city campaign. In certain places a monthly retreat 
for Christian workers is now a feature of the movement, 
this having originated in several cases after a retreat held 
by one of the National Christian Council secretaries. 
Nanking has established a community center where 
Christian workers from all parts of the city frequently 
meet for prayer and conference and where an exhibit is on 
display which gives an idea of the Christian work in the 
city. In nearly every case some definite pieces of com- 



150 PROVINCIAL AND CITY FEDERATIONS 

munity service have been attempted. The anti-opium 
campaign figures in most reports. In some places child 
welfare work, " baby weeks," school clinics, and other 
similar activities are undertaken. In most cases some 
definite attention is being given to industrial problems 
both by way of the study of existing conditions and in 
attempts to improve the same. Programs of educational 
work in this field have been carried out in one or two centers. 
In the districts affected by the war Church federations 
have been foremost not only in rendering relief of civilian 
and other sufferers, but also in opening up discussions 
with a view to the cessation of hostilities. In Hangchow 
an interesting feature is the preparation of a history of the 
sixty years of the Christian church in that cit3'. It is 
hoped" that the book will be published during the year. 
Yunnan fu organizes a summer Bible school for men and 
women. Sian carries on work among prisoners and poor 
widows. In another case prison evangelism is mentioned 
and in one or two centers efforts have been made to help 
rickshaw coolies through the provision of shelters. 

This brief summary indicates the variety 
Uxutorlylog f tne undertakings. It may be well, how- 
ever, to emphasize that the main strength of 
these movements, so far as the records show, seems to be 
directed towards the evangelistic work of the church. 
Several are, by their origin or constitution directly related 
to the National Christian Council. Their existence and 
that of the Provincial Federations may be regarded as a 
localized expression of the same spirit which has created 
the N. C. C, and it raises the question as to what is likely 
to be the future of that body. Will it rest as now mainly 
upon the suffrages of the great denominational groups 
organized nationally? Or will the time come when local 
organization will be perfected and the national council rest 
upon geographical rather than upon sectarian units? 

When we come to consider the needs 
Problems ancl problems of the local federations we find 

that several speak of the need of a full-time 
secretary. In Hangchow and Nanking alone has such help 
been available. These are the federations which show far 
the most active life. In several cases there is a sense of 









PROVINCIAL AND CITY FEDERATIONS 151 

partial failure, many large opportunities envisaged, little 
power to enter in and seize them. In one case we read 
that the activities are "seriously hindered for lack of a 
true union spirit between foreigners and Chinese, for lack 
of Chinese leaders and for lack of national outlook." In a 
number of cases expression is given to the need for closer 
association with the national movement, more frequent 
visits of secretaries. Through local cooperation ^ the 
Chinese Church is beginning to come to great self -conscious- 
ness and to a sense of national responsibility. 

The results of local cooperation are also felt in a 
quickening of spiritual life and a deeper sense of unity. 
" Each mission has been warmed by seeing others' 
enthusiasm; Christians are more prayerful; Sunday 
attendance increased; the spirit of mutual help is greater." 
" Much more zeal shown by all the churches in the spirit 
of cooperation which has never been so shown before." 
" The various meetings held during the year have promoted 
and increased the spiritual content of the churches and 
enabled them to give attention to their problems." Such 
are a few of the comments on the results of this 
work. 

p „. . i Turning to the provincial or semi-provincial 

Federations federations we have records of such in Kwang- 
tnng, South Fukien (United Church), North 
Fukien, Chekiang, Kiangsu, Hunan, and Szechwan. These 
bodies also vary in their effectiveness but are similar in 
aim and method. The aim of the last named, for example, 
is described as follows: — 

"The object of the Council shall be to unite the 
Christian Churches throughout Szechwan for the purpose 
of advancing the cause of Christ: 

(a) By fostering friendly relations between the 

Churches and by promoting a spirit of co- 
operation . 

(b) By the discussion of effective methods of Evan- 

gelism and by participation in direct evangel- 
istic work. 

(c) By seeking to promote the cause of education and 

the development of Christian schools." 



152 PROVINCIAL AND CITY FEDERATIONS 

In all cases these councils wish to maintain a close 
relation to the N.C.C. and in several cases have adopted the 
same Chinese name, only using the provincial instead of the 
national designation. All are representative in character. 
In Kwangtung the union is at present only for Evangelistic 
work and is known as The Kwangtung Evangelistic Associa- 
tion. Plans are under discussion for wider activities 
including especially the field of religious education. In 
North Fukien the work undertaken touches several fields, 
evangelistic, moral welfare, student volunteer, industrial, 
and Daily Vacation Bible School, and it is considering both 
the medical and educational work. The Hunan Council 
has only been organized recently as a result of the first- 
provincial council held in June 1924. The Szechwan 
Council has a longer record of work behind it. Its depart- 
ments include evangelistic, educational, medical, literary, 
and social service. 

These provincial organizations may still, in the main, 
be said to be in an experimental stage. They represent a 
feeling after united effort, interchange of experience, 
common facing of the task, a deeper spiritual fellowship. 
Difficulties of transport, multiplicity of activities, shortness 
of finance, lack of clear definition of function — such are 
some of the problems which are not yet fully solved. 
Perhaps the chief one is the last. What place have these 
organizations in a movement which has grown up on other 
lines? They seem like a cross section. Is strength to be 
put into local groupings or into national sectarian ones ? 
It is not easy to find time and money for both in addition 
to the regular duties of Chinese leaders and missionaries. 
Those capable of leadership in a large way are still sadly 
too few. 

In this article no attempt will be made either to predict 
or to indicate a judgment of the relative value of the two 
plans. Suffice it to point out that the last few years have 
shown a marked advance in local cooperation as well as in 
national sectarian groupings. The Church of China, as it 
comes itself to face the problems of cooperation and church 
unity, will doubtless indicate a preference for one method 
or the other. Or it may advance far along both lines simulta- 
neously. In any case it would seem that the path of wisdom 



PKOVINCIAL AND CITY FEDERATIONS 153 

for the missionary is to study the point of view of his 
Chinese colleagues as they work out their passionate desire 
for a united expression of the Christian conviction, and to 
seek to be their servant in following the guidance of the 
Holy Spirit in this as in all other matters. 



CHAPTER XXX 

THE INDIGENIZATION OF THE Y. M. C A, IN CHINA 
David Z. T, Yui 

Early efforts ^^ e ^' ^' ®* ^' a ^ ^ rs ^ waS Ii0 ^ a Chinese 

organization. It was introduced into China 
as early as 1885 when the first student Y. M. C. A. was 
inaugurated in a mission school in Foochow. At the 
General Missionary Conference in Shanghai in 1890, a 
resolution was adopted "commending the objects of the 
Association and appealing to the International Committee 
of Y. M. C. A.'s of North America to send representatives 
to China to develop activities similar to those which had 
proved so successful in America." In response, Mr. 
Luther D. Wishard was commissioned to come out to study 
the held, and "to determine whether or not there lay 
an obligation on the Associations of North America to 
propagate their ideals to China." Meanwhile, two more 
student Y. M. C. A.'s sprang up among the mission schools 
in Shantung and Chekiang respectively. 
Pioneers Honoring Mr. Wishard's conviction that 

"the Associations of North America must 
assume the responsibility of helping to found strong 
student Associations throughout the Chinese Empire", 
the International Committee in 1895 sent out its first 
secretary to China in the person of Rev. D. W. Lyon, who, 
after careful study, decided to start the work in Tientsin. 
In 1896, Mr. John R. Mott as General Secretary of the 
World's Student Christian Federation made an extensive 
visit in China and assisted in forming " The College Young 
Men's Christian Association of China" which through 
various stages of evolution has later become the National 
Committee of Y. M. C. A's of China. " The year 1898 saw 
the accession of Messrs. F. S. Brockman, R. E. Lewis, and 
R. R. Gailey and the next year of Mr. W. G. Southam to 
the staff of American secretaries." In 1899, an experi- 



THE INDIGENIZATION OF Y. M. C. A. IN CHINA 155 

ment in the formation of a city Association for business and 
professional men was conducted in. Shanghai, under the 
leadership of Mr. R. E. Lewis. 

„ .,. Now, both the Associations of North 

Present Position America and of china rejdce in the f act that 

the Association Movement in China has become indigenous. 
According to the report for 1923, there were 42 City Asso- 
ciations and 203 Student Associations, all self-governing 
and self-supporting and uniting themselves under the 
National Committee of Y. M. C. A.'s of China. In the 
World's Committee and in the World's Student Christian 
Federation, the National Committee of Y. M. C. A.'s of 
China is given full recognition as a National Movement 
and is being accorded all privileges and responsibilities 
pertaining thereto. 

To those who were associated with the 
Policy Y M c A in ch - na at tho vpry beginning, it 

would probably seem only yesterday when the American 
secretaries were arriving to initiate the work. Now, the 
Movement is practically being controlled and directed by 
Chinese leadership, lay and secretarial, and financed by 
the Chinese people who have indeed a strong sense of 
responsibility for and proprietorship in the undertaking. 
What has brought about this change? What are the 
elements in the Y. M. C. A. that appeal so strongly to the 
Chinese people? What is its fundamental policy ? What 
principles and processes have been successfully employed? 
We propose very briefly to answer these questions. 

1. What was the policy of the International Com- 
mittee in starting Y. M. C. A. work in China? Simply to 
transplant the American Association Movement as such into 
China? Or, to build up a nominal Chinese Association 
Movement and to dominate it with American money and 
personality ? Or, to effect a China-American Association 
Movement which in the end will be neither Chinese nor 
American ? Thanks to the International Committee, the 
work was started with neither weak idealism nor hazy 
ideas. The International Committee, in no uncertain 
terms, instructed its secretaries to come out and help 
develop an autonomous, independent, and self-supporting 



156 THE INDIGENIZATION OP Y. M. C. A. IN CHINA 

Association Movement in China. In addition, the secreta- 
ries came with equally clear and earnest convictions of 
their own along the same line. Not only that, these men 
did not spare themselves to see that these instructions and 
convictions gradually hut definitely appeared in the 
organization and spirit of the Chinese Movement. They 
practised what they believed and professed. Positions on 
the Local Boards of Directors and on the National Com- 
mittee were gradually and are now being completely filled 
by Chinese Christian men. In the first year of the 
Republic — 1912 — the Chinese Young Men]s Christian 
Association Movement was oflicially recognized by the 
Chinese Government in Peking. 

2. The first period of Association work in 
Period of China has been rightly designated as a 

andDtov'Sy "Period of Investigation and Discovery." 
In view of the immensity of the field — to 
mention nothing of great difficulties and perplexities — 
and of the meager resources of men and money at their 
command, the sagacious statesmanship of the first few 
secretaries led them to decide to study the field and its 
needs and problems and then to formulate^ a policy and 
program on which they could concentrate their full strength 
to the greatest advantage. As a result, the following policy 
was adopted: — (a) They would start Association work 
in national and provincial capitals and large educational 
and commercial centers in the hope that these in a short 
while might become " model " Associations for other places 
in different parts of the country; and (b) they would want 
to appeal to and win the student class and the literati of 
the country who were oftentimes designated as the 
" Gibraltar of China." In 1902, Professor C. H. Robertson 
of Purdue University came out especially for this work, 
and in 1911 made his maiden trip giving his well-known 
Science Lectures. The results bear fall evidence to the 
importance of investigation and study at the start and the 
wisdom and effectiveness of this policy. 
s , fS 3. Another important point in the policy 

2 - uppor ^ d practice of Association work in China is 
that each local Association, with the exception of the 
salaries of one or more foreign secretaries for one or more 



THE INDIGENIZATTON OF Y. M. C. A. IN CHINA 157 

terms of service which are being provided by the Interna- 
tional Committee, is started on a self-supporting basis. We 
do not believe in subsidizing any of the local Associations 
with money towards their current expenses. Any city 
that wishes to have a Y. M. C. A. earnestly enough ought 
to be willing adequately to support it by itself. Our ex- 
periences now covering more than twenty- five years assure 
us that we have been on the right track in this matter. 
Our help to the local Associations always takes the form of 
service rather than money, and we give the service of 
secretaries for a long or short period as the case 
requires. 
Finance ^ ie National Committee each year receives 

a certain sum of money from the Inter- 
national Committee as a contribution to help finance its 
work, and this on a gradually diminishing scale. It is 
important to point out (a) That the International Com- 
mittee claims and has no control over this money after it 
has been remitted to the National Committee; (b) that the 
International Committee does not desire even a joint 
control over this fund with the National Committee; and 
(c) that the International Committee has complete con- 
fidence in the National Committee which has as full control 
of this fund as of any money it receives from any source in 
China or elsewhere. 
Property * n ^ n8 ma ^ er °f property, we always 

encourage the local Associations to provide 
and own their land and building and other equipment. 
We are, however, grateful to the International Committee 
for its generosity in providing a good number of our local 
buildings and also a large part of our national head- 
quarters. In nearly all cases, the Chinese Association 
Movement provides the land on which these buildings are 
erected. In presenting these buildings, the International 
Committee lays down the following conditions which are 
usually accepted without any difficulty: — (a) These build- 
ings should be used permanently for Y. M. C. A. work; (b) 
they should he kept in good repairs and (c) an adequate 
staff should be maintained. As the International Com- 
mittee deals only with the National Committee and not 
with any of the local Associations direct, the present 



158 THE INDIGENIZATION OF Y. M. C. A. IN CHINA 

generally accepted arrangement is for the National Committee j 
to hold in its name both land and building. On the other ] 
hand, when a local Association itself provides both land I 
and building, it holds them in its own name. Happily the j 
nuniber of such cases is steadily growing. All these I 
buildings, with very few exceptions, are recognized as I 
Chinese property. ]f for any reason we arc unable to ] 
prevent the loss of one or two of them, we prefer losing 1 
them to flying over them foreign Hags for protection. 
Control and 4 * Tlie Chinese Association Movement is 

Basis characterized by its lay control and is on an \ 

absolutely democratic basis. The full control 3 
of a local Association rests in its active membership. By I 
active membership, we mean the Chinese members of the I 
churches in a given community who, not by any ecclesi- 
astical gesture or by church appointment or election, but I 
by their own free election, have joined the Y. M. C. A. 
The Association, therefore, represents a Movement over 
which the lay-men preside and through which they are I 
united in a community-wide as well as a nation-wide I 
service for young men and boys. It is a thoroughly 
voluntary, inter-denominational, lay organization and 
service. We are tempted to add the word, "undenomina- 
tional," because these active members do not carry into « 
the Y. M. C. A. any of their denominational differences, 
misunderstandings, or rivalries. Do we not see in this 
arrangement the closest and best possible relationship 
between the Church and the Y. M. C. A. ? 
Functions of - At its Annual Meeting, the active member- 

Board snip elects a Board of Directors from among 

its own number to which will be entrusted 
the^ affairs of the Association. The Board in turn will 
invite a General Secretary and appoint the rest of the 
secretarial staff. The Board is really the legislative body 
in a local Association and is responsible to the active 
membership, while the General Secretary and his staff 
form the administration and are responsible to the Board. 
Up to the present, we have experienced very little 
difficulty in this form of lay and democratic organization. 
Indeed, we thoroughly believe in it and our belief is thus 
far amply justified by results and the present form of 






THE INDIGENIZATION OF Y. M. C. A. IN CHINA 159 

organization is in accord with the temperament of our 
people. 

The National Tiie National Committee is no less demo- 
Committee cratically organized, as it is the creature of the 

local Associations assembled in Convention. 
Both City and Student Associations are represented on the 
membership of the National Committee which is responsible 
to them. In fact, the National Committee members at the 
last Convention in Canton were elected at the nomination 
of the local Associations, thus knitting together the National 
Committee and the local Associations into one absolute 
consolidated Movement. The National Committee receives 
its mandates from Convention to Convention, and it meets 
annually to decide upon the policy and program of each 
year's work. An Executive Committee of nine National 
Committee members meets monthly to transact business 
between the Annual Meetings. 

5. In China, we firmly believe that Student 
CiT* Associa- an( * ^ lty Associations should be knit in one 
tions sscaa " Movement, and they are. Herein lies a main 

source of our strength. In some other coun- 
tries, the two types of Associations are separate, and there 
may be special reasons for the separation. Perhaps they 
were never united. Here, we really started by doing 
student work, and it was not until the third Convention in 
1901 that the Association Constitution was amended to 
admit City Associations. Ever since the City and Student 
Associations have been component parts of one China 
Association Movement. Our experiences show that the 
former lends stability and dignity to the Movement and 
also supplies much mature experience and support, while 
the latter meets the need of idealism, inspiration, courage, 
and youthful spirit and constitutes a chief source of supply 
of both lay, secretarial and church leadership. Nevertheless, 
each Association, be it student or city, practically preserves 
its own autonomy and is conscious of its own identity, and 
has free and ample scope to develop its own work and meet 
its own special needs. At the same time, they are cooperat- 
ing with one another to the fullest extent. 
Fourioid 6. The Association's recognition of the 

Frogram essential unity of man's nature and the 



160 THE INDIGENIZATION OF Y. M. C. A. IN CHINA 

importance of its all-round development, and 
hence the introduction of the so-called Fourfold Program 
tremendously appeals to the Chinese mind. The Association 
program to help develop each boy and each young man 
along all of the spiritual, intellectual, physical and social 
lines, came just at the psychological moment. Our people 
were looking to the West, particularly to America, for some 
panacea for China's ills, and their attention was at once 
arrested by the Association appeal. The Association 
emphasis on youth and on education immediately struck a 
chord of deep sympathy in the Chinese mind, as we had 
been emphasizing the same ourselves for centuries. The 
other features of the program were also heartily approved 
not only because they were attractive in their newness but 
because they were exceedingly practical and helpful. In 
other words, the philosophy of the Association, both 
theoretical and pragmatic, quickly won the approval and 
admiration of the Chinese people. 

AJ tabiiit- ^' ^ e ^* ^' ®" ^' as an or g an i za ^ion has 

fully demonstrated its ability to adapt itself 
to existing and new conditions. It is needless to substan- 
tiate this statement to any student or careful observer of 
the Movement. Indeed, the Y. M. C. A. has come to China 
with almost " no predetermined and unyielding policies or 
methods," for it desires to serve the youth and boys of this 
land in the most approved and helpful way. We recognize 
the fact that the foreign secretaries in our Movement con- 
sciously or unconsciously did and still do carry over with 
them ideas, ideals, methods, experiences, etc., from the 
West. Fortunately, they do not insist that we should 
accept them; we do not ourselves accept them blindly; nor 
have we rejected them, good, bad, or indiffeient, just 
because they have come from the West. 

The experiences of Y. M. C. A' a in other 
China's Meeds lands do have both positive and negative 

M-thcd^S 1111116 vaiucs for us > an< * we must, and have been 
^ cr k trying our best to, evaluate them for our 

benefit. At the same time, we clearly rec- 
ognize the fact that our main duty is to study our own 
needs and to help meet them in our own ways. We need 
briefly to refer to the Popular Education Movement and 






THE INDIGENIZATION OF Y. M. C A. IN CHINA 161 

the Citizenship Training Campaign as indications of our 
later efforts to create types of service especially for the 
needs of this hour. Our foreign secretaries not only do 
not object to them on the ground that these services are 
not found in the program of the West but support them 
heartily and help further develop them because they see 
the timeliness of the undertaking. In fact, our foreign 
secretaries are perhaps even more anxious than their 
Chinese associates to develop in the Association Movement 
a stronger and stronger Chinese spirit and to incorporate 
in its organization and program a greater and greater 
measure of Chinese genius. The Movement is pushing 
itself in this direction. 
A , 8. We deem it very important to point 

DoeTnot Mean out that by " adaptability " we do not mean 
Compromise surrender of any of the vital elements in the 
Association. In the course of its develop- 
ment, the Association has had plenty of opportunities 
for exchanging our birth-right for some red pottage. We 
have been offered money, property, influence, and un- 
limited support, if we were willing to become a Young 
Men's Association instead of a Young Men's Christian 
Association. At times we were faint like Esau and the 
red pottage was rather inviting. Thanks to God, we were 
true to our purpose and not only retained the word, 
" Christian," in our name but also have been trying to be 
Christian in reality. What if we had for some red pottage 
sold our birth-right ? We do not believe that the Chinese 
would want to have and support any organization that 
could be so easily induced to give up its fundamental 
purpose. We have been taught for centuries to despise 
any person or organization that proves disloyal to what it 
professes; and, more than that, to stand firm to our 
professions, cost what it may. The determination of the 
Association Movement to be thoroughly and loyally 
Christian in every possible way may have lost some red 
pottage but has certainly preserved its birth-right and 
blessings. Many believe that the Association Movement 
has perhaps been chosen of God to render through its 
distinctly Christian character a special service to the people 
of China at this hour. 



162 THE INDIGENIZATION OF Y. M. C. A. IN CHINA 

9. The question has been raised as to 
Is th3 Y whether or not the Association Movement in 

D^nomtnatioa China is developing itself into a regular 
denomination parallel to different Christian 
Denominations at work. If by this is meant nothing 
more than a suggestion that the Association Movement in 
China is still mission work, then the only reply is an 
emphatic " No " as well as a cordial invitation to study 
the Movement. On the other hand, if it suggests that the 
Y. M. C. A. is perhaps tending to assume the place of 
a, or the Christian Church in China, then the suggestion is 
absolutely groundless and should be dismissed from our 
minds without further ceremony. However, we do 
recognize that the Y. M. C. A. derives its main strength 
from the Church, mission and Chinese. We can not 
organize an Association without Church members who 
make up our Boards of Directors, our secretaries, and the 
very core of our Association organization and life, the 
active membership. We are often compared to an arm 
of the Church, and are, doubtless, the Church's special 
agent to work among and with the young men and boys of 
the community. We believe the Association Movement 
is loyal to the Church and is supporting it in every 
possible way. Special mention may be made of the 
Student Volunteer Movement to recruit students for the 
Christian Ministry as the Association's special contribution 
to the Church. The Association is doing this because of 
its unique position and intimate contact with the students. 
The Association's position is neither to become a mission 
work nor to usurp the place of the Chinese Christian 
Church, but rather to be a group of Christians, voluntarily 
organizing themselves into an autonomous movement, and 
working as the Church's special agent among and with 
young men and boys. This means supporting the Church 
in every way and this policy has received and is, we 
believe, still receiving the approval of the Chinese people, 
particularly the Christians. 

10. How can we justify the Chinese 

Secrefades Association Movement as autonomous and 

independent when there are some seventy or 

eighty foreign secretaries occupying important positions 



THE INDIGENIZATION OF Y. M. C. A. IN CHINA 163 

in it ? In answering this question, we wish to point out 
that: — (a) As a rule, our foreign secretaries do not 
exhibit any sense of racial superiority; (b) There is 
absolutely no difference among our secretaries on racial 
or national lines; (c) There is no extra-territoriality in 
the China Association Movement, for all foreign secretaries 
work under the constitution and practices of the Movement 
much in the same way as Chinese secretaries; (d) The 
Association is no philanthropic work for an inferior race, 
nor a mission work for the " heathen Chinese ". 

On the other hand, (e) All secretaries, foreign and 
Chinese, are on a basis of equality, due recognition being 
of course given to their respective positions in an 
Association; (f) There is complete trust in one another; 
(g) There is mutual recognition and respect for ability, 
integrity, and nobility of character; (h) Foreign secretaries 
recognize and are proud of the autonomy and independence 
of the Chinese Association Movement, and are, we are 
aware, perfectly happy to work nationally under the 
direction of the National Committee and locally under 
the Board of Directors, all Chinese, and also under 
Chinese General Secretaries; and (i) Most inspiring of 
all, foreign secretaries have the John-the-Baptist spirit. 
They practice their belief that the Chinese secretaries 
must increase and they themselves must decrease; — this 
not only in numbers (in 1923, 86 foreign secretaries and 
342 Chinese secretaries) but in every way. While foreign 
secretaries are helpful in many things, we firmly believe 
that their primary function is to help train Chinese 
secretaries and to witness for Christ, and because of this 
they have a permanent place in our Movement. Our 
answer to the question at the beginning of this section is 
that foreign secretaries are no longer "foreign"; they 
have become absorbed and drawn into the very life-blood 
of our Movement which is fast exhibiting itself as a 
distinctly Chinese movement. 

Chinese H* ^ ne International Committee at the 

Leadership very beginning was clear in its own mind 
that, while a good number of foreign secre- 
taries would be needed to make a good start of the work, 
the China Association Movement must not be dominated 



164 THE INDIGENIZATION OF Y. M. C. A. IN CHINA 

by foreign leadership either lay or secretarial. As a 
corollary, the International Committee almost on the very 
first day of its service in China made an earnest effort 
to search for, develop, train, utilize and uphold Chinese 
Christian leadership. In 1897, two years after the 
inception of the work, Prof. M. II. Ding of Foochow was 
chosen and sent to the Conference of the World's Student 
Christian Federation in Williamstown, Mass., U. S. A. to 
represent the China Movement. In 1899, Mr. S. K. Tsao 
accepted the invitation with Mr. R. E. Lewis to start the 
first City Association experiment in Shanghai. Mr. H. L. 
Zia, in 1903, became the first editorial secretary of the 
Movement. Three years later, Mr. C. T. Wang was 
appointed General Secretary to take charge of the Chinese 
Y. M. C. A. in Tokyo. In 1915 Mr. F. S. Brockman 
relinquished the National General Secretaryship and Mr. 
C. T. Wang was appointed by the National Committee as 
his successor. In the following year Mr. C. T. Wang 
resigned in order to resume the Vice-Chairmanship in 
the Senate in Peking, and the writer, having had only a 
little over three years' experience in Association work, 
was asked to assume the National General Secretaryship. 
At present out of 43 local Associations 20 have Chinese 
General Secretaries. Have we not been running great 
risks? We should add that in this connection no attempt 
is being made to place any special premium on mere 
Chinese nationality. We have been emphasizing qualities 
of leadership, and at the same time recognizing the fact 
that Chinese secretaries should assume full responsibilities 
for the Movement just as soon as such leadership becomes 
available. We have thus far not experienced much 
difficulty in attracting strong Chinese Christian men for 
our service. Meanwhile, it will sound paradoxical when 
we say that even now our most urgent need ia the 
strengthening and further consecrating of our Chinese 
secretarial leadership. The stronger this leadership the 
more indigenous the Chinese Association Movement. 

12. We should not be led by the above 

Accomplished statement to think that the China Association 

Movement has become a reality all of a 

sudden. "Rome was not built in a day". It has taken 



THE INDIG ENIZATION OF Y. M. C. A. IN CHINA 165 

our Movement almost thirty years to reach its present 
stage which is yet imperfect in many ways. It has been 
a gradual evolution. Nor should we think that our 
Movement has had no trials, difficulties, disappointments, 
and failures. We had plenty of them but have, through 
the Grace of God and the most hearty and generous 
cooperation of the International Committee and other 
Christian bodies, for which our hearts are filled with 
profound gratitude, succeeded in rising above them and 
in using them to strengthen our faith in God and in man. 
Nor should we consider the indigenizing process succeeding 
or complete when either (1) We have merely adopted a 
Chinese name and hence we can, hang a Chinese sign-board 
over our door-way; or (2) We are on a partially or 
completely self-supporting basis; or (3) We have a Chinese 
Committee or Board of Directors which will largely 
function as a rubber-stamp; or (4) We have a few 
Chinese assistants or helpers who are ever ready to take 
orders but who have not the strength of character or 
ability to initiate; or (5) We have erected without or with 
very little Chinese money a few buildings as centers of our 
work; or (6) We have a well-educated but back-boneless 
Chinese leader who will consciously or unconsciously 
follow foreign leadership or traditional lines of service. 
To be sure, not a few of the above are important elements 
in the indigenizing process, and we should not overlook 
them. But, no movement can become truly indigenous 
until the very thought-life and its sub-conscious being has 
been transformed, and until the very genius of the people 
for and by whom the movement is organized has found a 
vital place in its policy, organization, and program. It 
means sinking its roots deep in the native soil and 
gradually bursting forth in leafage, flowers and fruit. In 
this direction, the China Association Movement has indeed 
a long way to go, and, we are thankful, an excellent start 
has already been made. 

„ During these days, our minds are filled 

Appreciation w ^h problems of international and inter-racial 
and Trust misunderstanding as well as cooperation. 

Where can we find a more remarkable and 
resultful piece of international and inter-racial cooperation 



166 THE INDIGENIZATION OF Y. M. C. A. IN CHINA 

than the indigenization of the Y. M. C. A. in China? On 
the one hand, there is no philanthropy or condescension 
or domination, but an eager and unselfish desire to 
introduce a most helpful service to young men and boys. 
On the other hand, we do not find much humiliation, 
indifference, or passiveness but response and determination 
to carry on and to make it indigenous. At the same time, 
mutual understanding, appreciation and trust and Christian 
fellowship have marked the Association Movement from 
the very first. The International Committee has placed at 
the disposal of the China Association Movement without 
restriction or strings not only its funds for work in China, 
which is hard enough to do, but also the most precious 
personalities in its secretaries which is the most difficult 
thing in the world to do. The China Association Move- 
ment, while showing genuine appreciation of the most 
generous help from the International Committee, has not 
allowed itself under the circumstances to develop a sense of 
dependence and helplessness but has determined to use the 
help as a means to call forth its own true worth, to 
make a supreme effort to succeed, and to be true to the 
fundamental purpose of the Association. Not only that, 
the China Association Movement cherishes a strong hope 
that before very long it may have a very valuable but 
distinctly Chinese contribution to offer to the world's 
service to young men and boys. This may perhaps make 
up a good page in the history of international and 
inter-racial understanding and cooperation. 



CHAPTER XXXI 

THE PROGRAM OF THE Y.W.C.A. 

Helen Thoburn 

The Young Women's Christian Association of China 
was transplanted from western stock some twenty-five 
years ago. 1924 is the first year in which it may be said 
really to have taken root. 

Personnel . though the great majority of the for- 

eigners loaned to the organization have been 
from the United States, it is not, as many people still 
persist in thinking, a part of the American Y. W. C. A. 
It owns its first and a very real allegiance to a World's 
Committee with headquarters in London, and through 
that committee secretaries from six countries are contri- 
buted to China, which rejoices in the international char- 
acter of the staff. Eight British, 3 Scandinavian, and 57 
American young women, or 68 foreigners in all, work with 
the 74 Chinese secretaries in thirteen city centers and at 
the national headquarters in Shanghai. This staff is also 
responsible for 92 Y. W. C. A.'s in government and mis- 
sion schools. 

TheNational The Y * W - C - A - has lon g existed in most of 
Y.W.C.A. ! ,he countries of the world, and has found that 
Organised* it can maintain its common Christian purpose 
but assume widely different forms as it adapts 
itself to the women of each land. Its whole aim in China 
has therefore been to become as quickly as possible, es- 
sentially Chinese. The year 1923 saw the culmination of 
this aim in the holding of the first national convention in 
Hangchow in October. Here 82 Chinese voting delegates 
(not counting foreigners or visitors) representing approxi- 
mately 9000 members came together and organized the 
natiomd Y.W.C.A., thus indicating the end of the foreign 
era. With characteristic courtesy, as soon as the organiza- 
tion thus became their own they turned around and 



168 THE PROGRAM OF THE Y. W. C. A. 

extended the privilege of membership to foreign women 
resident in China. In the months since the Hangchow 
Convention the Chinese leaders have, in a totally new way, 
taken over the Association as their own. And then they 
have begun to say, " But it does not yet give us what we 
really need." 

Difficulties at Tnis period of questioning, and of begin- 
Present Facing ning to send down real Chinese roots, co- 
the National incides with four very hard sets of circum- 
Organfcation s t an ces, three of them good in themselves 
could they have come less suddenly and in a less extreme 
form. 

1. The one wholly regrettable one is of course the 
war. Its financial toll is obvious; the strain upon Chinese 
girls and women in the war-centers is less so, but affects 
their confidence and their spirit of resourcefulness just 
when they have been venturing into public life. 

2. The anti-Christian movement in so far as it attacks 
Christianity per se seems to have affected the organization 
only indirectly as yet. The Y.W.C.A. has a strong belief 
in the contribution women may make to the expression of 
Christianity and the life of the Church. In China it has 
not begun to do what it longs to in this direction. It has 
staked a good deal on trying to express Christianity 
through all its work rather than under a religious label 
here and there: there is no one, for example, on its staff at 
present in China with the title of "Director of Religious 
Education." This presupposes a greater articulateness 
than has yet been achieved, on the question: — What have 
Chinese women and girls to contribute to Christianity in 
China? 

3. Because of the present status of mission giving 
abroad, foreign contributions have, within the last two 
years, been drastically cut. The money coming from 
abroad has covered the salaries of the foreign staff for all 
China and a few budget grants for the headquarters' work. 
All of the local budgets and Chinese salaries are secured 
in this country. $111,773 was raised in China in 1923. 
This is encouraging, even when contrasted with the 
$492,809 contributed that same year from abroad, which 
naturally always seems even more disproportionate than 



THE PROGRAM OF THE Y. W. C. A. 169 

it is in reality because of the expense of importing foreign 
leadership. In this questioning period the Association is 
glad that as yet it owns very little property in China; it is 
thus the more free to make adjustments. But salaries and 
running expenses must be provided, and adequate means 
have not yet been evolved for the greater measure of self- 
support which will now be necessary. Chinese women do 
not accept the western method of annual campaigns, and 
as yet no substitute has been found. 

4. The foreign staff has within one year decreased 
from 86 to 67. A normal decrease would of course be 
good, as hastening the development of a Chinese staff, but 
this cut has come far too fast to be recouped by adding 
more Chinese to the staff. At this point it should be 
made plain that the Y.W.C.A. can never be compared to 
corresponding work carried by men. Chinese women are 
many years behind men in modern education ; and when 
a woman marries, her professional work almost always 
stops. The changes on the Chinese staff are very fre- 
quent — practically all the resignations other than for 
marriage are because the years spent in Association work 
have quickened the desire for more education. In this 
setting, the members of the local boards and the National 
Committee are feeling their way, this year, into what a 
truly Chinese program would be. 

T . .. f Certain features of the work inherent in 

International .. . . .. , ■* , 

Work its international character and experience go 

on undisturbed. Mrs. H. C. Mei and Miss 
Ting Shu-ching were the Chinese representatives at the 
meeting of the World's Committee of the Y.W.C.A. held 
last April in Washington. A friendly exchange of visitors 
and delegates to various conferences is being developed 
between the Associations of China and India, and China 
and Japan. At one of the most acute points of interna- 
tional entanglement, the effect on China of modern in- 
dustry, the Y.W.C.A. has thrown all its resources in with 
the Christian Church as a whole. A part of this story is 
told in Chapter LXIII. 
Social Work With other social measures before the 

whole church, the Association has tried to 
cooperate, particularly in war relief, in the Anti-Foot- 



170 THE PROGRAM OF THE Y. W. C. A. 

binding Movement and to a small degree in the anti- 
opium work. 

Ph sical ^ ne °^ ^ ne re S ll ^ ar Matures of Association 

Training work, in origin most truly Western, is its 

program for health and play. Reductions in 
the foreign staff mean that this year there is no Y.W.C.A. 
representative on the staff of the Council on Health 
Education, nor is there any secretary for physical 
education at Y.W.C.A. headquarters. Nevertheless this 
work is at an encouraging stage. 1924 saw the transfer of 
the Normal Training School for Physical Education from 
Y.W.C.A. auspices to those of Ginling College. Chinese 
women physical directors will therefore have the best 
educational foundation for their technical work. Four 
summer camps were held by the Y.W.C.A. in 1924. 
Everywhere formal gymnastics are giving way to free 
recreation, serving family or other community groups. 
An experiment in a children's playground in Shanghai 
was successful because the children, at their mother's 
insistence, were taught Chinese characters too ! Education 
is one of the things the women of China most readily 
understand. Wherever the Y.W.C.A. has had a part in 
the Popular Education Movement it has strengthened its' 
whole work. 

Studert Work ^ ne Y.W.C.A. carries out its biggest educa- 
tional progam through the Student Christian 
Movement, as the student Y.M. and Y.W.C.A. 's in- 
creasingly like to be called. The student work is so 
familiar that it will not be treated in this article. The 
6000 student members of the Y.W.C.A. are perhaps its 
most encouraging asset.* 

Girls' Work Westerners in China expect of the Y.W.C.A. 

a "girls' work " program like that in certain 
other countries. The American secretaries in particular, 
on the city staffs, could effectively give most of their time 
to forming girls' clubs. But the Chinese women to whom 
the organization belongs are not as yet fully conscious of 
girls as girls, because until so very lately the girlhood stage 



* See Chapter XXXV. 



THE PROGRAM OF THE Y. W. 0. A. 17l 

here, as in other parts of the Orient, has been 
hurdled over. 

Th N What, then, do they want? Again and 

Home 6W again when the question has come up during 

the past year, they have said in no uncertain 
terms, ' We want activies and training that center around 
our homes." As one of them worded it, " All this inter- 
national and national and public spirit is good, and we 
must have it, but our hearts are not free for these great 
outside questions while so many of us are troubled about 
our own home life." 

Better Homes Institutes, whenever they have been 
held in Y.W.C.A/s, have brought out crowds such as could 
be drawn by no other means — women, and men too. 
Government school men students, for instance, thronged to 
one such held recently in Peking. For even the student 
Associations want this kind of help. Social problems, 
from home decoration to the new standards for relation- 
ships of men and women, are the burning issues of the 
day. The Committee on the Church and Home of the N.C.C. 
has asked that "family clubs " be started in student 
Y.W.C.A's.* There is a demand for help with children, in 
religious training especially, and one of the foreign staff is 
to give her whole time to experiment along this line. 

The Association in the West has not had to meet this 
problem to any wide extent before: it was constituted more 
to meet the needs of young women outside of their homes. 
Never have so much wisdom and faith been needed as now, 
when the more experienced secretaries from abroad will need 
to wait, and wait, while this new adaptation is being worked 
out by the Chinese. 

T . . . The ever-pressing problem of training under 

Service^ tnese circumstances becomes acute. The 

Y.W.C.A., if it is to meet what the com- 
munity asks of it, is thrown back upon the few Christian 
colleges for women more than ever before: even as it has 
affiliated with Ginling College for physical education, it 
must count upon all such institutions, especially for 
Religious Education and Home Economics, from the 

* See Chapter LXI. 



172 THE PROGRAM OF THE Y. W. Q. A. 

departments concerned, and for the training in writing, in 
the departments of Chinese and English literature whereby 
Chinese young women will help to form the new social 
ideals. With Yen Ching University the Y.W.C.A. has just 
effected a plan whereby two Y.W.CA. secretaries work 
with the sociology department to give the training for 
community service needed by Associations, institutional 
churches and the like. 

As this is being written, a call is on its 
Chinese General way to a Chinese woman to the national 
Secretary general secretaryship of the Y.W.C.A. of 

China, beginning next year, — a consummation which for 
sheer lack of time since women's education began, it has 
taken all too long to reach. In the next Mission Year 
Book, it should be possible to record a far greater step 
towards the final rooting of the organization deep in the 
soil of Chinese life. 



CHAPTER XXXII 

THE WORK OF THE COMMITTEE ON INTERNATIONAL 

RELATIONS OF THE NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL 

T. C. Chao 

R h k When the Committee on International 
international ? e]ations was appointed by the annual meet- 
Problems j n g of the National Christian Council in 1923, 
it was instructed to do research work on 
international problems and promote the study of interna- 
tional problems in Christian colleges and in the Christian 
Church in general. During the year 1923-4 the Committee 
communicated with the Christian colleges and asked them 
to form study groups among the faculty and students to 
investigate problems assigned to them. Many of the 
colleges in consequence of this began to take a fresh interest 
in this type of investigation. Although they are not ready 
to present the results of their study in systematic form, a 
great deal of progress has been made. Ginling College, 
Yenching College for Women, St. John's University, 
Hangchow Christian College, Soochow University and a few 
others have done some work on the subjects they have 
agreed to study. The following are some of the subjects 
which they hope to cousider: 

f< Nationalism and Racial Antagonism." 

"The Social and Moral effect of the Impact of the 

East and West." 
'• The Characteristics of Eastern and Western Civiliza- 
tions." 
" The Christian Basis of International Relations." 
* The Philosophic Basis of Internationalism." 
'* The Creation of Public Opinion for International 

Friendship." 
" The Church and its Contribution to International 
Life." 



174 THE COMMITTEE ON INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 

" The Problem of the use of Force and War." 
The Place of Women in Bettering International 
Relations." 

Relief to Japan , f fter . the g reat earthquake in Japan, a 
delegation of the Committee was sent to that 
country to take a message of sympathy from the National 
Christian Council to Japanese Christians. This was an 
attempt on the part of the Committee to improve the 
understanding and increase the sympathy between the 
Chinese and Japanese Christians. Various churches in 
China contributed to the relief of sufferers from the great 
earthquake and the sum that the National Christian Council 
sent to Japan by the delegation was $ 5143.77. 

Study of Text- Some stud y waa ma <de of the textbooks 
books used in primary schools to see whether 

statements were made in them which were 
prejudicial to international goodwill and justice. After 
careful study under the direction of Miss S. C. Ting; 
nothing was found on international problems that tended 
to arouse ill feeling on the part of other nations. This fact 
was attributed by some to the generous attitude of the 
Chinese people toward other nations and by others to the 
fact that all the textbooks for the primary schools must 
undergo a careful examination by government authorities. 
In the investigation of the textbooks, assistance was 
secured from a group of Chinese educators, especially 
from Mr. W. T. Tao, the General Secretary of the National 
Association for the Advancement of Education. Dr. Tao 
assured us that there was nothing in the Chinese textbooks 
which would prejudice international friendship It was 
however, pointed out in a letter from him that textbooks 
of the same grade from other countries, especially those of 
t {f- u j- i Sfcates » contained statements concerning China 
which did not do justice to the Chinese people nor to 
Chinese civilization. 

Publications During the first year of the existence of 

. ., tms Committee, a small amount of work was 

done in the way of publication. A few pamphlets were 

printed and circulated. Several papers appeared in the 

China for Christ " bulletin. 



THE COMMITTEE ON INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 175 

In the summer of 1924 a conference was 
CoXenco called and held on Ruling under the 
direction of the Committee. Representatives 
from most of the Christian colleges, both faculty and 
students, attended the conference. There was a unity of 
spirit, an enthusiasm for international fellowship, an 
eagerness to practice international living during the three 
days of the conference, and an attempt to understand 
many of the problems, such as "The Church and its 
Responsibility to Promote international Goodwill," The 
Christian Schools and their Responsibility to better the 
Understanding of people of different Nationalities that they 
touch," "The Characteristics of the Chinese Civilization 
and the Possibilities of China to make a contribution to 
the World," "The Anti-Christian Movement and the 
International aspects of the Opium Problem." Bishop 
L. H. Roots of Hankow and Dr. Westman of the Lutheran 
College, Hunan, made special contributions to the plans 
and discussions of the Conference. 

During the preceding year subjects were 
Metho? m assigned to the colleges for study and 
investigation. This is not satisfactory 
inasmuch as the assignment does not take into considera- 
tion the special interests of the faculty members and 
students of the various colleges; consequently, a change 
was made during the Ruling Conference in making a new 
list of subjects and in asking the representatives of the 
various institutions to choose them in the light of their 
past study, their interest, their situation and the facilities 
that they have. Each college is given the opportunity to 
choose two subjects and to study on one of them. , Since 
that conference, study groups have been formed in the 
colleges for fresh investigation of some of the new problems. 
In one of them an International Club of the Faculty has 
been formed for the study of various questions and for the 
interpretation of the East to the West and the West to the 
East. One or two of the Christian colleges have offered an 
elective course to students on international relations. 
„ Not long after the Ruling Conference last 

rutute nans summer> war Droke out between Riangsu and 
Chekiang which made traveling rather difficult, and 



176 THE COMMITTEE ON INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 

retarded the work of the Committee, which was not able to 
meet and formulate its plans for the year 1924-25, but it is 
hoped that during this year it will be able to offer prizes for 
essays written by middle school students, both boys and 
girls, on subjects of vital concern, assigned by this Com- 
mittee. A continued study will be made of text books used 
in the middle schools. If possible, suggestions will be sent 
to various Christian institutions of learning to create an 
interest among the faculty members and teaching staff in 
regard to the work of the Committee. 

The Committee realizes that while there are a great 
many problems to be dealt with outside of the Christian 
institutions, there are many immediate problems of an 
international character within these institutions which 
should be dealt with immediately in the Christian spirit. 
This is especially important, because the whole Christian 
movement is faced with both the Anti-Christian Religion 
and Anti-Christian Education Movements. 

World Alliance There is one word more to be said - This 
Committee is the China Branch of the World 
Alliance for Promoting International Fellowship through 
the Church. The Alliance has supported this Committee 
financially and has kept a close relationship to it in the 
way of interest and information. Last year Miss S. C. Ting, 
Associate General Secretary of the National Committee of 
the Young Women's Christian Association of China, a 
member of this Committee, was asked to take a message and 
report from us to the World Alliance on her trip to the 
United States. Mr. T. Z. Koo also has been asked to 
represent this Committee in his travels in both Great 
Britain and Europe. In all this the Committee has 
attempted to secure direct relationship between it and the 
churches in the W'est through the living contact of our 
representatives. It is hoped that more of such contact may 
be made possible in the future. 






PART V 
EVANGELISTIC WORK 

CHAPTER XXXIII 

REVIEW OF THE EVANGELISTIC WORK OF THE 

CHURCH IN CHINA AND STUDY 

OF PROBLEMS CONNECTED THEREWITH 

H. T. Hodgfcin 

The following review is based on information obtained 
by the Committee on Retreats and Evangelism of the 
National Christian Council. It is presented not as 
complete and exhaustive, but as giving some material 
which may be checked up by readers from their own 
knowledge and read along with the reports contained in 
the following chapters. 

Evangelistic work may mean either the 

Mean ?° sum tota * of a ^ the e ^ orts in school, church, 

Evangelism? hospital, etc. to present the Gospel to the 
people, or it may be taken as meaning special 
evangelistic efforts directed to the securing of decisions to 
follow Christ, and enter the Church or to study the Bible. 
In the main what here follows refers to the work of 
Evangelism in the second and narrower sense. It must 
therefore be very clear that we are dealing with only a 
part, and it may be only a small part, of the total 
evangelistic effort of the Church in China. At the same 
time what is said in regard to the spirit and motive in 
Evangelism must have some bearing also on the wider 
problem of the total evangelistic impact of the Christian 
upon the non-Christian forces in the country. 

Without in the smallest degree making light of the 
steady work done through all these agencies, it will be 



178 REVIEW OF THE EVANGELISTIC WORK IN CHINA 

agreed by all Christian leaders that there is a large place 
for the special effort if wisely used. It is quite possible 
that the extent of its use in proportion to other types of 
work should vary under varying conditions and cir- 
cumstances. The decline of the use of any method, even 
one so important, cannot be taken as a proof of decline 
in the spirit of evangelism, nor can its wide-spread use 
be regarded as any sure sign that the Church as a 
whole is awake to its duty to those outside. With this 
understanding we may study the situation and learn what 
lessons we can. 

Extent of There is no doubt that a great deal of 

Evangelism evangelistic work (in the sense above defined) 
is being done in China to-day. In Kwangtung 
emphasis is being thrown very strongly on this aspect 
of the Church's duty. A recent retreat urged that the 
wide open doors in the province should be taken as a 
providential indication that even at some temporary cost 
to other branches of work, the evangelistic campaign 
should be pushed with all possible vigor. The demand 
for the Scriptures in this section is unprecedented. The 
Evangelistic Association has many demands upon it and 
is able to give help in a number of places. In Hunan the 
work of the Biola Bands is being continued and is widely 
appreciated by various churches. Similar efforts have 
been undertaken in other provinces, as for example the 
tent evangelism in Shantung which, though still in its 
infancy, is yielding good results. In Szechwan and in 
other border provinces there has been a large amount of 
traveling evangelistic work by groups and by individuals. 
Evangelistic work among soldiers is reported from several 
centers with very gratifying results. Even where the 
permanent additions to the church are few in comparison 
to the large numbers who show some signs of interest, it 
is generally felt that the efforts are of value and there is 
little if any disposition to depart from these time-honoured 
methods. 

There is, however, another side to this picture. In a 
number of centers, and especially where the church has 
been established for many years, there seems to be a very 
distinct falling off in evangelistic fervour and activity. 






I 



REVIEW OF THE EVANGELISTIC WORK IN CHINA 179 



One writer says, "My judgment is that, on the whole, 
evangelism isn't happening." He adds, '• What evangelism 
there is, is left almost entirely to salaried workers whose 
duty it may be supposed to be. The ordinary Christian 
doesn't seem to care a brass button what happens to the 
man outside. The ordinary leader is so busy sitting at 
an office desk or administering the church, attending 
committees, discussing politics, civics, ecclesiastics and 
what not that though his conscience isn't at all easy about 
it, as a matter of fact he gets very little done that he 
is supposed to be there for." This opinion read to a 
representative gathering of missionaries from a wide area 
provoked a response from many signifying their agreement 
therewith. From another section of the country the 
opinion given is that evangelistic efforts are of little use 
in reaching outsiders while of great value in quickening 
the spiritual life of the church members. In several 
retreats the local leaders have agreed that very little direct 
evangelistic work was being done, that what was done 
enlisted very few workers and brought little visible result. 

There is some evidence that women's work is 
distinctly more nourishing than that among men, and 
this may be due to the fact that some of the causes 
mentioned below affect women less than men. 

While very thankful for all that is being done and 
for the blessing which undoubtedly rests upon it, it would 
seem clear that there is room for heart searching both as 
to the reasons why there is a falling off in some sections 
of the field and as to the comparatively meager results in 
a number of places where vigorous efforts have been 
made. The aim of this article is not so much to propound 
remedies as to stimulate this patient thought and heart 
searching until the answer to the problem may be shown 
to each individual and group. 

R Why is there not more Evangelism? The 

Decrease in most fruitful wa y to answer this question 
Evangelism will certainly be for individuals and groups 
to question themselves in a prayerful spirit 
seeking Divine help in order that they may see what are 
the deepest reasons. It will be well to try to see how far 
these are due to external and how far to internal causes. 



180 REVIEW OF THE EVANGELISTIC WORK IN CHINA 

We need also to try to discover whether we are being led 
in any way to change our methods in order that the one 
Everlasting Gospel may be brought more effectively to 
the minds and consciences of the people. The study of the 
situation reveals the following points which may serve to 
stimulate thought. 
TT First, there is a wide-spread uncertainty 

Uncertainty . ', -j. i* a • j 

as to Message as t° tne message itself. Again and again 
Christian leaders are found who are genuinely 
puzzled in regard to some elements in the Christian 
Gospel. They are not sure whether the points on which 
they lack conviction are part of the essentials of the 
Gospel or whether it is legitimate to hold one's judgment 
in suspense on them and still set forth the Gospel message. 
The deeper challenges of the anti-Christian movement and 
the writings of Mr. C. C. Nieh and others have stirred 
many thoughts in the minds of people in some cases 
inadequately prepared to meet these difficulties. Many 
feel a need to re-think their whole position and yet the 
responsibilities they carry give them little if any time so 
to do, the literature at their disposal is not exactly what 
they need, those who could help them are too busy, 
opportunities are not provided for quiet meditation, frank 
interchange of thought and united prayer. So the 
situation is aggravated and the message is either not 
given at all or given uncertainly. It is scarcely possible 
to overstate the extent to which this cause operates in 
the larger centers and those most affected by modern 
thought. It is often not revealed to missionaries or other 
leaders because there is a fear lest these doubts should be 
branded as heresies and the person in question should 
lose his position and his opportunity to serve. It cannot 
be too clearly stated that in many cases the Christian 
conviction itself is unshaken and there is still an earnest 
desire to serve. But the way in which to state and pass 
on the experience is not clearly seen, and for the reasons 
given, solutions are not being found. The difficulty 
referred to is certainly not confined to Chinese, nor to 
those in minor positions in the church. 
The Pressure of Again, the pressure of " affairs " tends to 
Affairs crowd out Evangelism. Not only in the 



REVIEW OF THE EVANGELISTIC WORK IN CHINA 181 

matter just referred to does the " busy -n ess " of Chris- 
tian leaders militate against the preaching of the Gos- 
pel. The affairs of the church take a great deal of time 
from some of the very best men and women. When an 
outstanding leader is discovered the tendency is, at once, 
to load him with executive responsibilities. If the preach- 
ing of the Gospel is to be living and powerful it must come 
out of a life which has enough leisure to strike its roots 
deeply. The very men who should be apostles, freed for 
the giving of their spiritual message, are often spending far 
the largest part of their time in serving tables. When they 
get away for a few days of ' ' retreat ' \ they at once realize 
the immense relief. The difficulty of securing even 
two or three days for such spiritual and intellectual 
intercourse emphasizes the overburdened state in which 
many live. We must seriously ask the question, " Is the 
organization of church work, committees, etc., imposing on 
the leaders of the church a burden which is preventing the 
church from doing its primary work?" If the answer is 
in the affirmative steps must be resolutely sought for dealing 
with the situation. How far is it the creation of the 
westerner, forced upon and not native to the Church of 
China ? 

A third reason is that there is too intimate 
Financial a colinec fci on between Finance and Evangelism. 

Evangelism Almost unconsciously we tend to take the 
position that the extent of the work depends 
upon the financial resources available. One of our 
correspondents suggests that the very opposite may be 
true. He says, " Buddhism in these latter days is militant 
and is making converts because of the folk who really 
believe in it and sacrifice for it. I sometimes wonder if 
the church isn't many times too rich. ' It is looked upon 
as a means of livelihood J says a trenchant Buddhist critic, 
'though the foreigners may talk of the power of God.'" 
Some of our correspondents believe that there is a large 
place in China for the full-time evangelist drawing a salary 
from the church or Mission and doing little else beyond 
holding evangelistic campaigns in one place after another. 
There have been several outstanding examples of such 
leaders and no doubt it will be true as in the early church 



182 REVIEW OF THE EVANGELISTIC WORK IN CHINA 

that some are called to be " evangelists ". One writer 
speaking for a local group says, " It is the general opinion 
that there is ample scope in China for Christian workers 
who will give all their time to the holding of evangelistic 

meetings- •• The wide experience that such evangelists 

acquire enables them to put the Gospel in a way that all 
can understand. The call for them is very strong amongst 
Christian workers here." He adds, however, "Personally 
the only doubt in my own mind is as to whether it is fair 
to the men themselves on account of the wear and tear on 
their own souls." 

From another part of the country we have this view: 
" The professional whole-time evangelist, I think, is not a 
desirable feature to introduce into the Chinese religious 
landscape." Another writer says: " The cure to my 
mind is most emphatically not in the special missioner. 
They will only make it worse, because the more you use 
them the more will it be taken for granted that evangelism 
is a specialist's and not everybody's job." If the preaching 
of the Gospel is regarded as almost entirely the paid 
worker's job, the shortage of funds will, of course, mean a 
falling off in the work. The whole question of the place of 
the paid ministry in the life of the Church of China has 
been eagerly canvassed in one or two retreats and probably 
will come up increasingly for discussion in the near future. 
The way to a solution must be sought through prayerful 
discussion and with an open mind. 

L , , D Finally, there is, too often, a low level of 

Spirituality 6 * 3 spiritual life and experience. A church that 
conceives Christianity chiefly in terms of 
agreement to certain statements or performance of certain 
rites can never be an evangelistic force. There is evidence 
enough that in many parts persons have been admitted to 
church membership on confession of faith with but a very 
meagre personal experience, perhaps with none at all. Is 
it any wonder that a church so built up shows but a feeble 
desire to evangelize ? Again and again the poverty in this 
realm has been brought to light in letters, conversations 
and retreats. In one retreat the Chinese leaders urged the 
danger of the large accessions to the church recorded in 
certain places and movements. In another it was pointed 



REVIEW OF THE EVANGELISTIC WORK IN CHINA 183 

out that the pressure by the missionary organization for 
"results " which could be tabulated as increasing self- 
support or enlarged membership was bringing second-rate 
men into the ministry and keeping out a better type. 
Repeatedly the poverty in worship has been brought to our 
attention and the need of deeper reverence and a truer 
sense of God's presence in public worship as well as at the 
family altar. Another cause of this lack of spiritual vigour 
in the church is said to be, in some places, race divisions. 
" There is no greater hindrance to evangelism, from what- 
ever cause arising than this awful schism in the Church of 
God. For where this racial animosity is, there Christianity 
cannot be. It poisons the very life of the Church; it is the 
very opposite of love, and how can people who are guilty 
of it even try to spread a Christian love that is foreign to 
them ? They may be interested in church government or 

even in church finance but they won't want to spread 

the gospel that brings no peace to their own hearts. " If 
the above remarks can be made in regard to the feeling of 
racial animosity which is recorded only in a few places, 
are they not still more true in regard to breaches of love 
caused by theological controversy, the spirit of which seems 
to have entered into quite a number of Christian groups ? 
It is not suggested that these four causes exhaust the 
subject. It appears from the enquiries made, however, 
that they stand out as those chiefly felt in different parts 
of the country. To deal with these effectively will be one 
of the chief methods whereby a finer service may be 
rendered by the church in the field of evangelism. 
M R ii Why is the Evangelistic work done not 
eager esu s mQre f ru itful ? The reasons given under the 
previous heading must, of course, be considered in 
answering this question also. But in this matter we are 
also concerned with questions of method. Among the 
points which require attention are the following: — 

It appears that in a good many cases 
Inadequate evangelistic campaigns have been gotten up 
and carried through, as one correspondent 
says, "in too much of a hurry and with too much of a 
rush to make the best results possible." The local church 
sometimes takes but little interest in the whole matter. 



184 BEVIEW OF THE EVANGELISTIC WORK IN CHINA 

Good preparatory work is reported in some cases by 
enlisting many workers in the local church and by 
continued prayer. 

There is a widespread feeling that less 
Th °ht n7 t thinking goes into the evangelistic work than 
Pl an into some other departments. Where the 

best results are obtained it is clear that some 
one has been doing hard work in this direction. There 
seems to be a feeling, especially in student evangelism, 
that the best results are to be obtained not by pushing to 
jin immediate confession of faith, (save in groups where 
much careful preparation has been done) but rather in 
getting students to join Bible classes or study groups by 
their attendance at which the reality of their desire to 
know more of the truth can be tested. Reverence for the 
personality of the enquirer or convert is a most important 
matter if we are to secure genuine converts of the 
right type. 

Almost every case where enquiry has been 
Follow up° fy made reveals failure here. One writer re- 
Work ports a church where the local helpers 

"deliberately lost the list of names in order 
that they might escape the work of visiting and keeping in 
touch with individuals." Another tells of a " ten days' 
campaign where out of one hundred and thirty cards 
signed there has resulted so far only one baptism," i.e. 
after 6 months. The Committee has sought for light on 
this problem and for places where good follow-up work can 
be recorded, but with comparatively little success as yet. 
It is to be hoped that the annual meeting may bring 
further light on the question. The fact that many are 
illiterate and cannot read their Bibles presents a very real 
obstacle which is being dealt with in some cases by use of 
phonetic script or the 1000-character method. 

One further point, urged from various parts 
Chinese ° USe °* ^ e ^ e ^> * s fcne failure adequately to use 
Background fcne r i°h material in China's own religious 

past as a means both for making contacts and 
for building up a true and fuller religious message. It is 
felt that many Chinese preachers and graduates from 
mission schools have not the necessary training in the 



REVIEW OF THE EVANGELISTIC WORK IN CHINA 185 

Chinese classics and do not know how to use this material 
to advantage. At a time when the national spirit is very- 
strong this task is the more keenly felt. But quite apart 
from the pressure of the present situation, is there not here 
a field which demands a far larger amount of thought, 
patient work and careful instruction ? 

How may evangelistic work be increased 
Methods for an d improved ? The way to meet the present 
Evangelisfic situation will, of course, be determined by 
Work the causes in any particular case. This 

review is not intended to lay down any 
policy for advance, but rather to help those who may be 
studying the situation to work out their own solutions. A 
few general lines may be indicated. 

N . f A perfectly candid facing of the situation 

Analysis seems to be a first essential. How can the 

real roots of the trouble be brought to light ? 
There is need of patience and sympathy in order that real 
mutual understanding may be achieved. To be shocked 
by doubts and difficulties is a sure way to close the door to 
a further expression of them. We need to give one 
another credit for sincerity and an earnest desire to see 
and follow the truth. Misunderstandings, racial or theo- 
logical, can be removed only in a spirit of Christian love 
and real respect. 
P ef The situation calls for much prayer. The 

difficulties are not on the surface, but take us 
into the heart of what we understand by the Christian 
Gospel, what is our actual experience of God in Christ, 
how we may make a real contact with the souls of others. 
This kind cometh not out but by prayer. Our correspondents 
urge the need for a call to prayer, not in any mechanical 
way but fo laid on the hearts of all believers that we shall 
not rest content until new light shines in our hearts and 
on our way. 

Some have expressed the opinion recently that the 
time has passed for the missionary to do evangelistic work 
himself. To the church in China this work must indeed 
increasingly pass. We need to recognize this fact. But 
there is abundant evidence that the missionary who is 
called and qualified is still needed himself in the ranks of 



186 KEVIEW OF 1HE EVANGELISTIC WORK IN CHINA 



the evangelists, not indeed in many cases as the leader 
directing the group, but often as one among the brethren 
putting in his strength, experience and devotion. 
N , , Repeatedly we hear of the need felt for one 

Leadership or more real prophets among the Christians 

of China to lead the Church into fresh realms 
of spiritual adventure. The need may include a fearless 
exposition of evils which have grown up through tradition, 
through compromise with evil or through a thoughtless 
transfer to China of practices used elsewhere. There is 
no doubt a longing in many places for a voice calling the 
Church of China to step forth into the promised land. 
Can we use our time in prayer to better advantage than 
to pray for such a voice or voices? 

p , At the same time we are reminded that 

Evangelism there is grave danger in reliance on the few 

specialists in this field. More than one of 
our correspondents has urged that it is personal evangelism 
which is needed rather than great meetings and we have 
been reminded that the majority of converts in a number 
of places are brought in through personal contacts with 
ordinary Christian folk. 
R It is still clear that the retreat is a method 

of particular value in helping the Church 
to face the situation. The time spent in prayer and 
meditation repeatedly leads to new discoveries of God's 
will as we talk together of the things of the Kingdom. 
Perfect frankness, true humility, the habit of seeking 
for that which our Master brings to us through other 
personalities, a quietness of spirit which is not always 
oppressed by the desire to get on to the next job, — these 
are some of the things which are helped by and which 
contribute towards a retreat. 

Yet we cannot close without the reminder that the 
chief way in which to gain a truer spirit of evangelism is 
to do the work itself, rather than to talk about it. Only 
as we get into touch with men and women in spiritual 
need do we so feel our own unworthiness that we are 
driven to prayer and self -discipline. It is in doing God's 
work that we learn more of how to do it. 






REVIEW OF THE EVANGELISTIC WORK IN CHINA 187 

To many it seems that at the present 
Q Im |?. r epoch it is quality rather than mere quantity 

Rather than which must be our aim. Of course we want 
Quality to bring many more within sound of the 

Gospel, and it is our passionate desire that 
very many may find in Christ their Lord and Saviour 
and may see in Him the God whom they seek. It is 
nevertheless true that the Church is weak to-day, in part, 
because it is too large, i.e., because it contains too many 
who have come in more for what they can get than in 
order to give their all to Christ for the salvation of men. 
Has the Gospel been presented, as our critics are saying, 
as an appeal to selfishness? Have not some found their 
way into the Church and even the ministry because they 
desired material advancement? Is the daring spirit of 
the first Christians found in our churches when they 
face grave moral evils within the Church or outside her 
borders ? Is there the warm spiritual fellowship which 
overcomes all differences and compels the onlooker to say, 
u Behold how these Christians love one another " ? Such 
are some of the questions which may lead us, under the 
guidance of the Holy Spirit, to a deeper place of penitence 
and of power. 



CHAPTER XXXIV 

THE WEEK OF EVANGELISM 
George A. Clayton 

In the limited space allocated to me I cannot attempt 
to state the history of the movement which has come to he 
known as the " Week of Evangelism." It has been 
observed with growing zeal from 1918 to 1924, and there 
is every indication that the " Week " will be more widely 
observed in 1925 than ever before. Speaking for the 
Religions Tract Society for China, 890,000 special tracts, 
180,000 special choruses and 18,000 posters were needed 
to meet the demand in 1924. Of the special China for 
Christ Bulletin issued by the National Christian Council 
50,000 were called for, and reprints were made locally in 
two or three centres. 

It has been no part of my duty to collect reports on 
the way in which the " Week " has been observed, but I 
can quote from six reports sent in from the churches in 
one district in the Hunan Province. These are probably 
quite typical. 

1. An Ren hsien. Campaign from the 1st to the 6th 
of the New Year. Five volunteer workers were secured. 
There was house to house visitation, preaching in the 
Chapel in the afternoon, and in the house of a Christian 
at night. The workers were heard gladly and many 
hearts were touched. 

2. Chang Ning hsien. Campaign from the 5th to the 
15th. There were three volunteer workers. These engaged, 
together with the Evangelist, in house to house visitation 
throughout the period of the campaign. 

3. Chu Ting. A five days' campaign. There were 
twelve volunteers who divided into bands, three, two or 
even one man in a band. These went from house to house, 
preaching in the mornings. At two in the afternoon they 



THE WEEK OF EVANGELISM 189 

returned to the Chapel where they preached on the six 
suggested subjects for the Week of Evangelism. At the 
following Wednesday evening prayer meeting, more than 
fifty were present. Cottage prayer meetings were held 
each evening of the campaign. 

4. Heng Shan hsien. During the six days' campaign 
the volunteer workers increased from 8 to 12. These 
workers visited daily in the homes. The attendance at 
the evening meetings at the Chapel increased from 60 to 
300. A total of 680 of the Week of Evangelism Tracts were 
distributed, together with 84 portions of the Scriptures. 
The Campaign was not without some results: A Con- 
fucian scholar came to the Chapel and said, " I want to 
become an inquirer in your Church ;" two church members 
made a new start in the Christian life; a merchant came 
to the Chapel and told the Evangelist that he wanted to 
be a disciple of Jesus. 

5. Lei Yang hsien. The Campaign opened with 
neighborhood prayer-meetings among the Christians. 
There were three volunteer workers. As a result of the 
Campaign 3 enquirers were enrolled and many more 
promised to be regular attendants at the Church. 

6. Sin Shi Giai. In the Campaign here, there were 
two volunteer workers. As a result of the effort, 2 men 
and 1 woman were enrolled as enquirers. There were 
better results and more volunteer workers in the surround- 
ing country towns. 

In another letter which I have received it is stated 
that the missionary and his colleagues went for a week at 
a time to each of several village centres and spent the 
early hours of each day in Bible Study, the hours be- 
tween morning and evening rice in visiting surrounding 
villages, and the evenings in meetings with the Christians 
and others who were attracted. In a third case the 
11 Week " at a mission centre — a county town — inspired 
the local Church with the desire to visit systematically 
every part of the county, the campaign to last over many 
weeks. 

I am convinced, after close association with this 
movement since its inception in China, that it calls forth 



190 



THE WEEK OF EVANGELISM 



the spirit of evangelism in any Church which makes full 
use of the method by enlisting the co operation of the 
members of the Church. If only the regular evangelists 
share in the work, it does not become an evangelistic 
opportunity for the whole membership. 






CHAPTER XXXV 

STUDENT EVANGELISM 
O. R. Magiii 

I. A New Malcolm Spencer said ' ' The ' evangel ' is 

Evangelism, a permanent but the "ism " has to be modified 
New Emphasis to meet the age." One wonders if we have 
M-tfTd yefc discovered tne Proper " ism " which this 

Which?' generation of Chinese students, either govern- 

ment or mission school, requires. 

It is not so much a question of an older or a newer 
evangelism but rather one of a narrower or wider; narrow 
in the sense of its appeal attempting to bring students to 
God via only one type of experience, as over against one 
that recognizes the widely varying conditions of individuals 
and strives to understand and show God's sufficiency for 
each. It must also be wider in the sense of the "fishing" 
being but a part of an educational process of "feeding," 
so evangelizing the intellect, the emotions and the will. 
In the terms of a writer in The World To-morrow, the tendency 
is to emphasize rather the great declaration of Christ, "I 
will make you fishers of men " than his later command 
" Feed my sheep." 

In the end the real test of any evangelism is its 
abiding quality and its reality, not the suddenness or 
singularity for which many seem to look. 
jj Ch . We are rapidly moving into a period when 

C^nditioas gmg stU( *ents will no longer accept Christianity 
unless it appeals to their reason as well as to 
their emotional nature. The time has passed in China 
when the Christian, faith can be imported wholesale. 
There was a time when students were interested im- 
mediately by the story of what Christianity could do for 
them as individuals and for their country. Now they need 
to have cleared away for them the problems that have 
arisen in regard to the value of religion, the truth of 



192 STUDENT EVANGELISM 

Christianity and the so-called sins of the church. In the 
midst of the welter of criticism which is levelled at the 
church and the foreigner students begin to lose their ready 
confidence in the Westerner, while at the same time there 
is rising up within them new aspirations for race and 
country which they find do not harmonize with the 
implications of a religion that teaches the doctrines of 
brotherhood of man, non-resistance, love of neighbor, etc. 
Ill F As never before in the history of Christian 

Work° fCeSa missi ' ons in^ China the forces at work have 
turned their attention to students. This 
means that there is rapidly coming a recognition of the 
strategic importance of this potentially great though 
numerically small group. It also means that there is a 
realization of inadequate returns in Christian lives that are 
counting in permanence and effectiveness for the Christian 
cause in the community, for the outlay in mission schools 
in men and money. It also means that many have begun 
to realize that many of China's and the Church's great 
Christian leaders of the future must come from among the 
government students. Nine missionary societies other 
than the Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. had special student 
workers in ten of the great government student centers last 
year. Besides the ninety-six Y.M. and Y.W. local Student 
Secretaries, both Chinese and Foreign, and more than seven 
hundred volunteer workers, the National Y.M. and Y.W. 
staffs, the National Christian Council staff and several 
connected with the national work of the denominational 
boards gave proportionately of their time to direct 
evangelistic work among students. Eighteen national 
leaders^ pledged at least a week each season to be 
spent in as many schools in direct evangelistic work 
for students. 

Every mission school has had resident on its campus, 
in its faculty and student body, evangelistic forces that we 
are constrained to believe have only begun to realize their 
possibilities. Christian students have scarcely accepted the 
challenge of their opportunity, yet no others can so 
effectively reach and influence their mon-Christian fellow 
students. Some progress was made during the year in 
several institutions in training student workers both for 



STUDENT EVANGELISM 193 

work in the mother school and for deputation work in 
sister schools. 

The methods used have varied greatly over 
IV. Methods ^ w j 10 j e coun try, as do also the opinions of 
what constitutes evangelism. It is doubtful 
if any two denominational groups would give the same 
definition or approve of exactly the same methods. There 
has also been a great variety of approach in different parts 
of the country by the same organization, for example the 
Y.M. and Y.W.C.A. In the main, however, the following 
means have had a widespread use : 

1. Large Meetings : 

We mean by this term meetings which endeavor to 
reach in large numbers students of a middle school, college 
or university grade in distinction from the smaller 
meetings dealing with them by college classes or social 
groups. Almost all the Christian schools have held, 
during the year, from one to five series of such meetings of 
from three to ten meetings each with a direct evangelistic 
objective. In some of the schools these efforts have been 
highly organized campaigns of the more popular type with 
individual workers, prayer groups and discussion groups 
working smoothly for the winning of large numbers of 
decisions. In others they have been quieter and more 
dignified presentations with very little effort to bring 
about decisions for baptism at the time, but rather 
depending upon the normal religious activities of the 
school year to produce results. It is being more widely 
felt that decisions for baptism should come in the most 
natural way without being forced and as a natural 
expression of what the student himself has discovered and 
arrived at. 

Among government students the day of the great mass 
meeting where large numbers are asked for decisions has 
passed. Experience seems to point to the fact that unless 
intimate contacts have already been established, and each 
individual can be followed up wisely, more harm than 
good may be done. The large meeting, however, still fills 
need as shown by the fact that more than 100,000 






194 STUDENT EVANGELISM 

government students attended 500 religious meetings held 
in the Y.M.C.A. student centers during the year. 

2. Small Group Meetings : 

Among the most effective efforts made during the year 
have been those through small informal meetings with 
homogeneous groups of students, where the message was 
given through a short talk in conversational style and then 
followed by a free discussion. These have been made very 
effective not only during a campaign but regularly 
through the year where the right type of leader has been 
available. Conditions and circumstances should determine 
the wisdom of using this method, but without doubt it is 
one of the most effective means of winning government 
students. The most natural opportunity to make an open 
avowal of decision to go forward with Christ as Lord comes 
in such groups, especially if they have met often enough 
to become well acquainted. 

3. The Discussion : 

As supplementing addresses, especially the type 
provocative of thought, the opportunity for discussion, 
preferably at a different time than the address, has been 
an innovation in China during the past two years. It is 
especially effective in leading students to make their own 
discovery of God. The flow of difficult questions from 
students in several instances has almost overwhelmed the 
leader, but has opened the way for a message that could be 
aimed at a definite mark. This method requires a leader 
with wide experience, a thorough knowledge of the whole 
field of religion, and an ability to think quickly. A few 
points regarding such groups emerged from a discussion by 
a group of evangelistic leaders and may be of value : 

It is most important to establish a sense of confidence 
in the leader. Students often do not care to speak because 
of timidity. It is often the fear of the consequences of a 
question that keeps them from expressing themselves. In 
order to bring about such confidence we need to honor the 
students by making them feel that they are in a position 
of equality with the leader. We need to take men at their 
best. The leader should always show that he is taking the 



STUDENT EVANGELISM 195 

student attitude of mind. This can be done through the 
opening addresses of a campaign by a certain type of talk. 
It might be well to have questions written out and handed 
in, especially just following an address. These can be 
taken up in discussion groups. 

4. Personal Evangelism: 

There is no evidence that Chinese students to any large 
extent have become interested in individual work for 
individuals. In certain schools groups of students have 
banded themselves together to do personal work; but the 
result has too often been rather a forced and unnatural 
attempt that in many cases has resulted in repelling rather 
than in winning. This does not mean that there are not 
students who have persistently and tactfully set about to 
win their fellows to the Christian way of life. 

One is led to wonder if personal work done just at the 
time of an evangelistic meeting can ever be very effective. 
Confidence in the individual, built upon friendship, is an 
essential that cannot be overlooked, and Christian friendship 
that expresses its interest in the individual only at such 
special times is not conducive to confidence. 

It has been noted that the best work has been done in 
those schools where, 

(1) Conditions are such that the students have 
opportunity in their ordinary school life for the 
development of a normal fellowship built on the 
friendship basis, and 

(2) Where the faculty of the school has set the right 
example. 

Quoting from a recent study made of this subject: 
.-- We have probably lost much of our effectiveness in 
the use of this method because of confusion, viz: 

(1) Personal work has been thought of as a peculiar 
method of dealing with persons to win them to the 
Christian life, whereas it is a way of dealing with 
them in all phases of life. The personal relation- 
ship is one of the fundamental relationships of 
life. It is also probably the one most commonly 
experienced. 



196 STUDENT EVANGELISM 

(2) On the other hand we have pulled this method 
out of its setting in the social relationships of 
life and out of its connection with other methods 
of approach and have endeavored to erect it into 
an activity apart from the other elements of the 
program. It is one tool in a kit of several for 
accomplishing our task." 

5. Detail of Typical Campaigns: 

Dr. Hodghin at Cheloo University. 

There was quiet but earnest preparation at Cheloo 
University for Dr. Hodgkin's eight-day campaign Nov. 
9-16 when he gave himself especially to the religious needs 
of the University. These meetings aroused wide and 
sustained interest on the part of students and faculty 
alike. The response to both the morning addresses and 
the evening discussion hours was highly gratifying. Prac- 
tically the whole student body attended fully both morn- 
ing and evening meetings with a sustained and growing 
interest. 

After the first evening the questions poured in thick 
and fast. The questions grouped themselves mainly about 
certain larger problems, and as the number accumulated 
Dr. Hodgkin was able to reply not in detail but by going 
back to fundamental principles which would serve as a 
basis for the answering of individual questions, and would 
give a line of thought which the student could himself 
pursue. The response to this message was due in large 
measure to the soundness of the approach to student 
religious experience through the door of the mind, the 
willingness to tackle the most vexing questions and the 
complete respect for the personality of the questioner. 

There was abundant evidence that a deep impression 
had been made upon the thinking and the religious 
convictions of the students. The Christian leaders among 
the students, especially the officers of the Christian 
Association, threw themselves wholeheartedly into the 
work of preparation and conduct of the meetings in a way 
that must mean much to their powers of leadership during 
the rest of the year. 



9TUDENT EVANGELISM 197 

" Dad" Elliott at Foochow. 

During early December, ■' Dad " Elliott went to 
Foochow for a week's campaign among the students of the 
Christian middle schools of the city. It was so arranged 
that the students from the schools at Nantai could come 
together about a thousand strong each morning for an hour, 
to hear an inspiring message which traced the great world 
religious issues of the day right down to the campus, and 
challenged the students to begin to solve these smaller 
beginnings or else fail on the larger. "Dad " then went 
into each school separately, and several times into those 
schools that were too far distant to hear the morning 
message. Each afternoon at four a group of leading 
students from each school, who had been meeting for 
prayer and personal work prior to the meetings, came 
together for twenty minutes of devotion and then broke 
up into their several groups to discuss the application of 
the morning message to their own school and work out 
concrete plans for follow-up. Other leaders met with 
smaller groups of student leaders in each school for 
discussion of problems and plans growing out of ,. Dad's " 
message. 

On the morning of the last day at the close of the 
address it was decided to ask for students to make some 
kind of forward step. Several hundreds indicated their 
determination to do so in writing upon cards which had 
been placed in their hands. Some of these were decisions 
to accept Christ ; others were decisions regarding life work ; 
most indicated a changed attitude toward religion and a 
determination to follow the truth wherever the search leads. 

In the afternoon two or three hundred of the student 
leaders met for a retreat and a final message from " Dad ". 
It was an inspired group and if the dynamic of the lives 
of those students will continue to carry through with the 
plans that were made there the school life of Foochow will 
be revolutionized. 
6. Results: 

The writer does not propose to give in any adequate 
way the results accomplished among students by evange- 
listic efforts during the year. That is obviously impossible. 



198 STUDENT EVANGELISM 

There is no organization attempting to collect and tabulate 
any comprehensive statement from all the Christian forces. 
Figures at best are only one means of measuring results. 
The Y. M. and Y. W, through the local Student Associa- 
tions have collected figures from the widest field covering 
schools of all types and denominations, of middle school 
and above. They also have a more or less complete report 
of work done among government students. 

The following figures, provided by the Y. M. C. A. 
Student Division, are significant. In 201 schools with 
41,570 students enrolled, 13,937 of whom were Christian, 
2,343 students were baptised during the year. 33-1/3 
per cent are baptised Christians and 17 per cent of that 
number were baptised during the year. 

In the main government student centers 718 students 
were reported by the Y. M. C. A. as deciding for 
Christianity with 265 actually joining the Church. 
Although this is less than half the number reported as 
deciding for Christianity during the preceding year, the 
actual number joining the Church is considerably increased. 
This bears out the statement made above that the mass 
evangelistic meeting culminating in decisions is becoming 
less popular than before, and indicates that decisions 
obtained in other ways are being better followed up. 

tu ru u There is enough spiritual dynamic potential- 

of J925 ty ™ ^e lives of the Christian students and 

faculties of both Christian and government 
schools, if awakened and released and guided to express 
itself, to revolutionize the school life of the nation in a 
generation. The writer does not pretend to have wide 
enough knowledge of the situation to point out the reasons 
for our apparent failure to awaken this sort of life among 
students. But is he mistaken in feeling that student 
Christian life so far has met with so little of real challenge 
in what we have presented as its task, in what it has met 
to overcome, that it has become stagnant? Has it not 
been far too easy a life in the protected atmosphere of the 
Christian school ? Has the life of the Christian schools not 
tended to produce far too many of the M hot house " variety 
of Christian students ? Have there not been far too many 



STUDENT EVANGELISM 199 

students unconscious of the challenge in the life about 
them? 

It seems to the writer that in the anti-Christian 
movement, the Christians in the schools, both students 
and faculty, are faced with such a challenge as has never 
come to this generation. It is his conviction that they 
ought to be exposed to its blasts, accepting it as an 
unparalleled opportunity. It should awaken all the latent 
loyalty and bring into action all the unreleased powers 
that are wrapped up in the lives of the Christian 
youth within both the Christian and government schools, 
expressing itself in literary production, in vitalized 
personality, in speech and in Christian living. 

Should our plans for the year not be made in the 
light of this opportunity and challenge ? Already the 
young Christians are being stirred as never before to defend 
their faith and to accept the challenge. Already the 
organizations that have contact with students are making 
plans to meet the attack and are shaping their whole 
program accordingly. 

The Y. M. C. A. is calling together the Executive 
Secretaries of Summer Conferences for 1925 in order to 
study the problems and reach a common mind on the 
theme and program that will make the greatest contribution 
toward meeting this challenge. 



CHAPTER XXXVI 

THE RELIGIOUS POLICY AT YENCHING UNIVERSITY 
J. Leighton Stuart 

The Christian college in China has been 
ChrfsUan founded as an integral part of the missionary 

College enterprise. It exists for the purpose of 

winning its students to Christ and of fitting 
them for His service, as well as in order to do its 
part in all other ways toward the strengthening of the 
Christian community and to witness to the meaning and 
value of Christian faith. The funds contributed for its 
physical equipment and for its annual maintenance have 
been given chiefly, if not entirely, with these objectives in 
view, and are being expended with an unqualified desire 
for attaining them. There is therefore no question what- 
ever as to its function. The problem as to what methods 
can be used to best advantage is, however, a perplexing one. 
The intellectual awakening which for some 
SituatioTamong y ears P ast ^ as Deen surging through student 
Students circles has produced a reaction against all 

religion as a " left-over " from the supersti- 
tions of the past, discredited by present-day scientific 
knowledge. More recently the organized attacks against 
Christian education (whatever may be the sources from 
which they are being inspired and financed) are creating a 
further revulsion against religious propaganda as imperia- 
listic in spirit, and in some way associated with capitalism 
and the political or economic exploitation of China by 
western nations. Students in the Christian colleges are 
quite familiar with these and similar currents of thought 
and are more or less under their influence. Most of these 
students, perhaps, have come from mission middle schools 
in which they have been surfeited with compulsory 
attendance on religious exercises, and required courses of 
religious instruction not always well-taught. Others come 



THE RELIGIOUS POLICY AT YENCHING UNIVERSITY 201 

from government middle schools in which the little that 
they may have learned of Christianity has put them on 
guard against any inclination to accept its teachings. All 
this is aggravated by their new and rather sensitive 
nationalistic self-consciousness, and their restless discontent 
with the existing order. Finally there is the demand, 
becoming more and more articulate, for the revision 
of the treaties which alone permit us to conduct these 
institutions as we please, in defiance of the policy the 
Chinese Government would enforce if it could. Such a 
policy would forbid all required religious exercises or 
courses of study, and would possibly even cancel the right 
of foreigners to maintain schools under any conditions. 
The net result of all this ferment is a mood of religious 
indifferentism on the part of the great majority of students. 
They prefer to ignore the whole issue and to concentrate 
on their studies with a view to improving their economic 
status. Even the better Christian -students are feeling and 
fighting against this blight of indifference. 
A Constructive What then should be the program of the 
Policy Christian college as it attempts under such 

conditions to realize its religious purpose ? 
Speaking for the one with which the writer is connected 
the first emphasis has been to make it a demonstration of 
Christian principles at work. A faculty of heterogeneous 
elements — Chinese and Western, European and American, 
men and women, representing a wide variety of denomina- 
tional upbringing and covering almost the entire range of 
theological opinion — are consciously applying the teach- 
ings of Jesus to all the mutual relationships of their daily 
living, and to their administrative problems and institu- 
tional activities. They are trying to act on the same basis 
in all their dealings with the students who in their turn 
are encouraged to observe the same procedure. Racial 
prejudices cannot survive in such an atmosphere. Financial 
issues, including the salaries of all concerned, are discussed 
together in an effort to find the Christian solution for 
them. Internal differences of view or disappointed plans, 
criticisms by other missionaries or attacks from anti- 
Christian sources, are all treated as opportunities for 
revealing the Christian spirit. Educational standards are 

r 



202 THE RELIGIOUS POLICY AT YENCHINQ UNIVERSITY 

determined upon with the thought that the Master is 
honored when His name is associated with proper require- 
ments honestly maintained. For the same reason all 
pretence or euphemistic statements in our bulletins and 
catalogs are avoided, and every effort is made to keep 
within the simple realities. Those vocational courses are 
planned for which seem to contribute most to the 
advancement of the Christian cause or which permit the 
fullest exercise of Christian ideals. 

In other words, we of Yenching University 
An Example of j iaye reac h e( j the conviction that the primary 
Living in a nee( * in China to-day, at any rate in student 
Community circles, is not so much the proclaiming of 
historical facts or the defense of theological 
doctrines concerning our faith as the witnessing to the 
transforming dynamic and spiritual idealism of this faith 
in our corporate life. If we can so function as actually 
to have a distinctive atmosphere and character in contrast 
with non-Christian institutions we shall have given a 
testimony more far-reaching in its influence and more 
convincing than if we merely induce a number of our 
own students to a profession of Christian faith. Such 
testimony cannot but commend the Christian message to 
many both within and without the institution and lead 
them to Him who alone is the inspiring cause of the 
phenomenon. At a time when many educated Chinese 
are familiar with the external facts of Christianity and 
in a revolt against its propaganda such a Christianized 
standard of communal life is a message to the outside 
public and furnishes the environment in which those 
within its fellowship can be encouraged to adopt for 
themselves the Christian way of life. Every facility is 
supplied for such study and for practice in Christian living. 
Services on Sunday and a daily chapel are 

Religious made as attractive as possible but attendance 

Instruction and ,, . .,, * 1 . . •-, 

Discussion on them is without any compulsion. A wide 
variety of courses on religion is included in 
the curriculum and there are voluntary Bible and religious 
discussion classes organized chiefly by the student Christian 
leaders. The position is unreservedly taken that religious 
truth has nothing to fear from scientific or philosophic 



THE RELIGIOUS POLICY AT YENCHING UNIVERSITY 203 

thought, and that therefore all truth ancient or modern 
may be freely and fearlessly taught and sought, in the 
confidence that harmony between Christian faith and 
human knowledge in other fields will be arrived at by 
every earnest and unprejudiced learner. The faculty are 
expected to form personal contacts with students in the 
hope that these will lead to religious interest and decisions. 
Beginning with next session there will be a well-trained 
director of religious activities giving full time to this 
one task and bringing to it a rich experience in leading 
students to Christ. The Department of Religion and the 
post-graduate School of Theology are being reorganized in 
such a way as to offer a wide range of elective courses 
in these subjects, enabling students to major in them with 
or without vocational intent both in undergraduate and 
graduate study. There is the further effort to awaken a 
desire for Chinese interpretations of Christian faith based 
on personal religious experience and Chinese psychology 
and racial culture, framed in the light of those historical 
expressions of that same faith of which we western 
missionaries are the stewards. Perhaps more than all else 
do those who are dreaming out the Yenching ideal yearn to 
see many of its students, both men and women, deciding, 
while in college, to offer themselves for that specialized 
training which will fit them for being the colleagues, and 
in time the successors, of missionaries from other lands, 
and among the most consecrated and highly qualified 
builders of the Church of Christ in China. Such young 
men and women preeminently, and all others in such 
measure as each may have caught its meaning, will thus 
give evidence that the University is really living according 
to its motto drawn from two of the greatest words of Jesus: 
Freedom through Truth for Service. 



CHAPTER XXXVII 

EVANGELISTIC WORK. IN SZECHWAN 
H. J. Openshaw 

The year under review has seen no remarkable 
spiritual movement among the Churches in Szecbwan. 
However, there has been some good spade work done in 
schools and churches, and evangelistic campaigns have been 
held in a score of centres. Special interest in the study of 
the Bible has been evidenced in several places and retreats 
have been held, with benefit to church leaders, in three 
cities. 

The Szechwan Christian Council, through 
Evangelism ^ s Evangelistic Committee, planned and 
executed two extended evangelistic campaigns. 
The evangelists visited thirteen cities and large market 
towns, reaching students, church members, outsiders and 
prisoners. Several of the communities were stirred and 
the church members revived. A large corps of workers was 
enlisted in these campaigns and personal workers' bands 
were organized. The Methodist Episcopal Mission, Canadian 
Methodist Mission, China Inland Mission, Y.M.C.A., and 
Baptist Mission all set apart leaders to help in this piece of 
cooperative effort. A total of 366 addresses was delivered 
during these campaigns and 1780 were enrolled as in- 
quirers. Literally thousands of tracts and scripture portions 
were broadcasted, reaching into districts where no mes- 
senger of the Gospel ever penetrate3. In the several cities 
visited cordial invitations from Government schools of all 
grades were received and many helpful contacts were made. 
But far and away the most satisfactory work was done with 
our own Christian school students, and the response from 
both boys and girls, those who are to be the future leaders 
of the church, was most gratifying. The faithful work of 
devoted teachers was evident in the foundation work which 
had been done, making the appeal for decision and 
dedication by the Missionaries easy. 






EVANGELISTIC WORK IN SZECHWAN 205 

The Chengtu Y.M.C.A., assisted by the 
Student various church leaders, put on a special 

vange ism campaign for Government School students at 
Chinese New Year time. A total of 3000 students attended 
the four meetings; inspiring addresses were delivered and 
466 signed cards expressing a desire to study the Bible. 
Thirty-four Government schools were represented in these 
meetings. 

The *Y 5 also held a Student Summer Conference for 
picked men. There was a student enrollment of J 10 and 
44 signed up expressing the desire for a personal interview 
on religion. 

Literature has figured prominently in 

Literature evangelism and missions are really beginning 

.vange um ^ ^^ ^ problem of appointing men 

especially for this work. An investment in money, still 

very inadequate, is also being made. 

The Canadian Mission Presses have been worked to 
their capacity, turning out great quantities of catechisms, 
hymn books, Gospel portions and no less than one million 
Gospel tracts. 

The Bible Societies have continued their splendid 
warfare, and the three Societies operating in West China, 
The American Bible Society, The British & Foreign Bible 
Society and the National Bible Society of Scotland, 
have circulated portions making a magnificent total 
of 1,789,000. 

The West China Religious Tract Society report shows 
that its total circulation was over 2,000,000. 

A new evangel has appeared during the year, with a 
monthly circulation of 2500 and reaching an increasingly 
large constituency. I refer to the CHRISTIAN HOPE, 
published by the Canadian Mission, though really serving 
all the churches. 

I Who will estimate the sum-total of good accruing to 
the Church in West China, and to the great unleavened 
mass, from this splendid service rendered by all these 
hand-maids of the church ! 
In the past, notwithstanding exceedingly 
Evan'elism friendly contacts with a number of military 
nge ism i eac i erS) no special openings have come for 
: 



206 EVANGELISTIC WORK IN SZECHWAN 

Christian service among the thousands of soldiers who press 
us on every side. One Captain Chae Yao Hsien in the 
Twenty Second Division on his own initiative organized a 
Y.M.C.A., and has had preaching for the troops. He has 
been outstanding in his friendly relations with the churches 
and Y.M.C.A. 

In the southwestern part of the province a remarkable 
opening came for work among the troops of General Chow 
Hsi Cheng's division. The General extended a pressing 
invitation for a visit by Christian leaders; an evangelistic 
band was formed, representing four organizations, and 
eight happy days were spent at his army headquarters 
heralding and teaching the good news of the Kingdom. 
The General treated the visitors most cordially and 
recommended by speech and actions the message of the 
Christian Church. He avowed his belief that, "Only 
religion can save the Nation or the individual, and that the 
Christian religion is the best, and the true and direct way 
of access to God." This opening is being followed up. 
R f An interesting experiment in Rural E van- 

Evangelism gelism has been conducted by a senior 
missionary on the Faculty of Religion at the 
Union University. Together with a group of students 
studying for the ministry he has for the past five years 
systematically visited six nearby market towns, conducting 
weekly meetings in temples, tea shops and chapels. 
When the work was started there was not a single 
Christian in any of the places. Forty members and sixty 
probationers are now reported, and barring the cost of 
travel, most of the expense has been covered locally. Here 
we have a valuable suggestion for pushing evangelism, at 
once practical, in that the students gain first-hand 
experience in preaching and building a work up from the 
base, besides meeting people who are the backbone of the 
Nation. Church members might likewise be used in such 
endeavor. Then too the expense connected with carrying 
on work of this nature is light. The Evangelization of 
Rural Communities might well be an immediate objective 
of the Chinese Church. 

Personal The Evangelistic Committee of the Sze- 

Evangelism chwan Christian Council is the body to 



EVANGELISTIC WOBK IN SZECHWAN 207 

coordinate the work of evangelism throughout the 
Province, but it is greatly to be hoped that each Mission 
will see the importance of stressing evangelism and 
that they will set aside some of their best Chinese and 
foreign leaders for this work. However, the task of 
evangelizing Szechwan's 60,000,000 people is so tremendous 
that we must enlist, inspire, educate the whole rank and 
file of our church membership to become soul-winners, 
personal workers, evangels, or we shall always be con- 
fronted with the " unfinished task." With such a force we 
shall at once " increase the momentum of evangelism" 
and quickly extend the borders of the Redeemer's 
Kingdom. 

Ff . Military occupation, together with dis- 

turbed conditions, has militated against 
aggressive evangelism in some districts. But experienced 
workers agree that " Szechwan was never so open to the 
Gospel as now. The people amid their political strife and 
general unrest, are seeking a spiritual message." 

It has not been possible to secure reports from workers 
along all Szechwan's " far-flung-battle-line," but it is 
evident that all are alive to the urgency and need for 
evangelism. Colporteurs, missionaries and Chinese leaders 
have reached many remote regions, while from the 
Tibetan Marches we have the inspiring message that 
" some 160,000 portions of respectable literature have been 
placed in the hands of the ' wild men ' of Tibet." 



CHAPTER XXXVIII 

RECENT EFFORTS IN EVANGELISM IN THE 

METHODIST EPISCOPAL MISSION 

L, J. Birney 

Causes of After four y ears of em3rt to increase the 

Weakness evangelistic returns in the Central China area 

of our Church, during which many methods 
and plans old and new were tried, the writer is convinced 
that the fundamental present evangelistic need is a more 
deeply spiritualized Church membership. I do not suppose 
that the Chinese membership in the Methodist Church is 
below the membership of other churches in spiritual 
vitality. From what studies I have been able to make I 
judge that the conditions in this respect are much the same 
in all the churches. There are many and marked in- 
dividual exceptions, but I am convinced that, as a rule, the 
prevailing idea of Christianity and the Christian life in the 
thought even of those who have accepted it and are members 
of the Church, places the emphasis upon doctrine and form 
rather than upon life. They are not to be blamed, but 
rather to be helped, and led into an experience of a more 
vital Christian faith. To set about the task of doing this 
would seem to be not only the logically first but the most 
effective means of reaching those who are not yet evangeliz- 
ed. It has ever been so. It will continue to be so. What 
boots it so far as the real growth of the Kingdom and the 
Church is concerned if a million members are added to 
the Church within the year if they know little or nothing of 
an inner divine power to cleanse and keep from sin, if they 
have no personal knowledge of nor witness for a living, 
present Christ, who sends men forth with power to turn a 
world upside down, — power to achieve for God and a better 
social order. Such a million would be a liability, not an 
asset. Additional Church members can mean little if 
they are added to churches that fail to reveal the inner 



EVANGELISTIC EFFORTS IN THE METHODIST MISSION 209 

spiritual nature and power of Christianity. Converts will 
become like the Church to which they are joined. 
The Remedy ^ deepen ^ ne ^ G °f ^ ne Church member- 
ship is far more difficult than to increase its 
numbers. The prime requisite is a spiritual ministry, a 
ministry that will keep a steady stream of spiritual life and 
power flowing into the Church, — but above all, will furnish 
a living demonstration of what the Christian life is. Our 
chief evangelistic effort in the immediate future, therefore, 
in Central China Methodism at least, is to create in large 
measure the only foundation upon which evangelism in 
the usual sense of that term can be effective or even safe. 
More meager numerical returns, in the interests of greater 
spiritual reality, will hasten the evangelization of China. 
Need of Along with this effort to enrich the spiritual 

Evangelism life of the Church in the interest of evangelism, 
goes a greater spiritual emphasis in evangelism 
itself. It is exceedingly easy, West or East, in these days of 
religious education, religious psychology, modernism, etc., 
to stress but lightly or not at all the element of experience 
in the process of conversion, robbing it of conscious spiritual 
substance and consequently of power ; exceedingly easy to 
stop with a doctrinal agreement, just short of a new birth; 
to fail to lead the convert on to a conscious personal 
relationship with Christ through which and through which 
alone the soul bursts into a new world of spiritual reality. 
It is especially easy to miss this in China, for China's mind 
is a practical mind and logical, and China's soul is not a 
mystical soul. Doctrine, therefore comes easy ; a mystical 
perception and experience of the unseen does not. But 
;hat it belongs to China is attested by the many who have 
attained it in high degree. That it is a condition of 
religious power and irresistible spiritual momentum, the 
history of Christianity amply proves. We are striving, 
therefore, for a more positive "work of grace" at the 
beginning of the Christian life, though it be at the expense 
of numbers. Thus we may create not only a redeemed but 
a redeeming Church. 

Methods Used Means and methods used by Methodism in 

the recent past throughout China have been 

varied: — (1) United campaigns held in some prominent 



210 EVANGELISTIC EFFORTS IN THE METHODIST M LSSION 

hall in important cities, to bring the Gospel to the attention 
of the city and create an inquiring constituency willing to 
attend the Church and be taught. (2) Continuous services 
in the churches of a city for a period of days, with brief 
messages, after which, those who desired might. pass into 
another hall to be further interested, instructed and helped. 
In one such campaign in Peking, 3000 individuals heard the 
Gospel in a single day in one Church, which would seat but 
250. At the close of the series those interested were brought 
into classes for continued instruction leading to conversion 
and Church membership. (3) Campaigns were held 
throughout conference areas in which groups of two to 
four churches would unite, the pastors going from one to 
the other. (4) The setting aside of specially qualified 
Chinese evangelists to assist the pastors in evangelistic 
work. (5) District conferences and retreats in which 
special instruction in this work was given and special 
spititual equipment for it sought. (6) Personal evangelism 
has been urged against odds that are not encountered in 
the West. Privacy, such as is necessary for effective 
personal evangelism, is very difficult for the pastor to 
secure in China. Closer personal touch of teacher and 
pupil in our schools has been emphasized as the only 
means by which we can take advantage of the superlative 
opportunity there offered. The time and energies of the 
teachers and principals in our mission sehools are some- 
times so fully absorbed in teaching and administration that 
little is left to accomplish the very purpose for which these 
schools are founded and maintained. These and other 
methods of evangelistic work brought a 66% increase in the 
membership of the Church in China in the last four years. 



CHAPTER XXXIX 

REGENT EFFORTS IN EVANGELISTIC WORK IN THE 
AMERICAN BAPTIST FOREIGN MISSION SOCIETY 
P. R. Bakeman 
South China Mission-Opened 1886. 

Location and 5 stations among Hoklo people all within 
Extent of Work fifty miles of Swatow. 

3 stations among Hakkas extending into S. P]. 
tip of Kiangsi. 

Church members (1923) 5792. 

East China Mission- Opened 184 8. 

5 stations in northern and eastern Chekiang. 
Educational work at Shanghai and Nanking. 
Church members (1923) 3165. 

West China Mission- Opened 1889. 

4 stations in central Szechwan. One remote 
station in process of transfer to an Australian 
Mission. 

Church members (1923) 1852. 

No account is taken here of the work among the tribes 
of S. W. Yunnan, projected from the Burma Mission of 
this society. Within ten years of the beginning of this work, 
baptisms were reported as 1804 (in 1923) and church 
membership as 10,150. 

The " Iaten- ^ ne trenc * of evangelistic work in the 

sive" Policy three missions in recent years is perhaps 
best understood in reference to the ' inten- 
sive" policy adopted by the Home Board some ten or 
more years ago. This policy was described in the 
China Mission Year Book of 1916, p. 432 as the purpose 
"to limit the work in any given field, both in territory 
covered and in kinds of work attempted, to what can be 
supported by the Board in a reasonably satisfactory 



212 EVANGELISTIC EFFORTS IN THE BAPTIST MISSION 

manner." In plain language the policy meant stress on 
the education of leaders, the reaching of the more 
responsible classes of population, the fostering of churches 
that gave promise of early development to mature strength. 
This policy resulted in the early transfer of the Society's 
work centering in Wuhan to another mission. Its effect is 
seen in the withdrawal of all (except a few women workers) 
from Kinhwa in Chekiang; in the pending transfer to 
others of Ningyuenfu in Szechwan; and in the almost 
entire absence in recent years of any evangelistic expansion 
in all three missions. The evangelistic work in each 
mission has taken its tone from this general purpose, the 
results differing in accordance with the varying heritage, 
personnel, and local conditions of the three missions. But 
a broad line of common development in the past and of 
growing reaction in the present is traceable in them all. 
The South The South China Mission was the only one 

ChrnaFieid, of the three which had already, in expansion 
Intensive Work f rura ] centers and numbers of church mem- 
SveVasis " bers ' what mi g n t be called an extensive basis. 
In describing the evangelistic movement of 
the last year and a half, Dr. Waters outlines the mission 
history as follows: "The early years of the life of this 
South China Mission were years of persistent and extensive 
evangelism. After the Boxer year there followed ten or 
twelve years of rapid extension in church planting and 
building. Since then there has been a phenomenal 
development in our educational work. This last has not 
been without its splendid fruits and these must be 
conserved. It is true though that the educational develop- 
ment has been at the cost of neglecting the work of church 
nurture and evangelism." 

It is this feeling which has led to the advance 
movement manifested in " a general evangelistic campaign 
extending through the year 1924. Special all day meetings 
have been held at central places for groups of churches, 
with consideration of topics such as ' The Church's Task 
To-day' and * The Characteristics of a Model Church.' 
The fact of largest significance has been that the earnest 
spirits have so gladly welcomed the new emphasis on the 
importance of evangelism and the care of the churches." 



EVANGELISTIC EFF0KTS IN THE BAPTIST MISSION 213 

Large public meetings were also held all through the year, 
many in the open air with six and eight hundred and not 
infrequently over 1000 men, women and children listening 
and looking at the pictures. "The door has been wide 
open everywhere ". The significant point is that the 
initiative as well as the subsequent directing of the work 
lay with the committee of native leaders representing the 
whole field, who felt deeply that something aggressive 
must be attempted to promote new life and progress among 
the churches. This special campaign of 1924 has shown 
both to missionaries and to Chinese pastors and preachers 
that "the pendulum is swinging back. The response that 
the movement has called out gives promise of a new day." 
The West The work in Szechwan was less mature 

China Field, when the intensive policy was started and 
A Balanced its need for all round development was 
Development mQre eyident# Ag a regult ft would geem 

that in general a vigorous evangelistic growth has been 
maintained alongside the rapid educational development. 
Comparing the figures in the 1916 Year Book p. 63 with 
those of 1923, we find that, while the increase in church 
membership has been 50% in South China, and 80% in 
East China, West China has increased its members by 
100%. " The increase in membership," writes Mr. Adams 
of Suifu, " is however a poor index of our progress. As 
a mission we are putting more stress on quality of 
membership." Yet, as in South China, there appears to 
be at present a renewed emphasis on evangelism. " We 
are stressing," he continues, "better methods of broad- 
casting the gospel." In Yachow and Kiating access is 
found to government schools. "Some of the most 
conservative mansions in the city, otherwise impregnable, 
have been thrown open to our Gospel message when 
presented by pictures, and the officers of the local army 
have listened most attentively to the illustrated story of 
General Feng." Large emphasis has been laid this year 
upon special evangelistic campaigns. These meetings, 
included retreats for the foreign and native workers, wide 
spread advertising and tract distribution, preaching "in 
church and school, in hospital and tea shop, in government 
school and home, in temple and jail," the impact reaching 



214 EVANGELISTIC EFFORTS IN THE BAPTIST MISSION 

far beyond the central stations into the rural communities. 
It is apparent that there is a new stirring of the 
evangelistic impulse in West China and that the churches 
are more adequately equipped than previously to conserve 
the results of the new enthusiasm. 

East China — Tne mission in East China was already well 
Th 3 Effect of started on a program of educational develop- 
Educationaf ment and organizational emphasis, when its 
E^angeifsiT 11 course was Justified and given fresh impetus 
by the Home Board's "intensive" policy, with 
the result that the most thoroughgoing application of this 
stress on quality is found in this mission. In evangelistic 
work, to quote, "the emphasis has been on a trained 
ministry, self-support, and organization, local and general." 
There are twelve college graduates in the ministry, or 
one quarter of the total number of preachers. Considerable 
progress has been made in cultivating the sense of financial 
responsibility, especially in some of the city churches. 
Very real and vital advance has been registered in the 
sense of proprietorship over their own churches on the 
part of preachers and laymen, developing with their 
gradual habituation to the exercise of genuine authority, 
through district and general associations, over all policies 
and all funds pertaining to evangelistic work. The 
enlarging place of leadership taken by an able full-time 
General Secretary and the entrusting of all but the 
women's work of an entire station — school, hospital, and 
evangelistic work — to Chinese leadership exclusively, 
furnish further heartening evidences of healthy growth. 

But, on the other hand, to quote again, "preaching 
to the masses and the effort to reach all classes in a given 
community, be it large or small, is largely neglected." 
In recent years no provision has been made for training 
preachers below the grade of college graduation. We have 
no lay preachers. The number of regular preaching places 
reported has shrunk from 81 in 1919 to 63 in 1923. Our 
evangelistic force in a mission of over eighty members 
consists of five families and two single ladies, one family and 
one single lady being engaged exclusively in city social work. 
Our Home Mission Society is all but extinct. The stress on 
quality and organization has reacted to suppress evangelistic 



EVANGELISTIC EFFORTS IN THE BAPTIST MISSION 215 

zeal. There is no outstanding evangelistic event or move- 
ment. Only recently is there evidence of a reaction and the 
sound of a " going in the tops of the mulberry trees." As in 
South China we are beginning to realize that a price has been 
paid for our gains in quality and efficiency. Some of us 
feel that the pendulum's swing of recent years with its 
development of schools, its stress upon highly trained 
leadership and close organization is about to be supple- 
mented by a swing to democracy, an appreciation of the 
plain people, a wide-spread, warm-hearted, unfettered, 
forward movement of evangelism. 



CHAPTER XL 

TENT EVANGELISM IN SHANTUNG 
Henry Payne 

Tent Evangelism is evidently meeting a present-day 
need in rural work. Mr. Andrew Thomson's account of 
such work m Honan, which appeared in the 1924 Year 
Book, has been greatly appreciated. The present writer 
desires to tell of similar work carried on during 1924 in 
bhantung by the English Baptist Mission. 
Methods of Ifc is significant that our Chinese brethren 

Work have for a number of years seen the value of 

tent preaching. At least six local churches 
have provided themselves with tent equipment on a small 
scale, which they use at holiday times and during festivals 
manning their tents with voluntary workers, both men 
and women. 

The Chinese Independent Church of Tsinan has a very 
fine tent equipment, and a strong band of preachers, with 
an adequate budget supplied from Chinese sources. 
An Annual p ur English Baptist Mission supports 

Budget a band of five workers, three of whom are 

Mex M500 00 Ord Th ed K me ?- J* haS - an annUal budget of 
Mex. $1000.00 The band chooses its own leader and is 

given perfect freedom of action. There is an advisory 
committee of two (one Chinese and one foreigner) which 
gives guidance when called upon, but which has no 
executive powers. 

The report for 1924 shows that the band has held 
gatherings at eighteen centers during the year, the average 
length of stay at each center being eight days. Three 
meetings a day were held. 

Results 0ver 400 names of men and women desirous 

of studying Christian teachings were re- 
ceived. In several of the centers visited follow-up work is 
being carried on. 



TENT EVANGELISM IN SHANTUNG 217 

The evening meetings were always well-attended. To 
quote from a report of this year's work: — " Sometimes the 
tent, capable of seating 500 people, proved far too small 
for the crowds desirous of hearing the Message. In one 
densely populated district, the audience numbered 5,000, 
and a street of food-shops sprang up about the tent, just as 
though it were one of the great religious festivals that was 
being held, instead of a gathering of the once-hated Jesus 
Sect. At this same center, no less than fifteen families 
burnt their family idols to testify that they would from 
that time cease to worship gods they had become convinced 
were false.' l 

Meeting " In another city the Magistrate joined in 

the public welcome accorded to the band. 
Addressing the meeting, the Magistrate said he had noted 
with pleasure that their banner was inscribed with the 
words, 'Chinese Christian Church.' ' That was quite cor- 
rect,' said he. ' It is not a foreign religion. It belongs to 
China just as much as to any other country.' He pointed 
out that the fifth article in the new Chinese Constitution 
gave freedom of worship and belief, and said he trusted 
that many would come and listen to the messages de- 
livered in the tent. As a result of this recommendation, 
many merchant? and students came regularly to the meet- 
ings in that city." 

Equipment ^ 10 fcent (° r mar Quee) used will seat 500 

adults. It has two main entrances opposite 
the end where the platform is set up. A rope stretched 
from poles fixed in the ground makes a boundary between 
the benches of men and women guests. The men are 
usually allowed two-thirds of the ground space. When 
crowds are great the walls of the tent can be lowered, and 
this allows a large number standing outside both to see 
and hear the speaker. 

Seating accommodation in the form of benches is 
always obtained locally. Most of these come from churches 
in ^ the neighboring villages who seem always glad to 
assist in this way, realizing as they do that the coming 
of the band will bring reinforcements to their numbers. 

Good use is made of diagrams and charts on hygiene, 
education, and the benefits of Christianity. These charts 



218 TENT EVANGELISM IN SHANTUNG 

are copied from originals belonging to the Tsinan Institute. 
They are hung round the sides of the tent and help to 
attract the reading class. A large colored map of the 
world faces the audience and at times comes in very useful. 
A good stock of hymns, choruses and scripture pictures 
arc on hand. These are all written on calico so as to stand 
the wear and tear of a campaign. 

A gramophone plays before each service, and not only 
gives notice that service time is drawing near, but also 
serves to occupy the time while the audience is being 
seated. 

So far no woman evangelist has been officially attached 
to the band, which is perhaps an oversight, but much 
valuable work has been done by voluntary helpers, and 
where possible, women evangelists serving in the neigh- 
borhood of the meetings have been invited to attend. 
Pers 1 Work Personal work is indispensable to successful 
tent evangelism, and provision must be made 
for it. Two guest rooms are sufficient, one of which is for 
the women helpers, where at all hours visitors may feel 
free to come and talk of their difficulties. 
Children's ^ ne children — a ver y rea ^ problem — are 

Services made welcome during the teaching of the 

singing of choruses and hymns, and usually 
prove apt learners. When the address is about to be given, 
one of the evangelists with a gift for children's stories 
leads the children out to an adjoining courtyard or temple 
and gives them a special address. If the crowd of adults 
is not large, the young folk may be permitted to stay in 
the tent, in which case several voluntary helpers are told 
off to sit with them and keep order. 
Follow-up -^ y * ar ^ e S rea *' es * problem is follow-up 

Work work. The leakage is very great, at least 

75%, most of which, we are convinced, could 
be avoided if adequate measures were taken to husband 
the fruits of this work. When meetings are held in dis- 
tricts where there are churches already established, the 
pastor and church leaders on the spot may be expected to 
help by holding evening classes for learners. 

In our band, one of the evangelists keeps a record of 
names and addresses of enquirers, and sees that a copy 



TENT EVANGELISM IN SHANTUNG 219 

of this is put into the hands of the neighboring church 
leaders. 

When new districts are being worked, the task of con- 
serving results is one that yet waits for proper fulfillment. 
In our 1925 band we have attached a worker whose duties 
will be solely with enquirers. He will stay behind in the 
places where meetings have been held and arrange for 
Bible study classes, conducting these say, once or twice a 
week for a few months. The present writer believes that 
there should be three follow-up workers attached to each 
band, who should spend most of their time with learners. 
These follow-up workers should always be identitied with 
the band and be seen taking part in some of the meetings. 
It might be well in cases where an evangelist was much 
used to attract new learners, for him to be left behind for 
a few weeks to shepherd these little ones. 

During the hot weather, our band holds one or two 
classes to which new converts are invited. There is no 
reason why all members of the band should not under- 
take some follow-up work during the rainy season and 
when the farmers are too busy to attend tent meetings. 
Even at such busy seasons, it is possible to hold small 
evening meetings. 



CHAPTER XLI 

EVANGELISM IN THE NORTH WEST 
A. Mildred Cable 

The perpetual reiteration of such sentiments as are 
found expressed in the Chinese Recorder and in native 
newspapers, where the Chinese leaders zealously proclaim 
their desire for self-establishment, self-propaganda, and 
self-government, must give the foreign missionary food for 
serious thought, and cause him to ask what should be his 
relationship to a church in which these desires are finding 
so strong an expression. 

It was the writer's experience, after more than twenty 
years' missionary work in the province of Shansi, to pay a 
prolonged visit to the city of Kanchow in the province of 
Kansu, where missionary work had been established and 
carried on for five years, by Chinese missionaries only. 
Kanchow lies six days' journey northwest of Liangchow, 
the furthest outpost held by any missionary society in 
Kansu. Beyond Kanchow there is no foreign missionary 
until Ti-hwa-fu (the capital of Sinkiang) is reached, a 
journey of forty-five days. 

At the present time the Kanchow church membership 
is over seventy, and there are three hundred and fifty 
families who have destroyed idols and recognize themselves 
as enquirers. 

It was a matter of great interest to me to see all that I 
had heard discussed in such detail at the Shanghai 
conference, worked out in practice. The following things 
made the strongest impression: 

(1) The sense of responsibility for the evangelization 
of the vast untouched regions beyond, which was upon the 
church. It was striking to hear the prayers of these 
people and to find what had already been done. The little 
company of less than thirty baptized members had already 
sent two of its best men on a missionary journey of several 



EVANGELISM IN THE NORTH WEST 221 

months' duration along the great northwest road as far as 
Twen Huang, visiting every city en route. A pioneer party 
visited Thibetan territory and others penetrated to the 
Mongolian passes. 

(2) The Chinese missionary in charge resolutely 
refused to employ any salaried help. When the preaching 
band is out, its expenses are supplied from the Central 
Church fund and by the sale of Gospels. 

(3) The gifted young men who have rallied around 
the Chinese leader, using their time and talents in the 
service of the church. 

(4) The uncompromising attitude taken in matters 
of church discipline and towards non-Christian practices 
and superstitions in social relationships. 

At the hour of our arrival there were already signs of 
a movement of the Spirit of God resulting in large 
numbers of men and women asking to be registered as 
enquirers. The danger of the adherence of such a mass of 
untaught converts was recognized and we were immediately 
requested to spend some months in teaching them. We 
have been asked to take no responsibility in serving tables, 
but to conserve our strength for the ministry of the Word. 
Several station classes were held to which large numbers 
came. These were followed by short classes in village 
centers where the attendance was even larger and many 
new enquirers were added. The whole expense of these 
classes was met by the Chinese themselves. 

The burden which was upon the church with regard 
to the unevangelized districts found expression in a united 
effort to reach the city of Suchow, six days' journey to the 
northwest. A band of thirty men and women volunteered 
to go with us for the winter months. Some days of each 
week are given to propaganda and some to Bible study. 
For the expense of this campaign some foreign funds have 
been used, as it involved the renting and furnishing of 
premises. 

From this group is gradually emerging a number of 
men and women evidently endued with the gift of 
leadership, and it is the expectation of the church that 
these will form an Evangelistic Band and travel up and 
down this tongue of territory as preachers of the Gospel. 



222 EVANGELISM IN THE NORTH WEST 

As foreign missionaries our position in relation to the 
whole movement is that of invited guests. We have no 
settled residence, but move from city to city as occasion 
demands. 

The plan of campaign adopted in Suchow is as 
follows: 

(1) Every shop and courtyard in the city has been 
systematically visited and the inhabitants presented with 
a packet of Christian literature. 

(2) Every restaurant has allowed us to affix the 
posters of the Stewart Evangelistic Fund to its walls, 
and all the prominent places in the city have thus 
been posted. 

(3) Each evening a children's service is held and 
this has proved to be a most successful feature of the 
campaign. About one hundred and twenty gather regularly, 
and large numbers of adults attend with unfailing regularity. 

(4) A large tent is pitched for the Sunday services 
as no room is adequate to accommodate the congregation. 

(5) The students are formed into four bands with a 
church officer in charge. Each band is appointed its 
week-end work, which includes the visiting of neighboring 
cities, villages and farmsteads. It is hoped that within 
three years every city within possible range of Kanchow 
and Suchow will have had a prolonged visit from one of 
the evangelistic bands, and that each season there will be 
specialized Bible classes held in the two cities which form 
the bases. 

At the end of nine months' work in a field where 
the Chinese church is self-established, self -propagating, 
and self-supporting I should suggest that a period of 
at least three years should be allowed to elapse before 
the foreign missionary makes his appearance, in order 
that the final responsibility for organization and action 
may rest upon the Chinese missionary, and that the 
young converts may have acquired the habit of regarding 
him as their leader. When the foreigner does come it 
should be at the invitation of the church and with the 
object of making the particular contribution for which he 
has been fitted by his training. I view it as most 
important that such visits should never take the form of 



EVANGELISM IN THE NORTH WEST 223 

permanent appointments. The Chinese, like ourselves, need 
time, scope and opportunity to work out their theories 
to a practical conclusion, and this necessitates a recognized 
field. 

In this part of northwest Kansu, Moslems, Thibetans 
and Mongols abound. The cities of Suchow and Kanchow 
are centers where men from Sinkiang, Turkestan and 
Russia congregate for business, and as such are strategic 
points. The Moslem population is daily increasing, and 
the question of Moslem or Christian supremacy has once 
more to be faced. A young deacon of the Kanchow Church 
recently made a powerful appeal to his fellow church 
members to respond to the call: "Come over and help 
us " from the Moslems, Thibetans, and Mongols, and to 
seek earnestly to equip themselves for this special work. 
The Chinese Church has heard the call and assumed the 
responsibility. Holding, as it does, these difficult outposts, 
it should be able to count upon the sincere sympathy 
and earnest prayers of the whole missionary body. 



CHAPTER XLII 

THE KOREAN MISSIONARIES IN SHANTUNG 
C A, Clark 

In 1907, the independent, national Presbyterian Church 
of Korea was established with one Presbytery for the whole 
country. In 1912, the Church became fully organized with 
a General Assembly and seven constituent Presbyteries. 
To celebrate this latter event, the Church took up a great 
thank offering to send out a Foreign Mission to China. 
The American Mission in Shantung agreed to turn over to 
the Korean missionaries their field of Laiyang (*fc W> $0 
with a territory 60 li square; and, in 1913, three Korean 
ordained pastors were sent to begin work. They were all, 
of course, men with a good knowledge of the Chinese 
written language, and they very soon got a fair grasp of 
the spoken language, beginning to preach after only a little 
over a year on the field. 

G th fth Their first report, made in 1915, shows on 
Church now small a scale they began: — total 

adherents 40, average attendance 30, new 
baptisms 3. In 1916, their total baptized roll was 12 and 
there were 30 catechumens, the total offerings amounting 
to 50 yen. That year, one of the three men came home 
sick, and, after some months of illness, died. 

In 1917, there were 28 communicants, 35 catechumens 
and 26 new believers. Six prayer meeting places had been 
opened and there were three self-supporting day schools 
with 16, 10 and 6 pupils respectively. The offerings for the 
year were 120 yen. The church was kept open every day 
for prayer and many of the Christians availed themselves 
of it. The men toured the 120 villages and towns of their 
field and were most enthusiastic over their prospects. 
Towards the end of the year, something happened that 
caused dissatisfaction, and at the same time the way opened 
for the missionaries to go to America; so they resigned 
and left. 



THE KOREAN MISSIONARIES IN SHANTUNG 225 

New Type of Three new and even better qualified men 
Worker were sent to take their places. The wives of 

these men were academy graduates. One of 
the men was a college graduate. In 1922, a fourth man 
was sent. At the end of 1918, there were 32 baptized, 36 
catechumens, 85 Christians in all, and contributions totalled 
131 yen. One of the dwellings burned that year and had 
to be replaced at a cost of 700 yen. 
Medical Work * n 1919, a Korean physician, a graduate of 

the Severance Union Medical College in Seoul, 
opened a private dispensary and hospital in Laiyang. 
There are now two doctors there. The Mission lends them 
quarters for their work, but otherwise they are self- 
supporting. The reports show that they have served the 
community well and have been honored several times by 
the community in oriental ways. They have also been 
consulted as to hygienic measures in the community. 
Evangelistic In 192 ^> evangelistic services in the villages 

Work were attended in places by as many as 300 

people at once and 10,000 Gospels were dis- 
tributed. That year, the American Mission agreed to turn 
over another section of territory with its developed work, 
and steps were taken to open another station in Chuk Meuk 
(IP fi) . At Christmas, 200 people were fed and gifts sent 
to the prisoners in the jail. One Chinese gave 200 yen 
towards the new church in Laiyang. One of the branch 
groups raised 75 yen as a thanksgiving offering and it was 
used to employ two of the new converts as evangelists for 
seven months. 

In 1921, at Christmas, there was another large celebra- 
tion in Laiyang, and the poor and prisoners were helped, 
and then the whole church went out preaching from house 
to house, Korea fashion. Nine Chinese became tithers. 
16 Bible classes of four days to a week each were held, 
besides one class for officers and one normal class. 26 new 
believers came in in one place and in another 20 Christians 
built themselves a church, donating money and labor. 
Plans were made for a Bible Institute to last a month. 
Including the new work turned over by the American 
Mission, the statistics at the end of the year show: 3 
circuits, 10 Elders, 17 salaried Chinese workers, adults 



226 THE KOREAN MISSIONARIES IN SHANTUNG 

baptized 30, total adults baptized 431, and total Christians 
617. There were 13 day schools and contributions were 
8991 Mex. 

In 1923, revivals were reported held in many places, 
the Gospel having been preached with gratifying results to 
over 100,000 people. Sunday School work was being 
pressed and the pastors' wives were doing work for women. 
A Bible Institute with 8 enrolled was held, the students 
paying their own way. 18 others studied in a summer 
class and then went back to their home churches to pass 
on what they had learned. In Chuk Meuk, several men of 
the scholar class were won. In Yoo Kwa Chung, a church 
destroyed several years before was rebuilt. Christian 
Endeavor work was successful in one or two places. One 
more Bible woman was employed. Another small bit of 
territory was taken over from the American Mission. 

The statistics at the end of 1923 show: 591 baptized, 
815 total Christians, 25 meeting places, 19 day schools with 
435 pupils (all self-supporting), 10 church buildings, 22 
Bible classes and total subscriptions, 1482 yen. 

Droughts and floods were all over Korea in 
Serious Effects of 1922} 1923 and 1924 and the effects of the 
Floods Tokyo earthquake on finances were bad, so at 

the 1924 Assembly, it was felt necessary to 
recall one of the four pastors, at least for the present. The 
total budget of the Korean Church for Foreign Missions, 
not counting what it does in the three Presbyteries in 
Manchuria and Siberia or its work in the Island of Quel part 
or for the students in Tokyo, Kobe, Peking and Nanking, 
is about 20,000 yen a year. 

The 1924 statistics are not yet in print but they were 
most encouraging as presented to the Assembly. The work 
now being carried by the Mission is quite large and steadi- 
ly growing in a healthy way. It has been wholly managed 
by the Koreans, there never having been more than two or 
three American missionaries on the Foreign Board of 27 
members. 

The original orders of the Assembly to the 

Chafch° missionaries were that they should take their 

ministerial membership to the Shantung 

Presbytery of the Chinese church and place themselves 



THE KOREAN MISSIONARIES IN SHANTUNG 227 

under its general oversight, simply reserving the right to 
use their own methods in doing the work. Originally and 
again clearly in 1921, the Assembly instructed them to 
apply the methods used in spreading the Gospel in Korea — 
personal work by every member of the church from 
missionaries down to new believers, strong emphasis upon 
Bible study especially in classes of several days each, self- 
support as to the payment of salaries to church workers and 
as to erecting buildings and conducting schools, and high 
moral standards upheld by strict discipline. 
R j. Perfection in carrying out these instructions 

Satisfactory nas not been attained, but the results have 
been most satisfactory. Theirs was not a 
virgin field when they began. Other standards were more 
or less established already. Alongside of them were 
Baptist, Lutheran and Catholic missionaries using other 
methods. In the beginning, even before they had language 
sufficient to discuss with their Chinese friends the new 
methods, the Korean church and Chinese church were 
looking for concrete results. Pressure like this made it 
hard, but an examination of the above statistics from year 
to year will show that they have done very well. The Bible 
Class system seems to be well established — 22 classes in 
1923 besides the Bible Institute and Normal Class, all self- 
supporting. Personal work is reported after the classes 
and at Christmas time and indirectly in the sending out 
of evangelists and the distribution of the Gospels. All the 
19 schools are self-supporting and several of the evangelists 
paid wholly by the church and this method of support 
is being steadily pressed. Tithing is also strongly en- 
couraged. The social Gospel to the poor and prisoners 
is not forgotten. Sabbath breaking and drinking and other 
immoralities have been disciplined as in Korea. The 
Christian groups in this field have not wholly arrived but 
they are "on their way," and it is hoped that the next ten 
years will find a church there of which all those concerned 
can be unreservedly proud and for which we may give 
thanks to the great Founder of Churches. 



CHAPTER XLIII 

MONGOLIA 
W. R. Stewart 

As this edition of the Year Book is being prepared 
for the press, The China Home Missionary Society is 
raising funds to send its first missionaries into Mongolia. 
It is therefore fitting that this number should give a brief 
resume of the work that has already been done in that field 
by foreign missionaries. Forgotten, neglected, unoccupied, 
even unknown, are adjectives used to describe this land 
and people. To-day the need for more adequate occupation 
is really urgent and, fortunately, the door is open and the 
hardships not so great as in the past. 

N . , There is a well authenticated tradition, 

in Mongolia supported by the famous traveller, Marco 
Polo, that in the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries there were thousands of Mongols who were 
Christians of the Nestorian faith. This fact is further 
established by the annals of that sect. Certain it »is that 
there were Mongol and Chinese officials of this persuasion 
among the members of the court of Kublai Khan. In 
fact, Marco Polo records that this ruler, himself, observed 
the Christian festivals of Easter and Christmas with 
appropriate ceremonies. History records that the father 
and uncle of Marco Polo were commissioned by Kublai 
Khan to represent him at Rome in requesting that " Your 

pontiff send hither a hundred persons well skilled in 

your law When I am witness of this, I shall allow 

myself to be baptized. Following my example, all my 
nobility will then in like manner receive baptism, and this 
will be imitated by my subjects in general; so that the 
Christians of these parts will exceed in number those who 
inhabit your own country. " After several years of delay, 
two Dominican priests did essay to make the journey, but 
turned back in the face of the extreme dangers and 



MONGOLIA 229 

hardships of the long overland route. In the following 
century there was a papal legate at the Court in Peking, 
but he was more of a diplomat than an evangelist. No 
results of either Nestorian or Catholic missions seem to 
have survived the Ming Dynasty which was strongly 
nationalistic and hostile to foreign influence. 

In 1842 the Holy See erected Mongolia into 
Catfottc an Apostolical Vicariat. In 1844 the prelate 

Missions commissioned the French Lazarist, Abbe 

Hue, and a companion to travel extensively 
through this dominion. The record of their experiences 
is one of the most readable travellogues of the nineteenth 
century. There are a chain of Catholic mission stations 
along the southern border of Mongolia, marking out the 
route this expedition covered. These missions claim some 
four or five hundred communicants of Mongol blood, but 
their work is now principally for Chinese who have 
gradually displaced the Mongols in this territory just north 
of the Great Wall. 

G - It is written that no less a personage than 

Orthodox Peter the Great of Russia was interested in 

Eftorts bis day (1700) in the conversion of the 

Hutuktu (Living Buddha) of Urga, but 
evidently without success. The Greek Orthodox Church has 
since addressed itself to the Burials, a numerous tribe of 
Mongols in Eastern Siberia, and record some thousands 
of converts to Christianity from among them, but little 
authentic information can now be gleaned of this fact, as 
Bolshevism has driven all to cover. 

Protestant Protestant missions to the Mongols began 

Missions ea ^y in the nineteenth century (1817) when 

three missionaries of the London Missionary 
Society, Edward Stallybrass, William Swan and Robert 
Yuiile, established work among the Buriat tribe, at 
Selenginsk, on the Siberian border, just south of Lake 
Baikal. Here they labored for more than twenty years. In 
1841 they were forced to abandon the work by the Russian 
government, to whom representations had evidently been 
made that the missionaries were alienating the loyalty 
of the Buriats from Russia. They have left a lasting 
monument to their glory, not alone in the silent grave- 



230 MONGOLIA 

yards, where six members of the families lie buried, but 
in the translation of the entire Bible into the Mongolian 
language, which translation is still in use. Without their 
leadership, the score or more of Mongol converts were 
scattered or absorbed into the Greek Church. 
A Great Thirty years later (1870), as a result of the 

Pioneer persistent efforts of Mrs. Swan, the L. M. S. 

again undertook work for the Mongols, 
sending out as their representative the Reverend James 
Gilmour. They were fortunate in the choice of this 
representative, who was not only a most ardent missionary 
and traveller, but had a ready pen and a wonderful power 
of description. As a result of his writings Mongolia 
became almost a household word among the British 
Christians of his generation. The Spectator expressed the 
matter most graphically when the editor wrote, "Robinson 
Crusoe has turned missionary, lived years in Mongolia, 
and written a book about it." The little mound, which 
is all that is left of his original station on the plain some 
forty miles north of Kalgan, on the road to Urga, is still 
pointed out. During the later years of his life he removed 
his headquarters to southeastern Mongolia. Here, in 
addition to his continued work for Mongols, he established 
a successful work among the border Chinese, and stations 
founded by him are still worked by the Plymouth Brethren. 
But Gilmour did not succeed in leaving any organized 
work among the Mongol race for whom he had undergone 
untold hardships and given his life's greatest treasures. 
Modem ^ n ^ ne ^ as ^ c ^ eca( ^ e of the nineteenth 

Movements century the Christian and Missionary Alliance 

launched a bold scheme for the evangelization 
of Mongolia. Unfortunately their work was wiped out and 
all but two or three of their large staff who were in 
training, were massacred during the Boxer uprising. 

The Scandinavian Alliance Mission has established a 
work for the Mongols at Patsebolong, directly north of 
Shensi and 850 miles west of Kalgan. It started as an 
agricultural and industrial mission for the Mongols, but 
the comparative ease of reaching the Chinese who have 
pressed into this territory has been a constant temptation 
to the missionaries to change their objective ; however they 



MONGOLIA 231 

have persevered against many difficulties and discourage- 
ments. The Rev. F. A. Gustafson has sent in the following 
report of this mission's work: 

" Since the death of Mr. N. J. Friedstrom (1920) 
and his wife (1921) this branch of the mission has 
been passing through a severe crisis. Mr. and Mrs. 
P. L. Danielson left for U. S. A. last summer, and 
there are now only three missionaries on this field. 

M The evangelistic work at Patsebolong has been 
rather retrograding during the last few years, but a 
little awakening has begun at Lung-hing-chang (30 
miles northeast of Patsebolong), the only place where 
work for the Chinese has been opened, with the 
result that nineteen were baptized on the eighteenth of 
November. Besides these there are more than thirty 
inquirers. 

" Mr. A. F. Boberg has gone west to Wang-ye-fu 
and opened up work there, beginning last July. The 
opening of this station came as a result of the 
invitation from one of the Mongol princes and the 
friendliness of the people has been a great source of 
encouragement. 

' Boarding schools are conducted at Patsebolong, 
one with thirty Mongol boys and another with fifty 
Chinese students. There are also classes for girls. 
These are all of primary grade. There is also a day 
school with fifteen pupils at the agricultural station. 
There are also small boys' and girls' schools at the 
Lung-hing-chang station. 

A medical work is carried on at Patsebolong, 
between 4000 and 5000 treatments having been given 
per year." 

In addition to the foreign missionaries, there are three 
Chinese evangelists who cooperate in this work, two of 
whom speak Mongolian. 

One of the most promising efforts on behalf 
S^'d' h °* tne Mongols has been that of the Swedish 

lesions Mongol Mission of which Prince Bernadotte 

was until recently the chairman. The first 
missionaries were sent out in 1898, but had to turn back on 
account of poor health. The second couple were killed by 



232 



MONGOLIA 



the Boxers. The original objective of this mission was 
northwest Mongolia, one of the most fertile districts and one 
inhabited by some of the most prosperous and virile tribes. 
This idea was later abandoned, and the next representa- 
tives, Mr. and Mrs. Karlen, after getting the language, 
established a station at Hallong Osso, in 1908. This station 
is a short distance from the well from which it takes its 
name, and is situated ninety miles north-west of Kalgan 
on the caravan route to Urga. 

This station, together with its branches, is now manned 
by a staff of ten Swedish missionaries. In spite of wholly 
inadequate equipment, they are doing a fine medical work 
among large numbers of Mongols and also among the 
Chinese colonists who have already pushed thus far into 
the Mongolian pasture lands. 

A school with twenty scholars is conducted. Several 
of the older girls in this school are winsome Christian 
maidens. An orphanage with fifteen children is under the 
charge of a fine Christian Mongol matron. Several first- 
rate Mongol evangelists have been developed who help in 
the mission and make long itinerations among the widely 
scattered people who live in tents throughout the district. 
Twenty-four Mongols have been baptized by this mission, 
most of whom are cooperating in the work of the station. 
Dr. and Mrs. Joel Eriksson are in charge of this work. 

New Station ^ n ou ^-lying station, sixty miles north of 

Opened Hallong Osso, was established last spring at 

Gulchaggin. Here, under the patronage of 
friendly Mongol officials, a most encouraging work has 
been inaugurated. The station is manned by a married 
couple, Mr. and Mrs. Johansen, and Miss Hulda Wiklund. 
Another station, still farther north on the Urga trail is soon 
to be opened. 

Red Cross Work For several years (1916-1922) a quiet, 
inconspicuous, but helpful work was carried 
on in Urga itself by Red Cross nurses under this mission. 
In the spring of 1923 the time seemed ripe for a larger 
effort there in the capital city. Accordingly five missiona- 
ries and four Mongol helpers were sent there. A year late r 
they were forced to abandon this enterprise, owing to the 



MONGOLIA 233 

tide of Bolshevism in North Mongolia, which influence 
was strongly anti-Christian. 

WorkofB.&F. . For man y years the British and Foreign 
Bible Society * Bible Society has had a sub-agent in Mongolia. 
Mr. F. A. Larson, who for ten years held this 
position, has made forty trips across the country and is the 
best authority on Mongolia to-day. He is now in business 
in Kalgan and Urga, and his work for the Bible Society 
has been taken over by Mr. Almsblad. Dr. G. H. Bond- 
field and his daughter made the trip across Mongolia with 
the Bible Society's caravan in 1910 and he has written a 
pamphlet packed with information about this neglected 
field. (See also his article in the 1917 China Mission 
Year Book). 

The Reverend Thomas Hindle and wife, 
nft*«i f n Miss Fordham and Mrs. Wynds are also 
Mongolia missionaries m Mongolia, affiliated with the 

General Council of the Assemblies of God 
(Canadian Pentecostal Mission). They have established 
the Mongolia for Messiah Mission at Gashatay, five miles 
south of Hallong Osso. Their work there is now wholly 
for Chinese, but the two last mentioned missionaries are 
considering opening a station for Mongols farther north. 
Mrs. Jacobsen, the wife of a Norwegian sailor, is also 
conducting an independent mission in Mongol territory, 
fifteen miles north of Hallong Osso. Other missions 
working along the border, established primarily for Chinese, 
are reaching some of the Chinese-speaking Mongols in their 
vicinity. 

Proposed ^e cause °f Mongolia was presented before 

Survey the Foreign Missions Conference of America 

in 1922 and action was there taken looking 
toward a thorough survey of the field and the more adequate 
occupation of the territory. The financial difficulties of 
the different American boards has held this action in 
abeyance, but the time is already at hand when such a 
comprehensive study of this country should be made. 
Three-quarters of a million dollars have been subscribed 
for expenses of the scientific expedition under the leader- 
ship of Roy Chapman Andrews, which has been working 



284 



MONGOLIA 



in Mongolia in recent years. Surely the money will be 
forth-coming for this much needed missionary survey. 
A A j A group of influential young Christian 

Christendom° Mongol men, educated in Peking, Tokyo and 
America, have issued appeal after appeal 
for work to be started among their own tribe in Northwest 
Manchuria (He-lun-pei-er), and other parts of unreached 
Mongolia, The situation is now peculiarly urgent, owing 
to the pressure inward on Mongolia from all sides of 
influences which will have a sinister bearing. The appeal 
of Mongolia to Christianity, voiced by Kublai Khan 655 
years ago is now renewed by the youth of to-day — Shall 
it go longer unheeded ? , 



PART VI 

MISSIONS AND MISSIONARIES 
CHAPER XLIV 

LANGUAGE SCHOOLS 

W. B. Pettus 

The early method or lack of method by which students 
who did not know how to study were placed with teachers 
who did not know how to teach and expected to get the 
language, has given way gradually. 

E j D In 1887 The China Inland Mission founded 

its Training Homes for young missionaries. 
In 1907 Dr. D. Willard Lyon of the Y.M.C.A. conducted a 
summer school at Ruling, where secretaries of the Y.M.C.A. 
and Y.W.C.A. were started in language study. In 1910 
the Edinburgh Conference recommended the development 
of language schools. That autumn Dr. W. Hopkyn Rees 
founded a school in Peking which has developed into the 
North China Union Language School, the oldest and 
largest of the union language schools in China. In 1914 a 
commission of three men was sent by the China Con- 
tinuation Committee to visit the various language schools 
and classes, then existing, in China. This Commission 
visited all the schools except the one in Chengtu. At that 
time there was no agreement as to methods of teaching or 
the content of what should be taught. There were very 
few Chinese teachers and most of them of poor quality. 
There was only one foreign teacher who had had 
professional training in linguistics. The schools had 
little or no equipment and yet they had proved the value 
of schools over the old " sink or swim method.' ' 
T Since 1914 several of the schools then in 

Effiderfcy 1 existence have been abandoned, some be- 
cause they were poorly located, others 



236 LANGUAGE SCHOOLS 

because they were duplicating unnecessarily the work of 
other schools, and some because they were poorly con- 
ducted. Experience has shown that a language school 
should be located in the large mission center where several 
missions are working and not in a small one-mission 
station or at a summer resort, where the students would be 
isolated and would have little opportunity to observe and 
take part in mission work, to receive instruction from 
senior missionaries and to use daily the language they 
learned in the classes. In 1919 Dr. Frank K. Sanders 
visited China and wrote regarding language schools at 
Peking and Nanking: " At either Nanking or Peking the 
average student gains a far better, because more scientific, 
grasp of the language than he can gain in private study. 
The schools give to the average student the advantages 
which go along with unusual linguistic ability. It would 
seem that the mission group whose missionaries use 
Mandarin would need weighty reasons to justify it in a 
refusal to give its young missionaries the great advantage 
of a year at such schools. There are such groups, but 
they will decrease in number very rapidly, if the existing 
institutions continue their expert progressive management. 
Each school possesses the essentials of a well-founded 
language school : a principal who has been trained 
in modern methods of language mastery and is an 
educator; a permanent faculty controlled by him; a 
situation which may contribute toward the cultural and 
professional training of the missionary; an organization 
and management with such promise of permanence that 
policies can slowly develop. Each school is advancing 
toward a first rate equipment, including a library, and 
seems certain to take a growing part in the strategic 
advance of the immediate future in China.' ' 
■pj , < At the present time Language Schools are 

Sch^hand bei ?S conducted by the West China Christian 

Thsir Equipment University in Chengtu, the University of 
Nanking, Soochow University and Canton 
Christian College. A class is conducted in Changsha, and 
the Fukien Christian University conducts a class for 
young missionaries when there is a sufficiently large group 
in Foochow. The largest schools, both as to the number 



' 



LANGUAGE SCHOOLS 237 

of Chinese teachers, the enrollment, the foreign staff and 
equipment, are those in Nanking and in Peking. The 
Peking school has a permanent full time foreign staff of 5, 
and 75 Chinese teachers. Its permanent buildings for 
which a fund of more than $600,000.00 Mex. has been 
contributed, are now being erected and will be occupied in 
the autumn of 1925. They include classrooms, library, 
hostels and faculty residences. The buildings are modern 
structures, of reinforced concrete and brick, steam-heated 
and electric-lighted, and will do much to make easier the 
first years of residence in China. 

The Nanking school has an attractive hostel and funds 
in hands for the erection of a classroom building. 

Nanking, Peking, Chengtu, and Canton have principals 
who have received special training in the science of 
linguistics. In addition to the work on the language, the 
schools are offering lectures and seminars, supplemented 
with library work on Chinese history, religion, art, 
commerce, and institutions. 

At the present time a score of Missionary 
Benefits Societies, as well as the legations, foreign 

ccrumg business houses and Chinese Government 

Boards are using these schools and it is commonly 
estimated that six months or more is saved in the time 
necessary to learn the language. The bringing together 
year by year of hundreds of young people from different 
countries and various Church connections makes the 
language school virtually a post graduate course in things 
Chinese. These institutions have also been described as 
miniature conferences on ' faith and order. 

The Nanking and Peking schools have united in 
preparing and issuing a union course of study to cover five 
year's work. This course which includes a large percentage 
of electives has been officially adopted by a large proportion 
of the missions using these schools. Both of th^se 
institutions have also trained scores of Chinese teachers 
who are scattered through all parts of China and who are 
using the improved methods of teaching. Every one now 
recognizes that the center of the problem in the study of 
the language is not the book, but the teacher. 



CHAPTER XLV 

THE MISSIONS BUILDING 
E, C. Lobenstine 

Shan hai as Next to London and New York Shanghai is 

Missionary 8 the most im P°rtant administrative center of 
Center missions in the world. Here are located the 

national headquarters of a considerable num- 
ber of the largest missionary societies such as the China 
Inland Mission, the American Presbyterian Mission 
(North), the American Church Mission, the Methodist 
Episcopal Missions (both North and South), the National 
Committees of the Y.M.C.A. and the Y.W.C.A., the 
American, British and Foreign, and Scotch Bible Societies, 
and a large number of national, interdenominational 
organizations, such as the National Christian Council, the 
China Christian Educational Association, the China 
Medical Missionary Association, the Council on Health 
Education, the China Sunday School Union, the Women's 
Christian Temperance Union, the Bible Union, the Daily 
Vacation Bible Schools, etc. In Shanghai are to be 
found also a considerable number of organizations both 
denominational and interdenominational which are engaged 
in work in the three or four lower Yangtze Valley 
Provinces. 

ah-.j-,,^ A dozen or more y ear s ago a plan was 
Bunding projected looking to the erection in Shanghai 

of a headquarters building in which such of 
the above organizations as cared to do so might get 
together under one roof in the interests of Christian 
cooperation and unity and of administrative efficiency. 

In 1917, through the efforts of the China Continuation 
Committee, the predecessor of the National Christian 
Council, a gift of gold $150,000 was secured from a 
missionary physician, Dr. Fred J. Tooker of Siangtan, and 






THE MISSIONS BUILDING 239 

his two sisters, in memory of their father who had always 
been a student of and generous giver to missionary work. 
As the gift was insufficient to provide both the land and 
the building, the Board of Foreign Missions of the 
Presbyterian Church in the United States was approached 
with the request that they contribute to the enterprise a 
valuable site owned by them and located at 18 Peking 
Road. This property was occupied for many years by the 
Presbyterian Mission Press, and, after the removal of the 
printing works to the new site, served as residences for 
those in charge of the Press and as the offices of the 
China Council of the Presbyterian Missions (North). It 
also served for many years as a gathering place for out of 
town missionaries, and it would be quite impossible to 
report the amount and variety of the devoted service freely 
rendered during his long period of superintendence of the 
Press by Dr. G. F. Fitch and his associates to the workers 
of many different missions. 

The Presbyterian Board very generously agreed to 
donate the land for the purpose of the erection of such a 
building and, when a more suitable location was found on 
Yuen Ming Yuen Road, one block back from the Bund, they 
authorized the sale of 18 Peking Road and the use of the 
proceeds for the purchase of the new site. This was 
considerably larger than the old site and necessitated the 
raising of an additional gold $120,000, which was con- 
tributed by the Laura Spellman Rockefeller Fund. 

The purpose of the building as set forth 
the BuildmT * n ^ e *Memorandum of Agreement between 
the donors of the building and the Board of 
Foreign Missions is as follows: " to promote the principles 
of cooperation and the spirit of fellowship and accord 
among the Christian forces at work in China; to forward 
the unity of the church in China; to encourage the most 
harmonious and efficient coordination of the work of all 
missionary agencies, both among themselves and in 



* For full memorandum of agreement see Appendix 1, pages 
406-8, China Mission Year Book, 1918. 



240 THE MISSIONS BUILDING 

relation to the Chinese Church; and to assist as far as 
possible m the equipment of the Christian forces in China 

o, t?J? eq T B]y "**£ t , hei1 ' task ' b0th in the ^de range 
of detajls and as a whole, and especially to assist the 

movement of cooperation and coordination represented in 
the establishment and the activities of the China Con fnua- 
tion Committee The building shall be erected prima? ly for 
the purpose of the China Continuation Committee and its 
successors, in order to enable it more effectively to carry 
obieS: aZe £&$"* » »™~ <* «» Ptoses a„ d y 

The Building The building is of gray brick and re-inforced 
concrete construction with granite plaster 
trimmings Ifc s s x 8tories in height and is 151 feet long by 
48 feet wide. It is fortunate in having no high buildings 
between it and the Bund and from its upper storfs 
commands a fine view of the Whangpoo River where the 
latter bends oward the northeast. The building i s of 
fireproof construction throughout. It has a central tele- 
phone service, a central heating plant and all modern 
conveniences. On the five upper stories an eight-foo" 
corridor runs from north to south with offices opening on 
both sides These are 18 feet in depth and from 12 to 15 

wH ZVt ^on he th Y d fl00r is a committee room that 
will seat about 120 people. A small library, an exhibit 

Erection Work on the building began in December 

t nr ™„ • r e blllldin g wa s completed and ready 

for occupancy m June 1924. The Building Committee 
which spent many hours of hard work and which was 
responsible for the placing of all contracts and for seeing 
that the specifications were carried out, was composed of 
men from he London Missionary Society, The American 
Church Mission and the National Committee of the 
Y.M.C.A thus illustrating in the erection of the building 
buildtog'itself COOperation which is symbolized in the 

Organizations 

Housed in the At the present time there are housed in 
aiding the building the following organizations : 






THE MISSIONS BUILDING 241 

1. National Interdenominational Organizations : 

The National Christian Council, the China Christian 
Educational Association, the China Medical Missionary 
Association, the Council on Health Education, the 
Associated Mission Treasurers (in which organization are 
the treasurers' departments of the American Baptist 
Foreign Missionary Society, the Northern and Southern 
Preshyterian Missions, the Northern Methodist Mission, 
and the Women's Foreign Missionary Society of that 
Church, the London and English Baptist Missionary 
Societies), the Women's Christian Temperance Union, the 
Daily Vacation Bible Schools, the American Bible Society, 
and the National Bible Society of Scotland. 

2. National Headquarters of Missionary Societies. 

The China Council of the Presbyterian Mission 
(North), the Advisory Council of the London Missionary 
Society, the Methodist Episcopal Mission, the Methodist 
Women's Foreign Missionary Society, the treasurer's office 
of the Southern Baptist Mission, the Mission to Lepers, 
the Chinese Tract Society, the Religious Tract Society of 
London, the Milton Stewart Distribution Fund, the 
Chinese Christian Advocate, and the Chinese Recorder. 

3. National Headquarters of the Chinese Home Missionary 
Society. 

4. Other Organizations. 

The East China Mission of the American Baptist Mis- 
sion and the East China Christian Educational Association. 

Control of the ^e deeds °* tne Property are held by the 
Building Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian 

Church in the United States of America, 
which, in consideration of the Tooker gift, undertook 
responsibility for the erection of the building and for the 
administration of the property in accordance with the 
purposes and objects of the building as above set forth. 
~ The building is under the control and man- 

Managers in agement of the National Christian Council, 
China which has been recognized by the Presby- 

terian Board of Foreign Missions as the 



242 THE MISSIONS BUILDING 

successor of the China Continuation Committee. The 
National Christian Council appoints a Board of Managers, 
subject to the ratification of the Board of Foreign Missions 
which has power to reject any or all of the nominees and, 
if deemed best by it, to nominate and appoint others 
in their places. The Board of Management, under the 
agreement, determines the rentals to be charged for the use 
of offices. It is specified in the memorandum of agreement 
that these rentals shall be applied in maintaining the 
building, including repairs, insurance, taxes, a sinking 
fund, and other charges, and that the surplus rentals, if 
any, shall be used by the National Christian Council for 
the promotion of the purposes and objects set forth in the 
memorandum of agreement. 

Ho s The Board of Managers appoints a House 

Committee Committee which is responsible for leasing 
of offices, supervision of servants, and all 
other matters pertaining to the building. This committee 
is extremely fortunate in having as its chairman Dr. 
Henry Fowler of the Mission to Lepers, who is giving a 
considerable portion of his time to the work. 

Financial ^ 6 ^°^ cos ^ °* ^ ne building apart from 

Aspects land is Tls. 245,920. This is more than the 

amount secured from the original gift; the 
difference is being met out of accumulated income from the 
rental of Chinese houses and the rentals from the building 
itself. The building will be entirely paid for by the end 
of 1925 or the summer of 1926 without the necessity of a 
mortgage, which was authorized by the Board of Missions 
should it be found necessary. 

Basis of Rentals A fl . at »*« of J 1 ! 1 '°P P er S( l uare f< ** *« 
year, including light, heat, water, and land 

tax, but not municipal rates, is charged every mission 
or church organization in the building including the 
National Christian Council. In view of the fact that the 
Presbyterian Mission surrendered the headquarters of its 
China Council when it gave up 18 Peking Road, pre- 
ferential rates were offered to it for its national offices. 
The Board of Foreign Missions, however, acting on the 
advice of the China Council, is for the present, paying 



THE MISSIONS BUILDING 243 

the same for its space as all the other occupants in the 
building. 

jj { j j That the building is contributing to the 

Building promotion of the cause of Christian coopera- 

tion and unity and making for greater 
efficiency, those who have offices in it will testify. It 
brings into daily contact with one another workers of 
different churches and nationalities and leads to a constant 
exchange of information regarding the experience gained 
by the several bodies in their work in China. It keeps 
the varied activities of the Christian enterprise, adminis- 
trative, evangelistic, educational, literary, and medical, as 
parts of one whole, constantly before the minds of those 
who work in or who visit the building. It keeps to the 
forefront always the purpose of the Christian enterprise in 
building Up strong Chinese Christian communities through 
the daily fellowship with the Chinese members of the staffs 
of such organizations as the National Christian Council, 
the China Christian Educational Association, the Chinese 
Home Missionary Society, the Council on Health 
Education, the Chinese Christian Advocate, the Daily 
Vacation Bible Schools, etc. It creates an atmosphere of 
understanding and trust between workers in different 
organizations. Last and by no means least it saves a 
very great deal of time in arrangements for and in 
attendance upon conferences and committees of which, 
in view of the character of their work, there must be many 
between organizations of the kind found here. Through 
its building telephone exchange most of the offices are 
connected with one another without the necessity of the 
calls going through the city exchange, thus saving a great 
deal of time. 

The building stands as a testimony to the faith, not 
only of the donors, but of one of the great missionary 
societies, in cooperative movements. The Presbyterian 
Church North is engaged in more than fifty union 
movements in China alone, and its generosity in donating 
its valuable site for the purpose of the erection of this 
building is another and most convincing proof of its faith 
in the value and necessity of Christian unity in the 
accomplishment of the Church's task in the world. 



CHAPTER XLVI 

SCHOOLS FOR MISSIONARIES' CHILDREN 
Eliza Roots 

Answers to the questionnaire issued in preparation for 
this article were few but they revealed the facts (1) that 
the schools for foreign children in China are increasing 
rather rapidly; (2) that in the still rather small number 
of such schools there are no two whose conditions of 
situation or support or patronage are alike or even greatly 
similar; (3) that an increasing number of such schools are 
by no means purely missionary in their backing. As to 
the first point, sixteen schools which serve missionaries' 
children were discovered, counting as one the Chefoo 
(C. I. M.) Schools which are really three (i. e. Preparatory, 
Girls' School and Boys' School) and of these only one was 
founded before 1909. At least one new school has de- 
veloped during the past year and no doubt there are others. 

Differing .* fc nas ^ een f °und impossible to tabulate 

Problems with any truth the results of the replies 

received. One cannot advantageously compare 
staffing or tuition rates of two day-schools one of which 
serves families of seven different nationalities and is largely 
supported by business firms, and the other of which cares 
for a large and homogeneous group of missionaries' children 
and is entirely unsubsidized by missionary boards or 
business firms. Much less can we compare the staffing 
problems of such day -schools and those of boarding schools 
in small communities where children must be cared for — 
body, mind and spirit — for ten or more months of the year ; 
nor again of schools which with difficulty secure the 
necessities of scholastic existence, with those of a great 
day-boarding establishment like the Shanghai American 
School, which has all the resources of the rich American 
business community at its command, and which also, 
because of the service it so well renders a large missionary 



SCHOOLS FOR MISSIONARIES' CHILDREN 245 

clientele, can command the support of many mission boards. 
The latter no doubt has its problems, but they are not the 
same as those of the American Schools at Kikungshan 
or Killing for instance. Another type is illustrated by 
the great Chefoo schools, grandparents of the movement, 
which date back to 1880, twenty-nine years before the 
oldest of our other representatives was founded. These 
schools are British in standard (though they receive all 
nationalities that are "European" or American), and 
one-mission in support and ideals. And they have attained 
to that glory of the homeland schools, — a school history and 
tradition. They can report that, about 1,500 pupils have 
passed through their hands, — 900 boys and 600 girls, — and 
that " 200 boys — 80% of those eligible — joined the Great 
War, of whom 34 lost their lives; and that at least 52 girls 
and over 30 boys have become missionaries." It will be 
many years before Chefoo's nearest competitor can acquire 
such a background as that ! 
iL u r> li In comparing the relation of staff to number 

btatt rt oblems „ ., . .f . ■, 1 ,. 

oi pupils in the various schools one must, or 
course, also observe the number of years' work offered and 
the age limits of pupils. A boarding school receiving very 
young pupils, or one receiving adolescent boys and girls 
under one roof, though only for classroom work and meals, 
must perforce accept fewer pupils per teacher than one 
which eliminates primary work and receives one sex only 
from 12 years old upward. This is why British schools as 
a rule receive only one sex for secondary education, while 
Americans refuse to receive tiny children as boarders and 
add staff in the upper school to provide more supervision. 
Another question enters into the matter of staff. It is 
what we may call that of special subjects. Here especially 
the day-schools in large centers have a special advantage 
over the more isolated boarding schools. Every school 
that receives girls should teach sewing and all schools 
should offer drawing, some kind of physical training and 
vocal music. All desire to give their girls cooking and the 
boys wood-work or other manual training. While outstand- 
ing teachers of these subjects are not to be easily picked 
up anywhere in the East, it is obvious that there will be 
some chance of finding such ready to serve as part-time 



246 SCHOOLS FOR missionaries' 

staff in Shanghai or Peking, whereas if Chengtu or Chefoo 
want them they must obtain them from the home lands 
with consequent responsibility for travel and for possible 
failures. For these reasons many schools simply go without 
one or more of these desirable courses. 

Extra-curricula Probably the boarding schools in more 
Advantages isolated places will always be at a disadvant- 
age in the matter of such extra-curricula 
advantages as concerts, lectures, art galleries and exhibi- 
tions; somewhat also in the matter of athletic competitions. 
In the case of older children especially, this will be atoned 
for by the greater freedom from the frivolizing effect of 
larger communities, and the degrading sights and sounds 
of non-Christian and exotic populations ; and for all of every 
age by the purer air and greater opportunities for nature 
study. One wonders whethe3r these schools are taking as 
much advantage of their natural assets as are the city 
schools of theirs. It would be a pity if children growing 
up in the midst of the beauties of hill and sea, and of 
flower and insect life should still be blind to it all. British 
schools seem less likely than American to fail in this 
direction. 

s The sources of support for these schools 

Uppor are as varied and as characteristic as other 

features. Some schools, like those in Chefoo and Chengtu, 
are financed by one mission only. Other few by a national 
group of missions. (The Kikungshan Swedish School is 
I believe, an instance of this.) Others again by several 
mission boards in cooperation. Others again, as indicated 
in earlier paragraphs, have been founded and supported 
without mission subsidy but counting largely on mission 
patronage. As one would expect, the fees charged vary 
greatly according to the locality and according to the 
amount of subsidy obtained from outside sources. Where 
there are "contributing missions " represented among the 
patrons these are expected to pay less tuition than those 
who have not contributed to the plant and the salaries. 
It is perhaps natural, too, that non-missionaries, who 
generally have larger salaries than missionaries, should be 
asked to pay higher fees than the latter. The enforcement 



SCHOOLS FOR MISSIONARIES' CHILDREN 247 

of this latter rule is no doubt partly responsible for the 
smaller number of business men than of missionaries who 
keep their children with them on into adolescence. The 
resultant small proportion of non-missionary children in 
our schools is probably a loss, not only to parents and 
children thus deprived of the companionship so neces- 
sary to maintenance of family solidarity, but also to the 
children of missionaries thus deprived of the broadening 
effect of contact with another background than their own. 
It might be wiser as well as more public-spirited to 
encourage non-missionary patronage of the missionary 
schools by asking of business people fees more nearly on a 
level with those asked of non-contributing missions. The 
former would probably respond not only with pupils but 
with practical interest in better plant and equipment. 
Tendencies ^ G ten dency, to increase the number of 

and Ideals more or less local schools is not the ideal with 

which the movement began, nor is it, we 
believe, the final answer to the many problems it is 
encountering. When, by the present method of trial and 
failure, the best localities for boarding schools have been 
discovered, surely some kind of coordination or cooperation 
between them will be evolved. Prophecy is unprofitable, 
but one seems to foresee large day-schools always main- 
tained in foreign communities such as those of Peking and 
Shanghai, where numbers make support possible and 
conditions make family life practicable. Similarly places 
with fine climate and stable political conditions seem 
inevitably destined to be the homes of boarding schools 
which, equally inevitably, must be subsidized — let us say 
by both missions and business firms — if they are to serve 
well the many isolated families who must use a boarding 
school and must themselves expend large sums on travel 
in order to reach them. 






248 



SCHOOLS FOR MISSIONARIES' CHILDREN 



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CHAPTER XLVII 

THE MISSIONARY HOME 
Edith Spurliug 

The Missionary Home from 1890 to 1900 was situated 
on the Seward Road and moved into its present premises, 
38 Quinsan Road, during the Boxer outbreak. Mr. and 
Mrs. Edward Evans conducted it until the end of 1918 
when they retired and it was committed to Miss Edith 
Spurling who had already worked with them for eighteen 
years. In the Summer of 1924 the Home was enlarged 
by the taking of the premises next door which were 
vacated when the National Christian Council and its 
companion organizations moved to the new Missions 
Building. 

The Home has always been independent and self- 
supporting. Its object is to provide a Christian Home 
for travelling missionaries and their friends, of all 
denominations and nationalities; to do it as a needful 
part of missionary work believing this ministry to be the 
purpose of God, and to seek that the foundation truths of 
the Bible upon which the founders took their stand should 
be maintained to the glory of His name. 

A few missionaries whose work is in Shanghai make 
their homes within these walls, but the number has neces- 
sarily to be limited to ensure accommodations for those 
who come and go through this city from all the provinces 
of China and from many Western lands. Many a friend 
of missions is entertained and thereby the opportunity they 
desire of meeting the noble men and women whose lives 
are given to the work of God in China, is afforded them. 

The missionary arriving for the first time finds 
everything strange and the Chinese coolies, with their 
unknown tongue, who instantly single out newcomers, 
would involve them in hopeless confusion if left with no 
help on landing. Baggage and freight must be handled and 



THE MISSIONARY HOME 251 

Customs passed. Exchange of monies must be arranged 
and much needless expense can be saved by entrusting 
these matters of business into the hands of those who do 
them as a part of missionary work. 

For some time Mr. and Mrs. Beaman have made a 
valuable contribution to the cause by their efficient advice 
and management of these practical matters. 

The difficulties of the travelling missionary are 
manifold. Not the least of these is the necessity for 
economy and the arising of unexpected exigencies for 
which there is frequently little provision. Hotels are out 
of the question. A Home is necessary where prices are 
moderate, and where fellowship in the Lord, with others 
who have given their lives in the same way to serve Him, 
may be enjoyed. 

Every effort is made to maintain a home where the 
new arrival may be encouraged, the tired worker rested 
and the busy one assisted. The needs of mothers with 
families and those whose wardrobes require attention are 
remembered, and Miss Askin has for some years given 
much help in these matters. 

The gathering together morning and evening for a 
short prayer service has been a feature in the conduct of 
the Home from the beginning and, never omitted, even on 
the busiest days, it has been used of God to strengthen and 
inspire His children. 

There are many who come for conferences, mission 
meetings, committees and appointments of all kinds. 
From Shanghai every branch of missionary activity is 
dealt with. Many missions have their headquarters in 
this city, or if not, have arrangements with others for the 
taking care of their interests. The Spring and Autumn 
are the principal seasons for old and new missionaries 
going to and coming from the home lands and it is not 
unusual for the Missionary Home family at these times 
to number over one hundred. A crowd is easier to 
accommodate now with the extra rooms available through 
the enlargement of June 1924. 

A few moments spent in scanning the names in the 
Autograph Book of the Home, commenced over thirty 
years ago, will show the many Missions served. Amongst 



252 THE MISSIONARY HOME 

the most frequent are — the American Presbyterian North, 
the Southern Presbyterian, the American Baptist North 
and South, the Methodist Episcopal, the American Board 
of Foreign Missions, the Canadian Presbyterian, the 
Foreign Christian Mission, the Church of England Mission, 
the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, the 
Canadian Church Mission, the Society of Friends, the 
Wesleyans, the English Baptist, English and Irish Presby- 
terian, the Lutherans, the Reformed Church in U. S. A., 
the Yale Mission, the United Free Church of Scotland, the 
Swedish, Norwegian, Danish and Finish Missions, the Bible 
Societies, the Brethren, the American Adventists, the 
Salvation Army, a number of small Missions, and many 
unconnected missionaries. 

Much could be told of marked leadings and answers 
to prayer but space will not permit of this. It will 
suffice to say that the band of those who labor here 
stand united to receive their Lord's royal commands and 
to be amongst their fellows as those who serve, grateful to 
Him for the privilege. 

The Motto of the Missionary Home, chosen many 
years ago by Mr. Evans is— "The brethren (strangers) 
bring forward on their journey worthily of God, because 
that for His name's sake they went forth. We therefore 
welcome such." This well expresses the underlying 
principle and object of the work. 



CHAPTER XLVIII 

CHRISTIAN MISSIONARIES 

AND THE 

INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM IN CHINA 

R. E. Chandler 

Men ton the words " Extra-territoriality V 
Wh^ne ds or " Concessions " anywhere in China, and 
to be Changed y° 11 start a discussion. If not intelligent, it 

is sure to be heated, and inconclusive. You 
do gather that something is wrong. The international 
system here is unsatisfactory to many people, both Chinese 
and foreign; sometime, it is bound to be changed. Very 
few in any given group will argue that any of our interna- 
tional arrangements are likely to be permanent. At the 
same time, very few are ready to advocate specific steps 
towards a change. Missionaries are sensitive about their 
status in relation to the native citizens of the country; 
about their connection with the military force of their own 
nations; and about the effect of these upon the Chinese 
Church. A Britisher writes, " Many of us would like to be 
simple missionaries of the Gospel with no history of our 
nation's connection with China, no treaties, and no 
gunboats behind us. But there is all the history there.' ' 
What then, shall we do? Many would say that as 
individuals we can do nothing, we must simply wait 
for a revision of treaties. Others are not content with that. 
" To say that we as missionaries in China should never 
take a step which has not already been approved by our 
Government, would be to deny our birthright and forbid 
our making any contribution to progress. " 
Forefen ^ e may cons ider three aspects of the 

Concessions international system. They are "Concessions," 

'* Extra-territoriality, " and " Diplomatic 
Protection." These are to be clearly distinguished from one 



254 MISSIONARIES AND THE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM 

another. Many would hold that the presence of the foreign 
concessions in China constitutes a great obstacle to this 
country in setting her own house in order. Others say, 
" Concessions are a great boon to China and an object lesson 
that she would be much poorer without. " They are an 
"imaginary grievance." They are "islands of safety." 
But when one has watched the martial merry-go-round of 
the last few months, belligerent chiefs hastening from one 
" island " to another, one is led to wonder whether it would 
not be better for all if there were no concessions. 
Undoubtedly there would be hardship and real danger for 
many for a time, yet perhaps if these vantage points of 
mischief were removed, a state of equilibrium might earlier 
be reached. The Chinese themselves do not desire sudden 
changes in this direction. 

„ " Extrality " is a point where the Chinese 

tonality seem to be more restive. Probably all who 

are doing business, and have to enter civil 
cases against foreigners, find the system unsatisfactory. 
As for missionaries in particular, extra-territorial jurisdic- 
tion is not often of importance; they are seldom defendants 
in law-suits. They do benefit in a certain way because the 
missions have the right to acquire property inland. 
Willough by* states strongly one disadvantage to foreigners. 
"So long as extrality is maintained, it is practically 
impossible for the Chinese Government to open up the 
entire country to trade, manufacture and residence by 
foreigners. Missionaries have some liberty of residence, 
others do not. This is a heavy price which the foreigner 
pays for extrality." We have many missionary opinions 
against any change in this system, especially at the present 
time of disorder. "Concessions and extrality are not a 
hindrance; quite the contrary; the Chinese could not deal 
with lawless foreigners." And again, concessions and 
extrality make " the one solid force making for order and 
peace in this country to-day." But the American Minister 
to China has recently spoken, publicly advocating progres- 
sive and evolutionary measures for the abolishment of 
extra-territoriality . 






* Foreign Eights and Interests in China, pp. 72-73. 



MISSIONABIES AND THE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM 255 

A third part of the system is Diplomatic 
MflfS?) 1 Protection. This is indispensable. No one 
Protection would think of abandoning what is known as 

"diplomatic protection. " But, unlike con- 
cessions and extrality, it is not defined and limited by 
treaty or by international law. Because it is vague, because 
it often runs into military protection, and there is no way 
of determining what is "adequate" or "appropriate" 
military force, this system is subject to grave abuse. 
Here, it seems, individual Christians may make some stand. 
Some feel that they must make a stand. Diplomatic 
measures " range in a scale from mere diplomatic presenta- 
tion of a pecuniary claim up to a declaration of war." 

One point of unfairness towards China is clear. China 
is admittedly a weak country, unable to provide, much 
less to guarantee, a high degree of security. Yet the 
requirements by the Western countries are greater in this 
matter than in the case of countries more on a par. " For 
the killing of American citizens in China, Turkey or 
Persia, demands are made which would not be thought of 
in the case of a similar injury in a country of higher 
standards of civilized administration."* It is considera- 
tions like this which lead one missionary to exclaim, "I 
would rather be killed by bandits than have a military ex- 
pedition of either Chinese or foreigners sent out to rescue 
me. They would do far more harm than I am worth." 
Meanwhile, " the treaties practically bind the Chinese to 
let every missionary up country." So, it is maintained, 
missionary occupation in dangerous regions should be put 
on a basis of volunteering. We may rightly demand that 
the Chinese Government, whose guests we are, shall do all 
in their power to safeguard us aliens as well as their own 
citizens; but we cannot expect that our safety will be 
guaranteed when we stay in dangerous spots. Missionaries 
who for various reasons cannot stay in the dangerous spots, 
should withdraw, without any implication of reproach. 

In the matter of indemnities there has been a healthy 
reaction. From Boxer times down, some missions have 



*Edwin M. Borchard, "Diplomatic Protection of Citizens 
Abroad ", p. 406. 



256 MISSIONAKIES AND THE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM 

been unwilling to accept indemnities. This policy has a 
very good effect upon the better sort of non-Christians and 
Christians. 

A Statement Many missionaries have felt that it would 

on Record ^ e we ^ to go on record with a clear statement 

in regard to some of these points. No mission 
or church group is likely to do so; individual missionaries 
may and have done so. In August, 1924, twenty-eight 
American citizens in China sent a statement to their 
Minister (similar to a "Ruling Statement", under 
discussion in 1923): 

"The undersigned, American missionaries, are in 
China as messengers of the Gospel of Brotherhood and 
Peace. Our task is to lead men and women into a new 
life in Christ which promotes brotherhood and takes away 
all occasion of wars. We therefore express our earnest 
desire that no form of military pressure, especially no 
foreign military force, be exerted to protect us or our 
property ; and that in the event of our capture by lawless 
persons or our death at their hands, no money be paid 
for our release, no punitive expeditions be sent out, and 
no indemnity be exacted. We take this stand believing 
that the way to establish righteousness and peace is 
through bringing the spirit of personal goodwill to bear 
on all persons under all circumstances, even through 
suffering wrong without retaliation. This is what we 
understand the example of Jesus Christ to mean. 

1 We wish to be clear that we have no authority to 
speak for our missions or churches, and sign simply in our 
individual capacity. 

>K 5JC jfc % J|S 

"I am glad to sign the above statement as expressing 
my personal desire; and I wish this to be made known to 
the United States Minister to China." 

A few sentences from the letter which accompanied 
the above statement may be quoted : 

The attitude represented seems to us to be the one 
consistent with Christianity in this land. We cannot 
conscientiously do otherwise than hold this attitude. In 
the application of the idea, we may not all be alike. 
In fact, few of us individually would venture to predict 



MISSIONARIES AND THE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM 257 

just what we should do under given conditions of danger 
and stress. On the few simple points mentioned in the 
statement, however, we are entirely agreed; and we make 
these desires known to you, the responsible representative 
of our Government. A second and important reason for 
desiring to be clear on this attitude is that we are working 
for the Chinese Christian Church. We desire it to stand on 
its own feet. We realize that in the past the connection 
of the Chinese Christians with missionaries, and with the 
foreign military force behind them, has nourished a servile 
dependence, and has given justification to the stigma of 
|| foreign church ", and "foreign religion", — even a 
"religion of force." The Chinese Church of to-day can 
have nothing to do with such. And we Americans desire 
to stand on an even footing with our co-workers in that 
Church, so far as is possible while we are citizens of 
different countries." 

Reaction * n re S ar d to the effect upon others of this 

stand which has been taken, opinions are as 
widely diverse as on the system which exists. Some hold 
that this is a very dangerous move; that it will be 
interpreted by the Chinese as a letting down of the vigilance 
of the American Government, and that foreign citizens in 
general will be more subject to attack. Others believe 
that the good effects upon the solid and stable elements in 
Chinese society wilJ far more than offset any possible 
damage. Ransom is an individual matter, not a govern- 
ment matter. This is what one missionary writes: " If 
every Chinese man and woman could be fired with this 
spirit and no ransom ever offered, the present form of 
banditry would cease to-morrow, though robbery might 
continue. China needs nothing more to-day than men and 
women who are willing to be martyrs to principles. And 
we who claim to have consecrated our lives to her service 
are hypocrites if we reject for ourselves the high path on 
which we are urging forward our Chinese associates and 
our pupils." 

Many Americans, missionaries and others, have urged 
that those who take the above stand ought to withdraw 
from American citizenship. The American Minister has 
not suggested such necessity. 



258 MISSIONARIES AND THE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM 

We may close with the opinion of a Chinese pastor: 
11 Your letter came to me like a comfort as well as a 
revelation. After all we are rejoicing that there is a 
group of Christian friends who have found the right track 
to peace.'' What effect would such an attitude have upon 
the influence of the Christian Church? "It will make 
the Chinese members feel that they are no longer protected 
by any outward force. Thus a growth of faith in God will 
increase, and a spiritual revival will come." And, what 
should the individual Christian, Chinese or Westerner, do? 
" We should all repent before God, for we have all wrongly 
understood the meaning of the Message of Christ." 






I 






PART VII 
THE EDUCATIONAL WORLD 

CHAPTER XLIX 

GENERAL DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION 
IN CHINA 

Sanford G* C« Chen 

Speaking from the educational point of view the year 
1923-24 was a very eventful one. It was full of changes 
and new movements. Some were naturally the outcome of 
the process of growth; others, effects of school adjustment 
to the new system ; still others, responses to stimuli from 
without. Their effect upon education is tremendous, so 
tremendous that they characterize the present situation. 
In this paper, the writer, instead of presenting the 
theme in a general statistical way as is often the case for a 
year-book, will point out a few of the typical changes and 
movements which have been and are still working in the 
making up of the situation. 

I. Effects of Since the official announcement of the new 

Change of School school system in November, 1922, the schools 
System Upon have been busy in adjusting themselves to 
Educational j.] )e new g y S tem though their whole program 
ave opmen ^ change has not yet been completed. As a 
matter of fact, all changes involve difficulties and loss of 
time and energy, and the change of a school system is no 
exception. Therefore, in the process of adjustment we 
find many undreamed of difficulties and unexpected results. 
The most significant are : — 

(a) In higher education, we have the old system, two 
years of junior college, and three years of senior college. 
In the new system we have four years only. In adjusting 
the old to the new, we meet two unexpected difficulties. 



260 GENERAL DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION IN CHINA 

One is, that in many colleges, for one reason or another, 
the first year's work of the old junior college is still 
maintained under the name of sub-freshman or pre- 
paratory class. On the other hand, the middle schools, 
one after the other, have begun third year senior middle 
school work. The old junior college first year work is, 
therefore, duplicated. The other difficulty is that in the 
middle schools many electives are offered in the third 
year, while in the colleges, with few exceptions, the 
freshman year allows only one or two electives. The 
difficulties mentioned above demonstrate the fact that the 
program of change has still to be worked out. It needs 
adjustment and readjustment. 

In higher education we also find that all the 
professional schools have vied with each other in what we 
call ft 1& 1% m. The year of 1923-24 is significant if only 
for its large increase of new colleges and universities. At 
the same time the financial pressure upon them becomes 
greater and greater. Of course, there are many reasons 
for this, but the enlargement of budget without considera- 
tion of resources is at least one of them. They run on a 
college basis while their income is little or no more than 
that of a professional school. 

There have been many school revolts on account of the 
change of a professional school into a college or university. 
When this change took place the students felt that the 
college president should be a bigger and more famous man 
than their old school principal. Accordingly, one after 
the other, the old school principals were discharged while 
the new presidents appointed by the government were 
rejected. Administrative committees or councils have often 
been organized as bodies of control, so that to-day we find 
that many institutions are without presidents. 

(6) In secondary education, we also find difficulties in 
adjusting the old four-year middle school to the new 
six-year system. For various reasons, it is impossible and 
unnecessary to change all old middle schools under 
provincial control into new senior middle schools. The 
problem arose in the provinces as to which of them should 
be made senior middle schools. The following were some 
of the principles proposed and actually tested : 






GENEBAL DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION IN CHINA 261 

(1) Some provinces changed all old middle schools 
into junior middle schools and established new senior 
middle schools, giving only the last three years' work, as 
we find in Anhwei province. 

(2) Some provinces appointed a few strong, old middle 
schools to do senior middle school work, either because of 
their good location, or, because of their strong equipment 
or faculty, and decided that others should give junior 
middle school courses, as we find it in Kiangsu province. 

(3) Others consolidated all the schools of secondary 
grade located in the same city, — for example, the normal 
schools, agricultural schools, vocational schools, middle 
schools and so forth into big, six-year middle schools with 
several departments under one administration, as we find 
in Chekiang province. 

As the result of such changes, we find that they have 
not been getting along very peacefully and happily, and 
reactions are discovered here and there. So the field of 
secondary education is still in the process of adjustment. 
Time and energy are needed in making the change. 

(c) As to the normal schools, they run parallel to the 
old four-year middle school, with an addition of one year 
preparatory; while in the new system, in provinces like 
Kiangsu, it is six years. The course of study of the first 
three years is similar to that of the junior middle school 
save that three or more hours' work is required on 
"Introduction to teaching," while the last three years' 
work is of a professional nature. Other provinces, like 
Anhwei, made it three years, admitting only junior 
middle school graduates and doing full professional work 
equivalent to senior middle schools. As to which of the 
above-mentioned plans is best, no one can say definitely. 
Some say, however, that the first plan gives more thorough 
and efficient training; while others assure us that the 
second is more economical, and, also that it is democratic 
because junior middle school graduates who are mature 
enough to select vocations are admitted. 

In the new system, special provision is made for 
training teachers for lower primary schools, especially for 
rural schools. In Kiangsu the growth of such teacher- 
training institutions is surprising. According to the last 



262 GENERAL DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION IN CHINA 

statistical returns, in all except two or three hsiens, there 
are one, two or sometimes three such institutions giving 
either one, two or three year courses. They are largely 
financed by the hsien treasury with an annual subsidy of 
S3, 000 from the province. 

At the Seventh Annual Conference of the 

^HnfST^f federation of Provincial Educational Associa- 
te anon or Local ,. ~ ., -in 
Unit of Fduca- tl0ns ln Canton, the need of reorganizing 
tfonal Control the local educational control was considered. 
The same emphasis was given in the Tsinan 
Conference called by the Peking Ministry of Education. 
The Canton Conference recommended that, in the province 
there shall be a Board of directors Ot ifc W # ^ #) to be 
composed of seven persons, two of whom are to be 
appointed by the civil governor, two to be elected by the 
Provincial Educational Association, and the other three 
to be elected from the provincial and private secondary 
schools. The Board is to represent the whole body of 
schoolmen; while the Commissioner of Education acts as 
the Executive head of the Board. 

For hsiens and big cities, the Canton Conference 
recommended that, there shall be a school board made 
up of seven to nine persons representing laymen which 
shall control all schools in the district. The hsien or city 
superintendent is to be appointed and supervised by the 
Board and he is to act as its executive officer. In Tsinan, 
the following modifications were made: (1) The Provincial 
Board, with not more than nine members, is to be 
selected from educational experts and recommended to 
the civil governor for appointment by the Commissioner of 
Education. (2) The city or hsien school board is to be 
composed of nine, seven or five persons to be appointed by 
the city mayor upon recommendation of the superintendent 
of schools. 

The announcement has not been received enthusias- 
tically. We can find, even to-day, that the old system 
prevails in several provinces. 
TTT - . In the year 1923-24, the government was 

Contritotedby in the hands ° f the Chihli P 3,1 ^' Both ™°ney 
Educational an ^ energy were largely spent in the matter 
Associations of unifying the country through force. The 



GENERAL DEVELOPMENT OP EDUCATION IN CHINA 263 

Ministry of Education, did not encourage educational 
activities or take active leadership in matters of educa- 
tional improvement, and was not able to deal with 
student strikes and school revolts. Mo attempt was made, 
neither was any measure taken, to prevent the Bolshevik 
element from entering into education. Worst of all, the 
Ministry was unable to maintain its own status, and the 
strike of the office staff caused the whole machine to stop 
running for some time. 

However, the progress in the science and art of educa- 
tion was not checked. Individual educators and educa- 
tional groups were very active in service. They never felt 
disappointed when serving China through education. I 
wish to mention a few of the active associations and their 
remarkable contribution to education. 

(I) The National Association for the Advancement of Education 

The most remarkable contribution made during the 
year was the service of Professor Twiss. As a result 
of this service there was formed in Peking a Commission 
on the teaching of science under the directorship of 
Dr. Y. G. Chen. The work of this Commission is: (1) to 
determine the objective of science teaching in schools and 
colleges; (2) to determine minimum standards in science 
equipment; (3) to provide laboratory manuals for teachers; 

(4) to examine and recommend laboratory apparatus; and 

(5) to provide ways and means for improving the efficiency 
of teachers. 

The Association also secured Professor McCall's 
services. Under his leadership a series of tests and 
measurements was made. This was the first thing of the 
kind ever constructed by Chinese and for the use of Chinese 
children. Professor Terman, of Yenching University, then 
applied these tests and measurements in a nation-wide 
survey, and, although there are many short-comings, as we 
find from their application, we are satisfied with the 
movement itself. It gives to our school people the idea of 
objectives, and a means of judging school work. 

The Association also held a national exhibition of 
educational processes and school results last summer in 
the old Examination Hall at Nanking. Exhibits were 



264 GENERAL DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION IN CHINA 

sent in from all the provinces, as well as from the South 
Sea Islands, Japan, England and the United States. ^ It 
was the first educational exhibition we ever held in China. 
It was due also to the efforts of this Association and 
its cooperation with other institutions that the Board of 
Trustees, for the control and disposal of part of the 
indemnity funds returned by America, was organized. 

(2) Federation of Provincial Educational Associations 

This group has made some valuable contributions 
during last year. The most important one is the deter- 
mination of minimum standards for the new school system, 
comprising the following : — 

(a) The standard curriculum for elementary schools. 

(b) The standard curriculum for junior middle 
schools. 

(c) The standard curriculum for senior middle 
schools. 

(d) The standard curricula for all grades of normal 
schools. 

(e) The standard curricula for all kinds of vocational 
schools. 

The first three were made and published in 1923 
under the title of m * *fl * * « * H »• In . each cu {' 
riculum, for instance, the elementary school curriculum, it 
gives first the general objectives of elementary school 
education, then the subjects to be taught in order to attain 
these objectives, then some good methods of teaching, and 
lastly,the mini mum requirements for graduation. Standards 
for each school subject have also been made. In each 
subject, it first gives the aims of teaching, then the 
standard requirements in subject matter, and then the 
suggested method of teaching. Standards for normal school 
and vocational curricula were made in 1924 and are now 
about to be published. 

(3) The National Association for Education of Illiterates 
This Association was established in the summer of 

1923, with its head-quarters in Peking. The movement 
was started by the Young Men's Christian Association and 



■ 



GENERAL DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION IN CHINA 265 

was later incorporated with the National Association for 
the Advancement of Education. The inauguration of an 
independent and national office took place in August, 
under the name of tfi r ^ *p & ffc W % M "#, with Madame 
Chu Shiong Chi Hwei as the chairman of the Board of 
Directors. Madame Chu and Dr. W. T. Tao visited many 
large cities and preached the gospel. The result was that 
everywhere they went there was a surprising movement. 
The latest statistics are not available but it is estimated 
that about 1,200,00') readers were sold, that is to say, 
there are about 1,000,000 persons who are using or have 
used these books. 

Never before in the history of Christian 
IV. Progress m ec j nca tion in China could we find anything 
Education comparable to the progress or achievement 

made in the last year or two, especially in 
the line of economy and efficiency in education. There was 
previously little, if any, cooperation, coordination or 
standardization among the Christian schools. Each deno- 
mination administered its own schools in its own way, 
attempted to supply its own needs without realizing the 
need of the country and that of the Christian community 
at large. Very little attention was paid to what was going 
on in government institutions and practically no study 
was made in regard to the place of Christian education in 
the educational system of the country; in some places, 
very little opportunity was given to the Chinese teachers 
to display or develop their leadership. 

The three requirements pointed out by the Educational 
Commission in 1922, as necessary, namely, that the 
schools become " more efficient, more Christian, and more 
Chinese," have been taken as the guiding principles of the 
Christian educators and leaders of to-day. A cooperative 
system of the whole body of Christian schools and colleges 
has been secured. The China Christian Educational 
Association and the ten local associations have been 
re-organized and strengthened. Full time and expert 
educationalists are employed. Coordination of educational 
work as a whole is in progress; standardization in school 
equipment and curriculum is being made, and government 
standards are scrutinized and used. 



266 GENERAL DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION IN CHINA 

The National School System — the 6-3-3-4 plan has 
been adopted. Nearly all required subjects in the public 
school curriculum are taught. Efforts nre being made 
in improving the teaching of Chinese in schools and 
colleges. A special committee on government relation- 
ships and the registration of Christian schools with the 
government has been appointed. The Christian schools 
are ready to come up to the minimum standards prescribed 
by the government educational authorities, and are 
prepared to make such reports and to undergo such 
inspection as may enable the government to ascertain 
that its standards are being adhered to. 

Since the establishment of the National Christian 
Council, Chinese leaders have been gradually put on 
the same footing as foreign missionaries. In the China 
Christian Educational Association, Chinese secretaries 
have been added to the staff. In the Christian colleges 
and schools, the promotion and development of Chinese 
leadership is looked upon as a matter of importance. In 
several progressive colleges and universities we find that 
even deanships are given to Chinese. This shows that the 
Christian schools in China, first established by mission- 
aries, are now gradually realizing the fact that, since 
the purpose of the Christian schools has never been for the 
advantage of any foreign country or interest but mainly 
the good of China, they should be handed over to Chinese 
as soon as they are ready for them. The difference 
between the Christian schools and the public schools, ^ so 
far as we can see at present, is that in the Christian 
schools religion is taught, because the Christian school^ as 
established by the Christians, exists primarily to provide 
an education in a Christian atmosphere for the children 
of the Christian community and others who might wish 
to avail themselves of it. They believe that the primary 
object of all education is the development of character 
and it is in this sphere that Christianity has a special 
contribution to make. 

It is rather surprising to think how the 
ThzAnti- anti-Christian educational movement spread 
Educt«o n nal so widely and with such rapidity in the course 
Movement of a few months. To many of us, the resolu- 



GENERAL DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION IN CHINA 267 

tions passed at the Third Annual Conference of the Na- 
tional Association for the Advancement of Education 
in Nanking last July, and those passed at the Eleventh 
Annual Conference of the Federation of Provincial 
Educational Associations last October in Kaifeng (for 
resolutions see Educational Review of October and January, 
1924 and 25) were the first indications of the attack, and 
it seems that these two associations might be responsible 
for the movement. A moment's critical examination will 
show that it has been due to the combined effort of two 
groups of persons other than the above mentioned associa- 
tions, and that the field had been prepared for them long 
ago. The following is a brief account of the development 
of this movement: 

Ever since the boycott of Japanese goods there has 
been a feeling of general unrest among the school boys. 
The Russian success in Peking, the radical propaganda of 
the socialists, and the Kuo Ming Tang party's nationalistic 
propaganda have ail tended to make the school boys more 
nervous. The " New Culture Movement " achieved many 
good results in the beginning but gradually lost its original 
meaning and the thinking minds of hundreds of thousands 
of young students have been left without any control. 
Religion, law, science, arts, moral tradition, and even the 
government are nothing to them. They are ready to make 
any response with little or no thinking. When the World 
Christian Student Federation met in Peking in 1922, 
encouraged by some leading schoolmen, the "Anti-Christian 
Alliance " was organized, with its headquarters in Peking, 
and sub-committees in most of the government institutions. 
This movement died out after a very short time but its 
impression upon the minds of young students was strong 
and vivid. 

If you analyze the present situation you will find that 
there are two groups working in this movement. One of 
these is the Bolshevik, and the other is a group of young 
men with very strong nationalistic views, especially in 
education. 

As regards the Bolshevik Movement, we learn, from 
reliable sources, that the Russians in the North have won 
for Bolshevism a number of university instructors and a 



268 GENERAL DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION IN CHINA 

large number of students. These men worked among the 
students in Peking for some time and then a part of them 
went to the south and joined a well-known political party. 
They first secured the cooperation of the party leader 
and the Russians, and then they made that party stand for 
Bolshevism. As the party became dominated by these 
men, gradually the old members deserted. There has 
been a split into two parties — the "Reds" and the 
"Elders." When the "Reds" dominated the party, 
they began their propaganda by establishing headquarters 
in all the provinces, with the possible exception of Hupeh 
and Hunan, with branch offices in schools and colleges. 

Taking advantage of the political and social unrest 
and the psychology of adolescence, they approach the 
school boys by the use of high-sounding phrases, such 
as, — "To pull down imperialism," "To overthrow 
capitalism," "To check foreign invasion through culture 
and religion," "to eliminate treaties on unequal terms," 
11 to preserve nationality," and so forth. They charge 
the Christian school with being a place for the training 
of foreign subjects instead of Chinese citizens; the missiona- 
ries with being pioneers of colonization work for their 
countries, and the church and school with being tools of a 
foreign invasion through civilization and religion. 

Another party which is working in this connection was 
organized by a group of young men holding nationalistic 
views in education. At their annual meeting held in 
Soochow two years ago, resolutions were passed that 

Nationality in education " be one of their policies. It 
was due to this group of men that the question concerning 
Christian education was brought up at the Nanking 
Conference last summer. It was the same group that 
brought out the resolutions at Kaifeng in the conference 
there last October. The official paper of this group is the 

Awakening Lion,"' published weekly in Shanghai. 

Judging from the movement and the agitators taking 
an active part in it, we are convinced that it will be 
short-lived, because we believe that the Chinese are not 
Russians; that the conditions now existing in China are 
different from those which existed in Russia some years 
ago. There is no place for Bolshevism in China. Their 



GENERAL DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION IN CHINA 269 

anti-Christian movement will never find sympathy among 
the educational leaders. Politically speaking, it is not 
constitutional. It conflicts with the principle of democracy 
and religious freedom. On the contrary, the children of 
many Chinese leaders are in Christian schools and the 
Christian school is doing its best to meet the needs of 
Chinese society and the people. 

The "Reds" may have a chance to try out their 
theory of communism in China. We have, however, every 
reason to believe that it will not live long. The end of the 
"Reds " will be the end of the movement. 

As to that group of people who hold nationalistic 
views in education, it is a natural product of the rapid 
growth of narrow nationalism in China. Politics and 
play-politics are not of interest to this group. They are 
interested in education, in the secularizing of Christian 
education for the welfare of China. This propaganda is 
not as destructive as that of the "Reds." It is to the 
Christian educators and Mission Board representatives, as 
well as the Chinese Government that we look for a solution. 



CHAPTER L 

ORGANIZED CHRISTIAN EDUCATION 
Edward Wilson Wallace 

The place of Christian education in China is being 
questioned to-day from two very different quarters. There 
is, first, a question in the minds of earnest Chinese 
Christian leaders. They recognize the value to the 
Christian church of the schools and colleges which the 
missions have established. They realize, however, that if 
these institutions are to find a permanent place in Chinese 
education, they must ultimately be taken over by the 
church, and they definitely anticipate such a transfer. It 
is a serious matter, however, for the young church to 
undertake responsibility for so large an expenditure of 
money and of personnel. It is well that there should be 
no doubt in the minds of the Christian leaders of the value 
and the function of Christian education before they assume 
this responsibility. On the other hand, outside the church, 
critics of Christian education are challenging the rigbt of 
foreign mission bodies, and even of the Chinese Christian 
Church, to maintain private schools in which religion is 
taught. It is possible that the Chinese Church, if it 
wishes to retain its schools, will have to make a firm 
stand against a well-organized and determined attack. It 
is clear that before the church can do so, it must be 
convinced that it cannot afford to lose the Christian 
schools and colleges. 

The situation is one that demands clear thinking and 
the adoption of a policy which has the whole-hearted 
support of the Christian community. Fortunately, the 
church is better prepared to meet this situation than it was 
a few years ago. The report of the China Educational 
Commission has made available a careful study of the 
place of the Christian school and college in the life of 
the church and of the nation. The organization of 









ORGANIZED CHRISTIAN EDUCATION 271 

Christian education, which has been proceeding for the 
last ten years, makes it possible for the leaders in church 
and in education to take united action in the determination 
of future policies, in explaining these policies to sup- 
porters and to critics, and in suggesting to institutions and 
to their boards of control steps that seem advisable to meet 
the situation. In such common study the China Christian 
Educational Association represents the educational in- 
terests of the Christian church throughout China and is in a 
position to speak for Christian education as a whole. A brief 
statement of its functions and organization is, therefore, 
not out of place at this time. 

In considering the functions of the China 
Functions of the Christian Educational Association we may 

Educational s ? art from t] ? e re P ort of the China Educa- 
Association tional Commission, which was published in 
1922 in the volume entitled M Christian 
Education in China." * The main principles on which this 
report was built up were summarized in an article in the 
China Mission Year Book of 1923, "The Educational 
Commission — and After. " 

It is well to remember that the China Christian 
Educational Association, as it now functions, is no longer 
an annual or triennial meeting of interested teachers, 
gathering to discuss educational subjects. That important 
function of conference has passed to the ten provincial 
Christian Educational Associations. Nor, on the other 
hand, is it a super-board of education, imposing its will 
upon the church bodies and missions that are ultimately 
responsible for directing the policies of the educational 
institutions. It undertakes no activities and it assumes no 
prerogatives which have not been delegated to it by the 
bodies directly responsible for Christian education. 

Its chief functions may be briefly 3tated as follows: — 
' 1. The study of the fundamental principles upon 
which the Christian schools and colleges in China are 
maintained. 



* Published by the Commercial Press, Shanghai. See especially 
page 53. 



272 ORGANIZED CHRISTIAN EDUCATION 

2. Provision for the special study of specific problems 
that arise from time to time. 

3. The promotion of certain educational activities, 
either directly, or, more commonly, through the provincial 
associations, boards of control, the church and mission 
bodies, etc. 

4. The provision of a medium for the interchange of 
ideas and plans, and for explaining to the government 
educational authorities the aims and needs of Christian 
education. 

5. The definite undertaking of certain activities which 
have been referred to it by other responsible bodies. 
Organization of Christian educational work is carried on 
the China directly under local school committees; the 
Christian ultimate control rests with the church bodies 
Assodation and the m ! ssioDS themselves, and with boards 

of control in China or abroad. Experience has 
shown that individualism in the determination of policies 
in education is inefficient. The past few years have seen 
the rapid drawing together of those responsible for the 
educational institutions, for the purpose of determining 
general policies, the setting up of standards and the 
securing of better results. 

p j . r Such union for primary and secondary 

Associations schools is found in the ten provincial Christian 
Educational Associations, nearly all of which 
are now supported by the majority of the church and 
mission bodies in the respective areas served by these 
associations. These associations are voluntary gatherings 
of teachers in Christian schools and colleges and meet 
annually for a conference of two or three days. The 
Educational Commission recommended that each associa- 
tion should take steps for the organization in the area that 
it represented of a Board of Christian Education and this 
has now been done by all but one of the associations. 
These Boards are directly representative of the bodies that 
control the policies of the schools, — mission and school 
bodies — and are, therefore, able to take more definite action 
in reference to the determination of curricula, standards, 
qualifications of teachers and other matters which concern 
the well-being of the schools, Most of the Boards hav 



: 



ORGANIZED CHRISTIAN EDUCATION 273 

secured the services of one or more secretaries who devote 
their time in whole or in part to its activities. 

These Associations and Boards are directly represented 
in the Council of Primary and Secondary Education of the 
China Christian Educational Association, which serves as 
a correlating agency for the whole country. 

For some years the presidents of the Chris- 
Assodatfon for tian colleges and universities have held regular 
Higher Educa- meetm S s to discuss their common problems, 
tioa f This gathering developed, in 1924, into the 

China Association for Christian Higher Educa- 
tion, which has both institutional and individual members. 
Of the former there are now fifteen. It meets bi-ennially. 
This Association has a Board of Reference representative of 
the institutional members, which meets only when called 
to consider matters of serious concern to all the colleges. 
Acting as an executive body is the smaller Council, which 
also functions as the Council of Higher Education of the 
China Christian Educational Association. This Council 
meets twice a year. It is engaged in making a number of 
studies, such as college standards, college finance, etc. 
It is a very active body, and the results of its studies will 
certainly serve to draw the colleges more closely together 
and to increase their effectiveness. 

Binding these bodies together is the China Christian 
Educational Association, which thus represents the interests 
as a whole, of Christian education . Its present organiza- 
tion includes the two Councils to which reference has been 
made, — the Council of Higher Education and the Council 
of Primary and Secondary Education. The constitution 
that has been adopted also provides for a Council of 
Religious Education and a Council of Adult and Extension 
Education. Each Council meets annually, and each will 
have its own staff of secretaries. The work of the Councils 
is correlated through a General Board, which also meets 
annually, and which is composed of representatives of the 
several Councils as well as a number of coopted members. 
It will represent the interests of Christian education as a 
whole vis a vis the government authorities, and will endeavor 
to insure the utmost correlation possible between the 
different grades and types of education, 



274 ORGANIZED CHRISTIAN EDUCATION 

In order to carry out the functions that have been 
delegated to it, the Association requires a staff of full-time 
secretaries. In addition to the office staff, there are at 
present a General Secretary (Frank D. Gamewell), two 
£ 88 w la w n GIJ T al S n ecretarie s (Sanford C. C. Chen and 
E W Wallace) a Secretary of the Council of Higher 
Education (EC. Lobenstine), and an assistant Secretary of 
Fnmary and Secondary Education (Y. P. Tien). 
Present Tn conclusion, brief reference may be made 

Activities to certain of the activities of the China 

Christian Educational Association. 

1. During the past two years the Association has co- 
operated ma number of important conferences, notably the 
College Conference in Nanking, February, 1924, an Agri- 
cultural Conference in Nanking, February, 1924, a con- 
terence on Religious Education in Shanghai, March, 1924, 
a School Health Conference in Shanghai, December, 1924 
and a Supervisor's Conference in Wuchang, December, 1924 

f J he members of the staff have attended the annual 
meetings of the provincial associations and have visited 
conference colln try for purposes of study and 

3. Much thought has been given to the problems that 
Have suddenly arisen in connection with the movement for 
government recognition and registration of Christian 
schools, as well as the attacks that have been made by 
those who are hostile to Christian education. In such an 
emergency the Association has an important function to 

rntoTacLT Urin8 inf ° rmati0n and in SUggGSting Wise 

oo^ 4 n Sfcudie f are keing made of standards for schools 
and colleges, the results of which should be greatly to 
increase the efficiency of the Christian institutions. 

«nM* ♦ tt UnC . n ° f Higher Ed ™ation is studying the 
W .°* finan {? »> its bearing upon the development of 
the Christian colleges and universities. 

f ^ : J he e relafcion of the church to Christian education, 
to which reference was made at the beginning of this article, 
is being given more and more attention. An informal 
conference was held in January, 1925, to consider some of 
the problems of Chinese participation in Christian colleges. 



ORGANIZED CHRISTIAN EDUCATION 275 

7. A beginning has been made in the promotion of 
greater effectiveness in religions education, which is 
admittedly the heart of the Christian contribution to 
China's educational problem and to the work of the church. 
Steps are being taken to secure the services of a full-time 
secretary for this department. 

8. In the past the China Christian Educational 
Association made a large contribution to China's educational 
development through the text books which it published, 
especially in science. To-day the activities of the Chinese 
publishing houses make the continuance of this department 
unnecessary. But there is a large field for publications of 
another nature. The EDUCATIONAL REVIEW has for 
eighteen years served as an invaluable agency for stimulat- 
ing thought and promoting efficiency among the English- 
speaking teachers. Arrangements are now being made for 
the publication in Chinese of a "Chinese Educational 
Quarterly " to perform the same function in Chinese. Two 
important series of bulletins on vital topics are being issued, 
one in Chinese and one in English. 

While the Association is withdrawing from the 
publication of text books, it continues to study the needs 
of texts and to promote their preparation and publication. 

9. In former years the CHINA CHRISTIAN EDUCA- 
TIONAL ASSOCIATION served the needs of the missionary 
educators. To-day it is becoming as well the servant of 
the Chinese administrators and teachers in Christian 
institutions. It is thus a leader in the movement by which 
the interest and support of the Christian community are 
being steadily enlisted in education, — that movement 
which we saw in an opening paragraph is essential to the 
continuance of Christian education in China. Here we 
believe lies its permanent function and to this end its 
developing activities should be increasingly directed. 



CHAPTER LI 

RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 
Henry T. Hodgkin 

The Need . Tne last few y ears have seen much added 

. r interest in the problems of religious education 

m China 1 his may be traced in part to the increased 
study ot this matter abroad, particularly in America, and 
m part to the strictures passed upon the religious education 
m mission schools by the Educational Commission which 
visited China in 1921-2. The Commission passed judgment 
upon this aspect of missionary education in the following 
words: — 

"Religious education, in the sense of organized 
effort to give such instruction and training as shall 
inform the mind in respect to morals and religion, 
secure conversion, and develop character, is a vitally 
important element of Christian education. Neither in 
Christian lands, nor on the mission field, have the 
principles and methods of such education been at all 
adequately discovered. Progress in this field lags 
behind that m almost every other department of 
education. Mission schools fail oftener here than in 
mathematics or science. To discover how to bring to 
bear upon the child in school, church, and home, the 
influences most conducive to his highest religious and 
moral development is a task which calls for earnest 
and continuous study in China as in America and 
England. In this study account must be taken of all 
the conditions that affect the life of children and 
youths in China/' 
Organizations Various bodies are at work in the field, 
at Work each touching its own particular aspect of it. 

The chief of these are: — 
i ' The Sc h> °ls and Colleges, related to one another 
through the China Christian Educational Association. 



HELIGIOUS EDUCATION 277 

2. The Sunday School Union, dealing with the Churches 
and also touching many schools where the international or 
the graded courses are used. 

3. The Y. M. C. A. and the Y. W. C. A. y preparing and 
issuing courses for voluntary study in mission schools 
and also in government schools as well as for other groups. 

4. The Daily Vacation Bible School, reaching a wider 
public and providing courses which are largely taught by 
scholars from mission schools. 

In addition to these national organizations several of 
the larger missions have Sunday School departments and 
special workers on religious education preparing material 
for use in their Churches and stimulating those engaged to 
better work. It is, broadly speaking, to these agencies 
that the Church must look if progress in this field is 
no longer to "lag behind that in almost every other 
department of education ". 

A strenuous coordinated effort all along the line is 
needed if the reproach contained in the Commission's 
report is to be taken from the Christian forces in China. 
How is such an advance to be brought about ? 
Need of Even the above summary of agencies will 

Coordination make it clear that there is every possibility of 
overlapping between the various organizations 
at work, and that it would be easy enough for those 
engaged in the different fields to work at cross purposes. 
In 1917 the China Continuation Committee appointed a 
sub-committee to try to bring about some kind of correlation . 
It undertook several useful pieces of work but also met 
with considerable obstacles which impeded its progress. 

One of the recommendations of the Education 
Commission in 1922 was an attempt to deal with this 
complex problem in a comprehensive way. It contemplated 
the establishment of a Council on Religious Education 
which would be related to all the bodies at work in the 
field, and would function as one department of the Board 
of Christian Education. This Council should have at least 
one full-time secretary, and would be mainly advisory in 
its functions. The China Christian Education Assocation 
has for some time been considering this proposal but is 
only now taking the first steps towards carrying it out. 



2 ^ RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 



It is not clear to all the bodies concerned that this method 
would prove to be entirely satisfactory. The Association 
a year ago appointed a committee which is limiting its 
work to the curriculum courses in schools and colleges 
I he Council, when organized will at first confine its 
attention to this field. It will seek for a full-time secretary 
but no appointment has been made at the time of writing. 
Conference in ,.?J thus a pP ears that the task of correlation 
Shanghai stlil remains to be undertaken in some 

March J924 other way. This situation led the National 
• at *n.o risfclan Council at its first Annual Meeting 
in May 1923 to refer the problem to its Standing 
Commi tee on Retreats and Evangelism. This Committee 
called together workers in the various fields referred to 
above for a three-day Conference in March, 1924, at the 
Shanghai Baptist College. It reviewed the whole field 
with the object of discovering where the chief needs lay 
and m order to see how these might be met. It forwarded 
concrete recommendations to several different bodies 
including the National Christian Council, the Sunday School 
Union, and the China Christian Educational Association 
Its recommendation to the first named was as follows: 

1. That a Standing Committee on Religious Education 
be appointed by the National Christian Council, represent- 
ing as adequately as possible the various organizations 
directing religious education in China. 

The following suggestions are submitted as to the 
possible functions of such a Committee, viz: — 

a. To become a clearing house for information 
regarding what is being done in religious education in the 
whole field of the Chinese Church and what ground remains 
to be covered; and to take such steps as may be necessary 
to see that this ground is covered. 

b. To stimulate united thought and prayer on the 
problems of religions education, through such means as 
mter-visitation, retreats, conferences, bulletins, articles for 
magazines, correspondence, etc. 

c. To bring about correlation of effort in religious 
education as far as this may seem wise and practicable. 

§ d. To stimulate research in religious education among 
various types of people. 



RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 279 

e. To study the need for literature in religious 
education, including hymns." 

The more urgent tasks were indicated as being teacher 
training, promotion of community councils on Religious 
Education, research, preparation of literature, both general 
and to meet certain specific needs, promotion of true 
worship in the Christian community. It was further 
urged that the N. C. C. appoint a whole-time secretary to 
serve the committee on Religious Education. At the 
Annual Meeting the Council felt unable to proceed so 
rapidly, its hesitation being due solely to the fear of 
undertaking at one time so many tasks as to make it 
impossible to do any of them thoroughly. A special 
committee was appointed to study the field more in detail 
and to make recommendations which might lead to the 
handling of this important matter "in a thorough way 
without adding to the permanent obligations of the 
Council." 

During the months following the Council meeting 
several important gatherings have been held which have 
helped to define the tasks and to see how far this 
instruction can be carried into effect. 

Meetings in . An i nformal two-day conference was held 
North China to Pei Tai Ho in August when thirty 
missionaries engaged in religious education 
(mainly in North China) met and reviewed the field. Two 
special investigations were set on foot, one in regard to the 
needs of young people of the ages of sixteen and seventeen 
in order to study their actual problems and plan courses 
based thereon, and the other to study the needs of persons 
recently admitted into Church membership and make 
suggestions with a view to meeting their special needs. 
These investigations are being carried on by persons in 
different parts of the country and are coordinated by Mrs. 
George Barbour of Peking and Rev. R. B. Whitaker of 
Lintsing, respectively. Valuable suggestions in regard to 
teacher training, literature, etc. were also made and 
referred to the special committee for further study. 

A Peking group, under the chairmanship of Miss 
Nowlin, met twice in May and in October and made plans 
for a division of the subject among the different members 



280 RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 

of the group. They also appointed a committee to plan for 
a summer school in North China similar to that held in 
Kuhng (see chapter 53). 

The Chili-Shansi Educational Association, at their 
annual meeting in January, 1925 have concentrated on the 
subject of Religious Education, and have carried further 
the plans and ideas discussed by these North China groups. 
This conference emphasized the need for better text books 
and a fuller recognition in practice of the fact that the 
religious impact of the school or college is not only or indeed 
mainly, produced through the curriculum study of religious 
subjects. 

Canton In South China the work of religious 

Conferences education has been forwarded along two 
parallel lines. In consultation with educa- 
tionists at Canton Christian College Dr. Wallace has been 
working at the curriculum courses and two small conferences 
have been held at which these problems were thrashed out 
in some detail. A larger and more comprehensive con- 
ference was held in Canton in December when Dr. Lyon 
and Dr. Hodgkin (chairman and secretary of the N. C. C. 
Committee) met with workers in the various fields (churcfc, 
school, etc.) and discussed for two days a number of the 
outstanding needs as felt in that area. A provisional 
committee was formed in order to carry forward Various 
proposals which emerged from the conference. In 
particular this committee was entrusted with the following 
tasks : 

1. Investigation of the results of religious education 
as seen in various groups and especially a study of the 
reasons why so many promising students after leaving 
school or college do not become active members in the 
Churches. 

2. Preparation of literature for the country districts 
using the Thousand Characters and so following up the 
popular education movement. 

3. Study of the problem of home education and how 
to work out progressive courses from the home, through 
the Sunday School and on to adult life. 

4. A campaign for helping the Churches generally to 
appreciate the problem and realize the need in this field. 



RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 281 

5. The question of supervision of the Religious 
Education in the schools, particularly in the country. 

A number of other problems were referred for further 
consideration to the N. C. C. Committee and to the retreat 
of Christian leaders held immediately after the Conference. 
Great emphasis was placed upon the need for a deeper 
reverence in public worship and the use of the Sunday 
services as a means for more thorough teaching on religious 
questions. 

Future work by Meanwhile the Shanghai members of the 
N« C. C. N. C. C. Committee have been meeting from 

time to time and have formulated suggestions 
on which action will be taken at the next annual meeting 
of the Council. It is only possible to give these proposals 
in outline as more work has still to be done on them. 
Briefly, however, the idea is to help mainly in the coordina- 
tion of national organizations, through the holding of a 
regular meeting of those who guide and carry out their 
policies, to serve these in every possible way and to refer 
to those best able to deal with them each particular problem 
or service which may require attention. The central 
committee would limit its field of action to those services 
which it was definitely asked to undertake by the leaders 
in the various organizations and would, in other matters, 
be merely a suggesting or advisory body. Such suggestions 
as it might forward to any other body might especially 
touch the fields of experimentation and research, preparation 
of literature or training of teachers. The Committee 
concerned would, of course, be free to act in any case as it 
felt best. 

One service is being at present undertaken on behalf 
of the various organizations, viz: the preparation of an 
annotated bibliography by Mr. Z. K. Zia in consultation 
with the chairman. This will be much more than a list of 
books, containing a synopsis of the material and some 
estimate of its value, the viewpoint of the author, and the 
class of people for whom it is designed . 
C. C. E. A ^ ne China Christian Educational Associa- 

tion has, at the same time, been making 
progress along the lines suggested at the March Conference. 
Funds are available for the addition to the staff of the 



282 



RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 



Association of a full-time secretary of religious education, 
and active search is being made for the right man. Three 
committees are at work studying the curriculum and 
textbook needs of the primary school, middle school and 
college. The preparation of several new courses has been 
encouraged, one of which is now passing through the 
press. Some assistance has also been given to the Kuling 
Summer School of Religious Education, and an invitation 
is under consideration for assistance at a similar school 
at Pei-Tai-Ho. 

C. S. S, U. The Sunday School Union has taken 

up certain other suggestions made by the 
March Conference. 

The following points may be especially noted: — 

1. A Chinese artist has been secured to give his full 
time to the preparation of illustrations for use in 
connection with Neighborhood Schools and in 
other ways. 

2. Dr. James' pamphlet on " Training in Worship' ' 
has been issued in English. 

3. Special lessons in connection with the problems of 
home life, the home for Christ, are being prepared 
and this aspect of the Christian message is being 
more largely emphasized in the Sunday School 
material. 

Advance is also being made in the application of 
religious teaching to the actual problems of the Chinese 
student. 

Ex-students and Reference has already been made to one 
ths Churchzs of the chief problems, a careful study of which 
may throw much light upon our immediate 
duty in the field of religious education. This is the problem 
created by the fact that a large number of students who 
have shown much promise and have often been leaders in 
Christian effort while at school or college, fail to enter into 
vital relation with the Churches after leaving, in some 
cases drifting away altogether, in some cases retaining a 
nominal connection with the Church but making little or 
no contribution to its life. Is this due to any defect in the 
religious education of the school or college, to any defect 
in Church life or to any defect in machinery? No doubt 



RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 283 

all these matters must be looked into and in certain cases 
one, and in some another, will seem to be the most 
important factor. The study of the problem is being 
undertaken by the Y. M. C. A. and the Y, W. C. A. and it 
is hoped that many workers will cooperate in order that 
light may be gained and some steps taken to deal with what 
all must recognize to be a very important aspect of 
missionary work. We are putting any amount of energy 
into the training of young people who should take positions 
of leadership (whether clerical or lay) in the Church. The 
need for such leadership is more than words can state. 
Are we in some degree failing to carry over from the school 
and college into the life of the Church? 

More recently Shanghai College has set free Dr. Webster 
in order that he may conduct an investigation under the 
Educational Association, Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A. in 
regard to the religious interests and needs of young people. 
This research will extend throughout the country and will 
fit in with that already referred to under Mrs. Barbour's 
leadership. 

In this review it has been possible to do little more 
than indicate some of the problems and to show where 
steps are being taken to deal with them. Enough will have 
been said, however, to show that the Christian forces in 
China are awakening to the situation brought out three 
years ago by the Education Commission and are determined 
to deal with it in a comprehensive and intelligent way. 
Advance must be built upon knowledge and at the present 
stage it is perhaps knowledge of the facts which is most 
urgently needed in many different directions. 



CHAPTER LII 

THE CHINA SUNDAY SCHOOL UNION 
E» G. Xewfcsbury 

_ The regular lines of work at the China Sunday School 
Union headquarters have gone on as usual through the 
year. The General Secretary made a quick three months' 
trip to the Quadrennial Convention of the World's Sunday 
School Association held at Glasgow in June. With the 
help of three Chinese workers who were also present at 
the Convention, China was able to hold its place on the 
program amongst the forty-five and more nations there 
represented. 

Lesson Tiie Editorial Secretary, Mr. Vale, left on 

Material furlough in November, thus leaving the bur- 

den of the preparation of the Lesson Notes 
on the Associate Chinese Secretary, Mr. Pan, and the 
General Secretary. It is gratifying to find that more and 
more it is possible to prepare the lesson material first in 
Chinese. ^ All Sunday School work must increasingly 
become " indigenous " if it is to root and grow in the 
Orient. It is as it should be that the illustrative and 
teaching material used by missionaries and Chinese alike 
should be translated from Chinese into English rather 
than from English into Chinese. While the International 
Uniform Lesson Notes will still contain much material 
which has already been translated and adapted from 
Peloubet's and other Lesson Notes issued in the home- 
lands, and while the Chinese leaders who prepare notes 
on new Sunday School Lessons will be perfectly free to use 
the Lesson Helps available in English, it is a distinct 
advance step that the China Sunday School Union is able 
to have on its staff a Chinese preacher and theological 
professor of long standing who is amply able to provide 
' indigenous " Lesson Note material. It has been the 
policy of the China Sunday School Union from the begin- 



THE CHINA SUNDAY SCHOOL UNION 285 

ning as far as possible to issue all its literature in both 
Chinese and English editions. It still continues this 
policy, but, as stated above, the Lesson Notes for the 
International Uniform Lessons, as far as they contain new 
indigenous material, will have that material largely pre- 
pared in Chinese first and then translated into English. 
p . . rsan j Not only in the Lesson Note preparation, 

Illustrations DU k also in picture illustrative work is the 
China Sunday School Union seeking to make 
its material more indigenous. A Chinese Christian artist 
has been employed on full time especially for this Bible 
illustrative work. It is surprising that so little work has 
been done through the years in illustration of the Bible 
and Christian books by native Chinese artists. The field 
is a tempting one and has its special problems. For 
example: Shall Bible pictures be prepared by Chinese 
artists in Chinese style ? There would seem to be no 
question that the parables of the Bible might be so illus- 
trated. One of the best examples of this work is a series 
of pictures illustrating the parable of the Prodigal Son 
prepared by a distinguished Chinese artist and published by 
the Religious Tract Society many years ago. It is a real 
question, however, whether the historical portions of the 
Bible should be illustrated with Chinese figures and environ- 
ment. On the other hand, it certainly seems quite uncalled 
for to introduce into China Bible pictures prepared with the 
faces and surroundings of Bible characters depicted in 
Italian or other European settings. The more recent pic- 
tures from the homelands, such as the Copping and the 
"All-British " series, furnish illustrations with the figures 
and environment as much as possible true to Palestinian 
conditions. Inasmuch as Palestinian conditions are more 
nearly akin to China than to the West, it is to be hoped the 
new Chinese artist can so depict Bible scenes that they will 
not seem to be "foreign " to the Chinese eye. An esteemed 
pastor of the Congregational Church in Peking attempted 
Bible illustrations in Chinese style some years ago in 
connection with the North China Tract Society. It will be 
interesting to watch the experiment with the China Sunday 
School Chinese artist as he attempts to make the Bible live 
for his fellow-countrymen. 



286 THE CHINA SUNDAY SCHOOL UNION 

fJ ., « Two courses of Sunday School Lessons 

GradedLes^ous have been issued through the years by the 

China Sunday School Union, viz., the Inter- 
national Uniform and the International Graded Series. 
Only five of the series of the Graded Lessons have been 
available. A sixth is now in course of preparation, viz., 
Beginner's Second Year. 

In the line of Sunday School Lesson 
World Courses c ovirses it is of interest to note the move- 
Glasgow ment which was initiated at the Glasgow 

World's Sunday School Association Conven- 
tion, for Lesson Courses adapted to the use of all the 
Sunday Schools of the world. There were present at that 
Convention at least two outstanding members of the 
American and British Sunday School Lesson Committees — 
Dr. Weigle of the American Committee and Dr. Garvie of 
the British. In consultation with other members of their 
Committees and Sunday School leaders from the various 
countries present at Glasgow it seemed feasible to suggest 
that the British and American Committees should unite 
in promoting the use of a World Group Graded Course. It 
was suggested that such a course might consist of three or 
five grades, and the Bible and Scripture selections for forty 
out of the fifty-two Lessons might be given in a World 
Syllabus, leaving the remaining Sundays of each year for 
special lessons fitted to the peculiar needs of the various 
countries and churches using the Lessons. This seems 
to be a distinct forward step in Lesson making, and it is 
to be hoped that the World's Committee of seven ap- 
pointed to this work may speedily go forward along the 
lines suggested. 



CHAPTER LIII 

SUMMER SCHOOL OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 
S. J. Harrison 

Th Ori in ^ ^ as Deen tne feeling of some of those 

connected with the Summer Sunday School 
at Kuling that there was both a definite need and a real 
opportunity to conduct a school that would deal with 
problems of Religious Education. One or two teacher 
training classes had been successfully conducted but more 
were needed. The need was felt for an opportunity to do 
research work in modern methods and at the same time 
receive the inspiration and help of group discussions. The 
matter was presented to the Church Council and a 
committee of four was elected — Rev. Win. L. Sanders, 
Rev. E. G. Tewksbury, Rev. G. A. Clayton and Rev. S. J. 
Harrison — with power to coopt other members and 
arrange for such a school for the Summer Season of 1923. 
The church building was reserved for the purpose. In 
this connection it was also advised that an exhibit of as 
much literature, both Chinese and English, as could 
be made available on these important subjects should be 
displayed for all members of the school. This committee 
has from the beginning been closely in touch with the 
National Christian Council. 

The committee did its work, and after the 
Years CUl or g anizat i° n of the general committee com- 
posed of the four above named and the 
following : Rev. Edward James, Rev. Carleton Lacy, Mr. 
George Kerr, Prof. W. F. Hummel, Prof. J. B. Hipps, Mr. 
L. K. Hall, Mrs. McGillivray, Prof. D. W. Decker, plans 

kwere made for the first school which was held during the 
Summer of 1923. The success of this school was even 
greater than had been anticipated and at the close it was 
voted by the entire enrollment of over one hundred, that 
this school should become a permanent institution and 



288 



SUMMER SCHOOL OF RELIG10U9 EDUCATION 



should become self-perpetuating. The findings of that 
school were reported back to the Church Council with 
nominations for a general committee to arrange for the 
second school. This committee added the names of Bishop 
L. H. Roots, Rev. C. H. Smith and Miss Daisy Brown. This 
committee did its work well and a successful school was 
conducted during the Summer of 1924. 

It was decided that the school should be of 
The Program about two wee k s > duration. One principle 
laid down was that about one half of the courses offered 
should deal with the more general or theoretical side of 
religious educational problems while the other half should 
deal with specific and practical problems. The schedule 
was arranged so as to offer six courses besides a devotional 
period and a period for general lectures. The courses 
offered so far in the school have been : 



1. 
2. 

3. 
4. 
5. 

1. 
2. 



I. General Courses 

1923 
Devotions by Dr. Poteat 



Bishop 



General Lectures by Dr. 
T. T. Lew and Rev. J. M. 
Yard. 

Child Psychology by Miss 

Butler. 

Studies in Luke by Dr. 

D. W. Decker. 

Training in Worship by 

Dr. E. James. 



1924 

1. Devotions by 
Roots. 

2. General Forum discus- 
sions on Religious Edu- 
cation and Outstanding 
Social Problems. 

3. Introductory Studies by 
Rev. Emory Luccock. 

4. Studies from Paul, Mr. 
Arthur Rugh. 



Sunday School Literature 
by Rev.E. G. Tewksbury. 

Organization and Admin- 
istration by Rev. W. L. 
Sanders. 

Pageantry by Miss Laola 
Wheeler. 



II. Specific Problems 
1 



2. 



Local Church Program 
by Rev. Sidney Ander- 
son. 

Teacher training by Dr. 
E. W. Wallace. 



SUMMER SCHOOL OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 289 

Th-Leadershi ** W *** ^ e Seen * rom ^ e names given ill 

the above program offered during these 
two years of the school that the leadership has been 
of the very highest quality. The leaders have been 
specialists in the courses which they presented and the 
value of their leadership is known only as one knows the 
appreciation of those privileged to be in the classes. It 
was a matter of deep regret that owing to illness three of 
the leaders arranged for the 1924 School could not be 
present. Dr. T. T. Lew could not offer his course on the 
Literature Survey, Prof. Terman his on Adolescent Psycho- 
logy, nor Prof. Hipps his on Methods of Bible Teaching. 
These may be some of the good things in store for the 
future. It is understood that Dr. Cleland McAfee of 
McCormack Seminary and Dr. Weigle may visit China in 
1925. In such event the school hopes to secure them for 
certain courses. 

The personnel of the school may be seen in this study 
of the 1924 registration, where, exclusive of faculty, there 
were 44 women and 32 men, a total of 76. Of these 39 
were educational, 23 evangelistic, 4 secretarial, 2 medical, 
and 8 home workers, making a total of 76. They came 
from the following eighteen different bodies: Christian 
Advent, 1; American Board Mission, 1; American Church 
Mission, 15; Baptist (North), 1; Canadian Church Mission, 
1; Christian Disciple, 4; Evangelical Church, 3; London 
Missionary Society, 5; Methodist (South), 3; Methodist 
(North), 24; Presbyterian (South), 3; Presbyterian (North), 
9; Reformed Church, 1; Shanghai American School, 1; 
Nanking University, 1; Wesleyan Methodist, 1; Yale in 
China, 1; Y. M. C. A., 1. It will be seen, therefore, that 
the membership is drawn from a very representative 
constituency. 

Among the recommendations made by the findings 
committee at the close of the 1924 season, names were 
presented for reorganization of the general committee, 
seeking to make it larger and more representative than it 
had formerly been. Twenty members, chosen from as 
many different societies and organizations, made up the 
committee as it was finally elected. Dr. Warren Stuart is 



290 SUMMER SCHOOL OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 

chairman, and Dr. E. W. Wallace, secretary, of this 

committee. 

p It was also recommended : 

Hopes* ^ an *• That tne school shall be more thoroughly 

advertised. 

2. That we concur with the action of the 1923 school 
requesting that the school be continued in the summers 
to come. 

3. That the interdenominational spirit of the school 
and its relation to the Killing Church Council and National 
Christian Council be made more generally known. 

4. That the General Committee consult representa- 
tives of the various churches, missions and other Christian 
organizations as to their wishes regarding program and 
personnel of leadership. 

5. That particular attention be given toward in- 
creasing the number of Chinese in attendance both as 
regards students and faculty. 

6. That the five-year program tentatively suggested 
by the former committee be followed in outline, and that 
the 1925 school (third in the five-year program) lay 
emphasis on practical problems. 

7. That the use of both discussion and lecture 
methods, which have been so popular this year, be 
continued in the future. 

In this and similar schools elsewhere in China are 
possibilities of great future development. Here we may 
study and discuss problems, and mould thinking that will 
shape mission policies throughout the entire land. " Let 
us pray." 



CHAPTER LIV 

PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN CHINA 
Freeda E. Boss 

The purpose of this article is to make clear the status 
of physical education in China especially during the years 
1923 and i924. It is quite impossible to do this without 
giving the readers a little background, for considerable has 
gone before even though it seems little in comparison with 
what some Western nations have accomplished. 

For centuries physical activity has been 
The Attitude looked down upon; coolies were present in 
Physical sucn numbers to do all manual labor that 

Activities, anyone who could pay a coolie his mere 
Old and New pittance thought it beneath his dignity to 
exert himself. Long nails and stooped 
shoulders were the pride of the scholar. The great mass 
of girls and women are anything but strong owing to 
the shut-in, inactive life which has been customary for 
centuries. To-day there is a new attitude toward physical 
life among the Chinese. Some form of physical exercise 
has a place in the program of most schools, both girls' 
and boys'. It is a common sight in many places in China 
to see school girls playing volley ball, tennis and other 
athletic games with the same zest as Western girls. This 
has come just in the last few years. There is a real 
desire on the part of many girls and women to be strong. 
Physical activities have developed to an even greater 
extent in the boys' schools. Athletic meets for boys are 
a common event now. Foot-binding has been and still is 
in many parts of China a great physical handicap for 
women, but gradually this custom is being abolished in 
the larger cities. It is still very common in the rural 
districts. 



292 PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN CHINA 

G . There are Government schools in Nanking, 

Private^hools Peking, Chengtu and Canton having normal 
departments of physical education, but only 
one school in Peking is for girls. There are numbers of 
private Chinese physical education schools scattered 
throughout Kiangsu, Chekiang, and Fukien Provinces, the 
greatest number being in Shanghai. At the present time 
there are six private training schools for girls in Shanghai. 
The first one was established as early as 1912 and now has 
400 graduates. Four have been established since 1922. 
Teaching throughout China are many students who have 
studied physical education in Japan, as well as many 
others who have studied in Western countries. National 
Southeastern University maintains the largest department 
for boys and the Higher Normal in Peking the largest 
department for girls. A Chinese woman returned student 
is at the head of the department in Peking Higher Normal, 
and an American is at the head of the Southeastern 
Department. 

Y M C A ^ e ^ ^' ®' ^' con ^ibutes to the develop- 

ment of physical education through the local 
and national associations. There are some 42 local centers. 
As early as 1908 there was a national secretary of physical 
education promoting the idea throughout China. For two 
and a half years the Y. M. C. A. conducted a training 
school. This year a department for training has been 
established in Soochow University with a National Y.M.C.A. 
secretary as dean. This will meet a big need as there has 
been no Christian physical education school for boys and 
one is badly wanted. The Y. M. C. A. has been one of the 
leading agencies interested in promoting the Far Eastern 
Championship Games with China, Japan and the Philippine 
Islands every two years. 

Y W C A ^ ne ^' ^' ^' ^' established in 1915 a school 

giving a two year training course in physical 
education for girls. There are to-day about one hundred 
graduates from that school with about sixty-five of them 
teaching in government and mission schools and in 
Y. W. C. A.'s. The greatest step in physical education for 
the Y.W.C.A. this year has been the merging of the physical 
education school with Ginling College where it becomes a 






PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN CHINA 293 

department of physical education and one of the majors in 
the regular college course. From time to time a special 
one-year course will be given to those not able to take a 
full college course. Four local Y. W. C. A.'s have graduate 
physical directors on their staffs, and other local Associations 
are doing much for the development of physical education 
through other members of the staff. For the last year and a 
half there has been a national secretary for physical 
education, visiting the graduates and generally promoting 
physical education throughout China. 

Play and Educationalists especially are realizing the 

Recreation neec ^ of playgrounds. Many schools have 
splendid play and athletic fields and some 
have good gymnasiums. In a few cities there is the 
beginning of the idea of public playgrounds but this has 
not been developed very far. The educational and moral 
value of play must be stressed more before much can be 
done in the way of establishing public playgrounds. Many 
people are eager for help in this. Home recreation is a cry- 
ing need. Some work is being done on this idea through a 
class on play and recreation in Ginling College and through 
the Church and Home Committee of the National Christian 
Council as well as the Y. M. C. A and the Y. W. C. A. 



CHAPTER LV 

THE EXTENSION DEPARTMENT OF THE SHANTUNG 
CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY 

Agnes S. Ingle 

History ^ e Extension Department of the Shan- 

tung Christian University is one of the 
wonders of modern missionary achievement. In 1887, the 
Rev. J. S. Whitewright of the English Baptist Mission, who 
had charge of the Theological Training Institution, started 
in connection with this work a small educational museum. 
Such was its success that in 1904 it was removed to the 
larger environment of the capital city of Shantung, where 
under the name of the Tsinanfu Institute, it made great 
progress. In 1917 this Institute became the Extension 
Department of the University. 

Aims The religion of friendship has never been 

over-emphasized, and it was as clear in the 
1 eighties ' as it is now, that to influence people one must 
first get to know them. The Department provides a 
meeting-ground where all classes may find, in friendly 
talk, in serious discussion and in seeing the practical 
illustrations of the achievements of mankind in the world, 
an answer to their curiosity about the foreigner and his 
message; and where the latter may learn something of the 
nation he has come to serve. In this way the minds of 
the people are prepared to receive the message of the love 
which underlies the whole structure of Christian civiliza- 
tion. The aims which are kept constantly before the 
minds of the staff contribute largely to the success of the 
work. There is the bare minimum of rules for visitors, and 
the place is what it professes to be "a home where all are 
welcome, a school where all may learn, and a door 



EXTENSION DEPT. OF SHANTUNG CHRISTIAN UNIV. 295 

through which to bring the knowledge of salvation through 
Jesus Christ." 

Method "^ n ^ n ^ s ex k ens i° n work there is no time 

spent in searching for one's audience. The 
audience is the seeker, and its first treasure trove is the 
educational exhibits. These are the most up-to-date 
illustration of the value of visual instruction, and are 
full of invaluable information given in the clearest 
diagramatic and pictorial forms. There are large geogra- 
phical, historical, and natural history sections, and a 
most instructive economic and commercial section has 
splendid object lessons for a country whose wealth 
and resources are in such need of wise administration 
and development. The wonders of modern science and 
engineering have excellent illustrations, and the models of 
the hygiene department are eloquent reminders of the 
urgent need of a continuous campaign against dirt and 
disease. Incidents of the recent fighting in China reveal 
the great necessity for the lessons of service which are 
taught by models of the work of the Red Cross Society, 
the Boy Scout Movement, the Women's Army, and the 
Chinese Labour Corps. The newest exhibits include 
models illustrating the development of writing and all 
that it has meant in the world of education and religion. 
A new series of "In Memoriam " models is being 
prepared to show what Christianity has done for the 
uplift of womanhood. This series has models of children's 
hospitals, schools, child-welfare . work, the training of 
women for nursing and other ministries, and a detailed 
model of a factory where women are employed, showing 
rest-room, dining-room, room for first-aid treatment, etc. 
One of the most interesting facts about the models is that 
nearly all of them are the results of the minute and skilled 
handiwork of the Department's own Chinese workmen. 
All visitors have an opportunity, in the study of many of 
the exhibits and the descriptive letter-press, of learning 
the teachings of the Christian Faith. 

The spirit which animates the whole work of the 
Department is the desire to win men to Christ. About half 
of the visitors who pass through listen to an evangelistic 



296 EXTENSION DEPT. OF SHANTUNG CHRISTIAN UNIV. 

address in the central hall, four to eight or more such 
addresses being given daily. During 1922, over 12,000 
scripture leaflets were sold after these services. It is here 
that the University has an opportunity of coming into 
contact with all classes of Chinese otherwise inaccessible 
to those engaged in educational work. A typical Sunday's 
activities include children's services, which have been 
attended by as many as 500 children at a time, discussion 
groups, Bible classes, lectures, and services. These are 
conducted by members of the University staff and others, 
and quite a number of students of all faculties spend some 
time in this work. On week-days, lectures on various 
subjects are given, and the Department has that most 
valuable of educational weapons — a cinematograph. 

In an age which is only beginning to appreciate 
education as a preparation for the use of leisure, it is 
interesting to find evidence of some appreciation of the 
reading rooms and lending library. The daily opening of 
the Chinese church, adjacent to the Department, for 
meditation, reading of Christian books, and conversation 
on religious matters with members of the staff of the 
Department, is an important feature in the direction of 
the religious life of the Chinese, and that it is valued is 
shown by the numbers who make use of this opportunity. 
During a recent month this number reached 3,000. 

A most important branch of the whole work is a 
miniature Extension Department, situated near the military 
barracks, for the benefit of the soldiers stationed there. 

The Appeal Such Extension work is a unique posses- 

sion for any university. Its popularity is 
undoubted. A year ago, it was estimated that 6j millions 
of people had passed through during the last eighteen 
years. The number of visitors for 1923 was 520,452. On 
one particular Sunday, over two thousand people were 
under its roof. The weekly Sunday evening service has 
attendances of 300 in summer and up to sometimes as 
many as 1,000 in winter. The keynote of the success of 
this whole work is found in the spirit of life and progress 
which is found in every branch of it. On the walls of the 
Department's rooms are many mottoes and sayings of 






EXTENSION DEPT. OF SHANTUNG CHRISTIAN UNIV. 297 

the great Chinese masters, and of our one Great Master. 
Facing the audience in the large lecture hall are these 
words — " I am come that they might have life, and have 
it more abundantly ". This is the epitome of the service 
of the University Extension Department. 



PART VIII 
MEDICAL WORK 

CHAPTER LVI 

CHINA MEDICAL [MISSIONARY] ASSOCIATION 

IN J925 

James L. Maxwell 

In dealing with the work that lies before the Associa- 
tion during this year there are perhaps three special points 
of interest and importance that stand out. 

For many years the Association has been in 

ConfereTc! the habit of hol ^™g ( at first triennially and of 
recent years biennially) conferences of its 
members to discuss the twofold problem of the mission 
hospitals, from the missionary and the medical points of 
view. These conferences have been growing largely in 
importance as the years have gone by. The problems of 
mission work have always been to the fore, and deservedly 
get a first place in all such meetings, but pari passu with 
this has been the growing importance of the strictly 
scientific work of the conferences. 

Those of us who have now been long in China recognize 
most clearly the profound change that has come over the 
scientific aspect of medicine in, say, the last quarter of a 
century. The world knowledge of medical problems, 
stimulated by the ever increasing amount of scientific 
research, especially into so-called tropical diseases, has 
increased enormously, and, whether on the side of research 
or of the application of its results, the medical missionaries 
of China have always been to the fore. But so rapid has 
been this increase of knowledge and so great the changes 
that it has introduced into medical science and practice, 
that unless some deliberate plan is adopted to keep up with 



CHINA MEDICAL [MISSIONARY] ASSOCIATION 299 

the advance of science there is great danger of medical 
missionaries falling behind. This is especially so as many 
of them are isolated from others working along the same 
lines and have very limited opportunities for getting first- 
hand knowledge of new work. 

In view of all this the Association has of recent years 
made a point of developing the scientific side of these 
conferences so as to bring the latest achievements of 
medical science and practice as prominently as possible 
before our members. 

The Conference this year is one of very special interest 
as, for the scientific part of the work, we are, at the 
invitation of the British Medical Association, holding our 
meetings conjointly with this body in Hongkong. The 
authorities there are treaitng us with very great kindness 
in putting the buildings of the University at our disposal 
for the meetings, which are to be opened by H. E., the 
Governor of Hongkong, and to which some of the leading 
world workers in tropical medicine are contributing either 
by their personal presence or by sending papers on their 
special subjects. This meeting is likely to be the largest 
scientific conference ever held in the Far East. 

We feel that for the progress of our medical work in 
China it is most desirable that the mission bodies working 
here should take full advantage of these most important 
gatherings by making it as easy as possible for their 
doctors to attend the meetings and enjoy the unique 
opportunity they give of keeping their scientific knowledge 
up to standard. 

The missionary medical schools of China 
Registration of j mve \y een gradually developing during the 
past two decades. I his may not have been 
to the extent, or perhaps always along the lines, that many 
would have wished. Nevertheless the progress made has 
been little short of marvellous, and owes much to the 
generous help of the China Medical Board of the Rockefel- 
ler Foundation. The principal schools in China are now 
giving a medical education that is no whit behind the 
medical schools of Great Britain and America.* 



See Chapter LX by Dr. Hume. 



300 CHINA MEDICAL [MISSIONARY] ASSOCIATION 

To prepare standards for these schools has been the 
work of the Association's Council on Medical Education 
and it is now felt that these must be put into effect by 
registering the schools that come up to the required level 
of efficiency. 

It is hoped to begin at once the registration of medical 
schools and to offer provisional registration also to such 
schools as, through no fault of their own, are still unable 
in certain points to reach the prescribed level of efficiency 
As an example of this may be given the subject of prac- 
tical anatomy which is still greatly hampered in some 
places by the difficulties in China of getting material for 
dissection. 

Graduates of registered schools will be eligible for 
membership in the China Medical Missionary Association. 
Institute of The progress in medical education has in 

Hospital °/ le direction hindered rather than helped 

Technology the work of our country hospitals. The 
standard of education is, as has been pointed 
out, remarkably high, but this has meant that schools have 
become fewer, the course of medical education prolonged 
and the cost to many prohibitive. Further the remunera- 
tion that graduates expect is naturally on a very much 
higher scale than when the education given was poor and 
inexpensive, and the supply of graduates falls very short 
Chiim f ° r internes for the Mission Hospitals of 

The Association has for some time been considering 

what can be done therefore to help the hospital physicians, 

especially m cases where fully qualified internes are 

unobtainable or where the hospitals could not meet the 

largely increased strain on their financial resources, which 

the employment of such men calls for. The result has 

been the development of this Institute, which begins its 

work this year, with the special aim of helping the work 

of the smaller and more isolated mission hospitals. It is 

suggested that men and women whose education would 

not nt them for, or whom the expense of the course would 

deter from, taking a full medical course, should be 

specially trained along one branch only of the work by a 

snort but intensive course in such subjects as laboratory 



CHINA MEDICAL [MISSIONARY] ASSOCIATION 301 

technique, pharmacy, X-Ray work, anassthetics, etc., and 
should then be returned to the mission hospitals sending 
them, to take charge, under the hospital physician, of the 
special department for which this training has been given. 
The demand for men and women so trained is great and 
they will doubtless relieve the hospital physicians of much 
routine work, which has previously fallen on their 
shoulders. 

Nor will the activities of the Institute of Hospital 
Technology be confined in the long run to such specialized 
branches as those enumerated above. It is hoped that the 
Institute may assist hospitals in preparing Chinese hospital 
managers and mechanicians and indeed with any branch of 
work where the need exists for special training or specialized 
help. 

While it is hoped that it may be possible eventually to 
centralize the work of the Institute in Hankow, training 
will be given in any centres where satisfactory arrange- 
ments for such can be made, and work along these lines 
is beginning at once in St. James' Hospital, Anking. 

F b J925 ^^ e Editor has kindly allowed me to add a 

e ruary ^^ f. Q mv original paper in reference to the 

action of the Biennial Conference of the Association now 
over. The Conference decided by a unanimous vote to 
revise its Constitution, adopting for the future the name 
" China Medical Association. " 

This action lends itself very easily to serious mis- 
understanding, and indeed has given rise to considerable 
anxiety in the minds of some of our most sincere friends. 

I am very glad, therefore, to have this opportunity of 
affirming in the most emphatic terms that there is, in this 
action, no intention to belittle in any way our missionary 
objectives. 

For some years there has been a growing feeling that 
some association was required which would unite all fully 
qualified physicians of good moral standing and high 
ethical principle without regard to race or creed. This, of 
course, the National Association could not do as of 
necessity its active membership is confined to its own 
nationals. The China Medical Missionary Association 



302 CHINA MEDICAL [MISSIONARY] ASSOCIATION 

could not do it, as from its very name a large number not 
in full sympathy with its aims would be excluded. The 
question then was whether a new association should be 
formed to meet this need. The very serious objection to 
this was that there would be an almost insuperable 
tendency for the proposed association and the Medical 
Missionary Association not to be complementary but 
antagonistic to one another, the latter absorbing, as it was 
certain to do, the large bulk of the most actively Christian 
element of the medical profession in the country. The 
result of this might have been disastrous to the future of 
the medical profession in China and it was most important 
that this risk should be avoided. 

Under these circumstances the Biennial Conference of 
two years ago instructed the Executive Committee to 
prepare a Constitution which should embrace the larger 
aim without damaging the missionary objective. This was 
done after long consideration on the part of a special 
committee. The result was presented to the recent 
Conference with the recommendation of the Committee that 
there should be still further delay before the new 
Constitution came into force. The Conference, however, 
by the unanimous vote mentioned above decided to take 
immediate action. 

The result of this is that the China Medical Missionary 
Association becomes the China Medical Association and a 
Medical Missionary Division, which is an integral part of 
the larger Association, takes over the complete activities 
of the former Medical Missionary Association, maintaining 
in full its aims and activities. 

Briefly this explains the present situation, which we 
believe need cause no anxiety to our missionary friends. 



CHAPTER LVII 

COUNCIL ON HEALTH EDUCATION 
W. W. Peter 

The purpose of the Council on Health Education is to 
help interpret modern health ideals and to demonstrate 
some of them. It believes that health education is more 
fundamental than health legislation in a country like 
China; it is slower but surer. By far the larger part of its 
work is in association with Christian agencies although 
no distinction is made in requests for its material, all 
being served alike. 

O ♦ t f Since January 1, 1922 and ending November 

Literature 30, 1924, the Council on Health Education 

has supplied health education literature to 
1,172 missionaries of 94 different mission organizations and 
to 552 other people. Its material has gone to every 
province in China and to eight foreign countries where 
there are considerable numbers of Chinese. 

During eleven months of 1924 it has sold at printer's 
cost 126,664 small bulletins and 1,339 books totaling 
1,517,924 pages. Retrenchments in mission appropriations 
and disturbed political conditions have resulted in a 
decreased demand for our material. The total for the 
period January 1, 1922 to November 30, 1924 is 603,648 
bulletins, 20,680 books, totaling 7,819,716 pages. In 
addition there has been a considerable demand for posters, 
lecture charts, exhibit material, lantern slides, and, from 
the larger cities, for moving picture films. 

Sch IH ' ^ new f eatnre °* * ne Council's program 

yg ene which is still in process of development is the 
School Hygiene work. For some time there has been a 
growing interest in the health of students in mission 
schools. These students not only themselves invest a great 
deal of time, energy and money in their education, but a 
great deal of these things is invested in them. To the 



304 COUNCIL ON HEALTH EDUCATION 

extent that the product of our mission schools is lost 
through premature death or physical incapacitation, the 
final object is defeated. 

In an examination of 900 students in 20 primary 
mission schools it was found that 47.8% or 430 had 
defective teeth, 36.1% had some defect of vision. There 
were 34.8% with skin trouble. The most startling 
discovery was that 31.6% had trachoma as diagnosed by 
a man who had had four years' training in the best eye clinic 
in China. 

Students in middle schools have also been examined. 
In all 3,200 students in 34 mission schools in several cities 
have been given physical and medical examination. In 
every one of these mission schools health conditions were 
found to exist which tended to decrease the effectiveness 
of that school in fulfilling its great purpose. 
Teachers Physical defects are not limited to students 

alone. In a survey of 130 teachers in North 
China in the summer of 1924, it was found that their ages 
ranged from 17 to 35 years. 44% had defects of vision; 
10% had defective teeth and 99% had unclean teeth; 29% 
had trachoma; 91% did not play or take regular exercise 
either during the school year or during their vacations. 
Outlining a A school health program as defined by a 

Program group of educators, doctors and administrators 

called into conference by the China Christian 
Educational Association, the China Medical Missionary 
Association and the Council on Health Education in 
December, 1924, consists of the following features: 

(1) Physical and medical examination of students an- 
nually and the application of standards of rejection 
on health grounds. 

(2) Correction of defects and treatment of remedial 
diseases of those accepted. 

(3) Systematic health teaching in the curriculum and 
methods of insuring the formation of proper health 
habits. 

(4) Supervised play. 

(5) Sanitation of the school plant and equipment. 

(6) Effecting an arrangement between the various depart- 
ments, educational, medical and administrative, 



COUNCIL ON HEALTH EDUCATION 305 

whereby the above school health program becomes 
an integral and continuous part of the school work. 
A full report of the conference on this important 
subject of school health has been prepared and can be 
obtained by writing to any of the three organizations 
mentioned. There are indications that the time is coming 
when each mission school will have a health program 
which will be considered quite as essential and fundamental 
as any other phases of its work. Until this becomes a 
reality unnecessary human waste under Christian auspices 
will continue. 

It is the part of the Council to serve in whatever ways 
are considered most helpful and possible in bringing an 
increased health conscience into action. It is now being 
used as a clearing house of ideas and experience for the 
dissemination of health ideas and programs. This is being 
done by correspondence, conferences and by means of 
health education material which it develops from time to 
time. Any who are desirous of finding out what material 
is already available are requested to send to its headquarters 
at 23 Yuen Ming Yuen Road, Shanghai, for a catalog. 



CHAPTER LVIII 

NURSES' ASSOCIATION OF CHINA 
Miss Cora E. Simpson 

During the past ten years since the formation of the 

Nurses' Association of China the most gratifying progress 

has been made, and the movement organized at first by 

missionary nurses has grown beyond the fondest dreams 

of the founder. From a few scattered members it has now 

become a strong national organization. It has entered into 

association with other similar bodies, and in 1922 became 

a member of the International Council of Nurses. When 

this Council holds its Congress in Helsingfors, Finland, in 

1925, China will be represented by no less than four 

delegates and will thus take its place in planning for the 

international service of the nursing profession. 

n c The Nurses' Association of China holds a 

Conlerences , „ . T 

national conference once in two years. In 

February, 1924 the conference met in Canton and was 
entertained in the Kung Yee Medical College. For the first 
time Chinese graduate nurses formed half the companj 7 , 
and they took a large part in the discussions of the 
conference. We are able now to record a membership of 
about one thousand, of whom more than half are Chinese. 
Hos ital Da ^ ay ^» Florence Nightingale's birthday, 

has been celebrated as Hospital Day and has 
been widely recognized as a suitable day both for the 
graduation of nurses and for health demonstrations. We 
hear of no less than three thousand people visiting the 
hospital in the distant city of Chengtu on that day. 

D , f . .. The official organ of the Association, a 

Publications , 5* . ~, . ' . 

quarterly journal for Chinese nurses, ]s 

published both in Chinese and English. It has a wide 
circulation not only in China, but also in other countries, 
and from its commencement has been entirely self- 
supporting. The Association also issues text books which 



307 

are published through the Kwang Hsueh. The text books 
have all been revised and brought up to date during the 
past two years and twenty-two new books have been 
prepared and published. Tho work of publishing is also 
self-supporting and no grants from Mission Boards have 
had to be applied to this purpose. 

Di j o The Association conducts national examina- 

tions and during 1924 issued 204 diplomas to 
successful candidates, making a total roll of 756 graduate 
nurses, all trained in China. More than 90 schools of 
nursing throughout the country, with an enrollment of 
over 1600 student nurses, are registered. They represent 
some twenty-five different organizations. 

Hj ,,,, m Plans were launched at the Canton 

Headquarters _. . _ 1 . . 

Conterence for the establishment ot an 
Association headquarters. This will be the center for all 
activities. A building is to be erected in Hankow and 
funds are already coming in. In the meantime the 
headquarters have been moved from Shanghai to Hankow. 
Health Through its cooperation with the Council 

Education on Health Education the Nurses' Association 

is trying to serve also in this field. In- 
dividual members are engaged in the teaching of home 
nursing, first aid, child welfare, and kindred subjects, to 
groups of people in every province in China. Mrs. James 
Maxwell has recently been appointed as supervisor of 
the child hygiene work carried on through the service 
of nurses. 

During the early days of the work the executive duties 
were carried by nurses who were also engaged in full-time 
hospital duties. The service of a full-time secretary, 
however, became essential and two years ago the Methodist 
Board was asked to release one of its nurses for this 
purpose. This they did. At the same conference all the 
other Boards having training schools registered under the 
Association were asked to pay $75 Mex. a year for each 
training school so registered, this amount to make up the 
secretary's budget for travel and other expenses. Only a 
very few responded, so that there is at present insufficient 
money for meeting the immediate needs of the work, more 
particularly in the matter of stenographic help for the 



308 NURSES ) ASSOCIATION 0# CHINA 

secretary and funds for travel. If all shouldered their 
share of the burden there would be ample funds for the 
work. A second secretary for full-time work is urgently 
needed, and the London Missionary Society has now 
consented to release Miss Hope Bell who is expected to 
join the Association staff in 1926. 

Looking to the . In the . li % ht of tnis ten y ears it may be 
Future fairly said that the days of experiment are 

past. This Association is unique in the fact 
that its membership is composed entirely of Christian 
nurses. Many avenues of service open up before it, and 
the demand for fully trained Chinese nurses is much greater 
than the supply. There is an urgent need for the training 
of far more than are at present under instruction. Now is 
the time to render this service, for doubtless the time will 
come when other than Christian organizations will take up 
the task of training nurses on a large scale. The forward 
work of the Association is being led by the president, 
Miss Gladys Stephenson, and Miss Nina Gage, the chairman 
of the Educational Committee, as well as by the secretary 
who gives much of her time to travel. The Association 
stands for Christian service expressed in the highest type of 
professional nursing. It takes for its motto, "Service," 
and as it^ looks out to the future it chooses as its guiding 
text, " With God nothing shall be impossible." 



CHAPTER LIX 

A SURVEY OF LEPROSY IN CHINA 
H. Fowler 

It will be generally agreed that correct 
Kncf °ed^» C of fatS i n f° rma ^ 01Q as *° tne geographical distribu- 
Disease tion of disease is of the greatest importance 

Distribution to the health of the state, and that the 
systematic recording of endemic and epidemic 
ailments and the scientific conditions for their prevention 
may be regarded as indices of the cultural advancement of 
that state. It may further be stated that to establish 
reliable and scientific data as to the prevalent maladies of 
a country is the modern requirement of any well governed 
people. 

Unfortunately in many parts of the Near and Far East 
much uncertainty exists as to real health conditions. 
Although from time to time in recent years efforts have 
been made in China by Western or Western-trained 
medical men to secure reliable information on the subject, 
so vast is the country and so undeveloped its sense of 
public health requirements that no complete survey of 
disease has yet been possible. 

L osy in This paper is an endeavour to interpret as 

China ^ ar as possible conditions in China as they 

affect one disease only, viz: leprosy. It 
represents the result of many enquiries, much correspond- 
ence and wide travel and forms part of a great world survey 
in the interest of lepers. 

For statistical and other practical purposes China, 
for this survey, was divided into five groups representing: — 

(a) The Six Maritime Provinces: — Kwangtung. 

Fukien. 
Chekiang. 
Kiangsu. 
Shantung. 
Chihli. 



310 



A SURVEY OF LEPROSY IN CHINA 



(b) The Five Yangtze Provinces; 



(c) The Four Northwestern Provinces:- 



(d) The Three Southern Provinces: — 



(e) The Outer Provinces: — 



Securing 
Information 



Hupeh. 

Kiangsi. 

Anhwei. 

Honan. 

Hunan. 

Kansu. 

Shensi. 

Shansi. 

Szechwan. 

Yunnan. 

Kweichow. 

Kwangsi. 

Sinkiang. 
Manchuria. 
Mongolia. 
Tibet. 

A questionnaire directed in the main to 
securing reliable data as to the prevalency and 
type of leprosy met with in the districts, the 
attitude of the local authorities and general public to 
the leprous subject, native treatment of the disease, 
environment, need or possibility of segregation and preven- 
tive work etc., was sent to a select number of medical 
men, consular authorities and others in each province. 
The majority of these, thoroughly acquainted with local 
conditions, favoured us with important information. 
Many other correspondents and travellers also entered 
more or less fully into our aims and objects and rendered 
us valuable aid. 

Maritime Dealing first with the reports from the five 

Provinces maritime provinces and proceeding in order 

from the South, it is demonstrated clearly 
that the disease is endemic and widespread in Kwangtung. 
New cases are said to be continually arising at out-patient 
clinics, the lepers apparently in many cases seeking a 
confirmation of the diagnosis of their disease. Some 
hospitals report lepers coming for treatment from places as 
far distant as 200 miles. 

It has been impossible to estimate even approximately 
the total number of lepers in the province or in any 



A SURVEY OF LEPROSY IN CHINA 311 

given center of it. Everything however indicates that 
Kwangtung abounds with leprosy, and that subjects of the 
disease are specially numerous at the coast and along 
the inland water ways of the province. They seem less 
numerous in the mountainous districts. 

Much the same condition of things is found in Fukien. 
The disease extends through many districts, but again no 
reliable estimates as to actual numbers are possible. 

Curiously Ohelciang is comparatively free from leprosy. 
The lepers reported are generally out-patient cases coming 
from scattered centers, and are said to be sporadic in 
character. They have probably originated in some small 
leper foci in the province or have migrated from either 
Fukien or Kiangsu. 

The returns from Kiangsu indicate many small leper 
centres widely separated and not easy at once to locate. 
Naturally the large cities like Shanghai, Nanking, Yang- 
chow, and Haichow attract the wandering leper and it is 
there where they are generally met with. Apparently 
many cases report themselves coming from the Shantung 
border of Kiangsu; others again have wandered up from 
Kwangtung. North Kiangsu reports more cases of leprosy 
than are found in the districts South of the Yangtsze. 
Even the best informed and oldest workers in the province 
decline to estimate the actual percentage of lepers in their 
districts. 

Shantung, like Kwangtung is a province where the dis- 
ease is endemic. A survey made some years ago in Kiaochow 
yielded 40 cases of leprosy in a population of some 150,000. 
Wei Hai Wei with a smaller population had over 36 known 
cases. The central portion of the Province is said to have 
as high a percentage of lepers as one in 3,000 of the 
inhabitants. A conservative estimate for the whole 
province puts the average as one per 10,000 of the popula- 
tion. These figures are necessarily open to criticism as no 
registration is required in China for either births or deaths, 
far less for recording any disease. 

The unanimous report from Ohihli is that there are no 
foci of leprosy anywhere in the Province. The lepers seen 
at the larger out-patient clinics, such as in Peking, rarely 
exceed more than 30 per annum. The cases are usually of 



312 A SURVEY OF LEPROSY IN CHINA 

the coolie and beggar class and are reported as coming from 
Shantung. 

Thus it would appear that lepers are numerous in 
Kwangtung, less so in FuMen, rare in Chehiang, fairly nu- 
merous in Kiangsu, still more so in Shantung and practically 
non-existent in Ohihli. Such a distribution in the maritime 
provinces suggests many things to an enquiring mind and 
could well form the basis of research work on the part of 
state authorities and medical workers alike. 
Yangtsze * n ^ ne Yangtsze provinces leprosy in its 

Provinces distribution again varies considerably. The 

districts lying immediately about the rivers 
and numerous lakes of Hupeh have widely scattered foci 
of leprosy. Such districts embrace the counties of Siao 
Kan, Yung-Meng, Mien-Yang, Wuchang and Hwangchow. 
Some 100 to 150 cases of leprosy per annum are reported as 
attending the out-patient clinic of a hospital in Hankow. 
The hospitals to the North and Northwest of Hankow on 
the other hand report but few leper3 annually and those of 
sporadic origin. It is safe to say that nine tenths of the 
lepers in Central China come from numerous foci within a 
radius of some 60 English miles of Hankow. The Leper 
Home at Siao Kan, always full, draws its inmates from the 
districts named. Notwithstanding its local character no 
general estimate of the total number of lepers is possible, 
for no sooner is one foci of leprosy cleared of its lepers than 
others are discovered many li away from the place hitherto 
regarded as the original centre of the disease. Of the types 
seen in Central China some 40% represent anaesthetic 
leprosy, the remainder being of the Maculo, and Mixed 
varieties. 

In the Province of Kiangsi again the disease is confined 
to certain well defined areas, chiefly situated around the 
cities of Jaochow and Nanchang. The cases seen at other 
Mission centres evidently come from the southern part of 
the province or from Hunan and Hupeh. They are of the 
wandering beggar, boat and coolie classes. 

Because of its situation and the presence of so many 
waterways and flooded districts it would naturally be 
expected that leprosy was prevalent in Anhwei— but it is 
not so. 



A SURVEY OF LEPROSY IN CHINA 313 

With one exception, so far as can be ascertained, no 
foci of leprosy are found in the province. The exception 
is the county of Hwai Yuan. There the disease is common 
and probably endemic. Of 3,000 males seen in one year as 
outpatients, 19 were diagnosed as lepers; on the other hand 
3,000 female outpatients registered in one year showed no 
leper cases. No further statistics are procurable. 

Certain parts of Honan report leprosy as a prevalent 
disease. In wide areas toward the centre and west, 
however, it is practically unknown to local residents. The 
sporadic cases seen in out-patient clinics are said to come 
from Kansu, Shantung and North Anhwei. 

The leper population of Hunan seems fairly numerous. 
They are reported as coming originally from Kwangtung, 
indeed, the nearer Kwangtung is approached the more 
numerous are the lepers met with. Wandering lepers are 
found in most of the large cities. In Changsha for 
instance, in a dispensary service of some 30,000 about 20 
leper cases came for treatment and they were not natives of 
the districts. 

The lepers found in South Hunan are classified 
approximately as : — 

Anaesthetic 20% 

Tubercular 60% 

Mixed 20% 

The patients are entered as peasants, boatmen, coolies and 

an occasional merchant and well-to-do person. 

Such is the economic condition of China 
Wandering ^ in all fche Y angtsze Valley Provinces, 
and in many other districts, wherever idola- 
trous and other assemblies take place there will be found 
the wandering beggar leper. Whatever his past history 
has been, now he is without status and friendless. A 
growing nuisance to himself and his neighbor, he secures 
by that persistency known only to the beggar class, just 
sufficient food for existence. Finally he ends his days in 
the portico of some heathen temple or huddled away under 
the cover of a rock on the hillside. 

While the inactivity of the State is being 

£ov?ni£r tCfn constantly challenged by the sad lot of the 

leper and by those myriads of distressed and 



314 A SUEVEY OF LEPROSY IN CHINA 

afflicted folk in every province, it is nevertheless true that 
the leper has been not only a challenge but a puzzle to the 
scientist. Why for instance should the Lepra Bacillus 
skip over a vast tract of country and find a habitat in wild 
Kanmt Leprosy is reported as being prevalent also among 
the Tibetans, especially in certain districts south and 
southwest of Siningfu. It again crops up at Lanchowfu, 
coming apparently from the border districts of Taochow, 
(5 days' journey) Hochow, (3 days) Hsuin Hua (5 days) . 
Breaking the general rule of those attending out-patient 
clinics the Tibetan lepers are reported as being for the 
most part of the respectable merchant and middle class. 
Probably the poorer lepers in Tibet are not bothered with 
the wandering lust and therefore are not so frequently seen 
in China proper. 

Towards the eastern portion of the Province of Kansu 
leprosy is said to be met with among the Mohammedan 
peoples. The disease is reported as being fairly common 
on the plain, measuring some 100 miles by 30, of which 
Hanchung in the Southwest part of Shensi is the centre. 
At the Capital, Sianfu, only sporadic case3 of leprosy are 
seen and they but seldom. There are said to be no foci of 
leprosy in Shansi, subjects of the disease only being seen at 
long intervals by travellers and infrequently at hospital 
out-patient clinics. 

In Szechuan also leprosy is rarely found among the or- 
dinary Chinese people. It is prevalent, however, among the 
Lo-lo and other aboriginal tribes. Many Tibetans crossing 
the borders on the north and northwest of the province 
are afflicted with the disease but again the Szechuanese of 
the district seem immune. 

No lepers are reported at either Chengtu or Chung- 
king—two busy cities where ordinarily lepers should be 
looked for. 

Southern In mai *ked contrast to these three of the 

Provinces northwest provinces is the condition present- 

ed in the three southern provinces. Reports 
from Yunnan agree as to the pre valency of leprosy all over 
the province. It is endemic in character and prevails in 
acute form among the Miao Tribes. The greater number 
of lepers met with are males. This may be due to the 









A SURVEY OF LEPROSY IN CHINA 315 

local limitations preventing women lepers taking long 
journeys to big cities or visiting mission stations. A 
classification of lepers registered as out-patients or ordinary 
visitors indicate that 50% are of the Anaesthetic and 25% 
each of Maculo and Mixed types. 

It is said of the eastern portion of Kueichoiv that 
leprosy is but rarely met with. Among the Miao tribes 
however it seems to be endemic and is frequently referred 
to by travellers. The fact that these people live on their 
uplands and hillsides and rarely visit the more populous 
districts is sufficient to explain the few cases seen at the 
Mission Stations. 

In the warm districts of Kwangsi leprosy is undoubtedly 
a prevalent disease. Subjects of leprosy are also frequently 
to be met with on the numerous waterways and roadsides. 
In the main they belong to the boating, farming and 
trading classes. It is commonly held by the Chinese of the 
colder districts of the Province that because lepers are 
seldom met with on the higher elevations and uplands that 
therefore the cold is inimical to the disease. 

Outer Provinces As regards the outer provinces, with the 
exception of Manchuria but little information 
of a reliable nature is obtainable. Of this latter province 
it is interesting to note that the few lepers met with 
invariably give a history of having migrated from Shantung. 
There would seem to be an entire absence of leprosy foci 
throughout the whole province. Reliable information 
from Mongolia and Sinhiang is most difficult to obtain. 
The returns from these places however indicate no trace of 
the disease being endemic. Like Manchuria the lepers 
met with are not natives of the place but have journeyed 
from other infected areas. 

Tj.jl Utter indifference to the leper on the part 

of some and a kind of benevolent neutrality 
on the part of the majority, characterises the attitude 
of those living in what may be termed the leper areas 
of China. The exception to this is to be found in 
Kwangtung, Kweichow and parts of Fukien. There local 
feeling has in recent years demanded, at least from the 
big cities, a kind of isolation of the wandering, irrespon- 
sible leper. 



316 A SURVEY OF LEPROSY IN CHINA 

Leper But fo . r tne initiative of the Christian 

Settlements Church in establishing leper homes and 
asylums in these districts, such segregation, 
save at great cost to the Provincial Authorities, would have 
been impossible. So far some 20 leper settlements or 
asylums have been established in the three provinces 
named. In most cases these are being wholly or partly 
maintained by the International Mission to Lepers. 

Provision for the lepers of the remaining provinces 
is quite inadequate. Efforts however are being made at 
the present time, under the auspices of the Mission to 
Lepers, to open further leper institutions in Shantung and 
Yunnan. Later, as political conditions permit and local 
authorities are willing to assist, further efforts will 
undoubtedly be made by the Mission to Lepers and others 
to render practical aid to the leper population of this 
vast country. 

To-day, after centuries of empirical and mediaeval 
treatment of leprosy by Chinese physicians and quacks, 
modern scientific methods, coupled with a form of voluntary 
segregation on the part of the lepers themselves, happily 
give good prospects of changing the entire outlook of 
China's lepers and ultimately of ridding China of leprosy. 

General A review of the outstanding features of 

Conclusions this part of the Chhm leper guryey suggesfcg .__ 

1. The impossibility at present, or in the near future, of 
estimating even approximately the total population 
of any particular leper area in China. 

2. Thatthe largest leper population is to be found in the 
Province of Kwangtung and that extensive tracts of 
China give no trace of the disease. 

3. That throughout the leper provinces the types of the 
disease are proportionately similar. 

4. That everywhere more males are afflicted with leprosy 
than females. 

5. That the Miao tribes in the various provinces seem 
particularly susceptible to the lepra bacillus. 

6. That leprosy seems to be specially associated with 
waterlogged and ill-drained areas of the country. 






A SURVEY OF LEPROSY IN CHINA 317 

7. That with the exception of Kwangtung and parts of 
Fukien no provision whatsoever is made by the local 
authorities for the isolation or support of the leper. 

8. That but for aid rendered by the Christian Church the 
lot of the leper in China to-day would be hopeless. 

9. That given an improvement in the political conditions 
and general outlook of China, the obligation of the 
State to the offensive wandering leper, and other 
disease-bearing paupers, should be pressed upon all 
local authorities with a view to securing for them 
necessary aid and remedial treatment. 



CHAPTER LX 

MEDICAL EDUCATION IN CHINA, TO-DAY 
Edward H. Hume 

Marking Time Continuance of military activity, with the 
resultant economic depression, makes it 
impossible to record any significant advance in medical 
education under Chinese leadership during 1924. The 
Army Medical School, which Dr. Chuan Shao-ching had 
brought up to passable standards five years ago, is 
now doing very superlicial work. The National Medical 
University in Peking has come on hard times since Dr. 
Tang Er-ho has ceased to give it his constant fostering 
attention. The several provincial medical schools are still 
struggling against heavy odds, as, for instance, in 
the case of the school at Soochow. No development is 
possible when the vicinity is actively busy with fighting 
and when the funds needed are being diverted into the 
chests of the opposing militarists. It is impossible to 
withhold commendation from Dr. P. W. Kuo, president of 
Southeastern University at Nanking, for his determination 
not to launch out on a program of medical education in 
connection with that institution until he can be sure of 
dependable educational feeders and a sufficient supply 
of assured funds. 

1 am indebted to Mr. L. C. Goodrich, assistant resident 
director of the China Medical Board in Peking, for many 
of the notes and observations that follow: 
Hopei . Tne medical department of Hopei Univer- 

University sity, an institution founded by ex-President 

Tsao Kun, and with which the Chihli Public 
Medical School became amalgamated, was closed suddenly 
in the autumn when General Sun Yueh took Paotingfu. 
Shantone • The Shantun 8 Provincial Medical School 

Provincial is mother illustration of the superficial 
Medical School type of instruction that passes for medical 

education. On the walls of the waiting room 



MEDICAL EDUCATION IN CHINA, TO-DAY 319 

there are pictures of anatomical dissection, but no actual 
dissection is provided. Lectures are given by a staff of 
about twenty, but of laboratory work no signs are to 
be seen. 

In Shansi the interesting experiment is 
Md'calSh 1 s ^ continued of a double system of educa- 
Shansi ^ on an d treatment. The Provincial Medical 

School gives instruction in both Chinese and 
Western medicine, while the hospital gives each incoming 
patient the option of turning to the right,to be treated in 
the old Chinese way; or to the left, where he may receive 
attention in the modern scientific way. In one of the 
treatment rooms in the dispensary I saw a man lying on a 
table with four silver needles in the abdominal wall, the 
attending physician assuring me that they went through 
into the peritoneal cavity and that the patient, by this 
method, would soon be cured of the eczema on his back; 
while in the rooms across the hall, sterilizers were being 
used in a surgical dressing room handled in a more modern 
way. The picture seemed typical to me of the sharp 
contrasts in attitude and practice that are likely to prevail 
in China for many years. 

No school under Chinese control gives such 
Medfcal & h 1 P rom i se °* attaining commendable standards 
as the Kung Yee University Medical School 
in Canton. Its site and buildings are most attractive. 
The equipment and teaching in anatomy are excellent. 
The interest of the local board is genuine. There is no 
hesitation about employing foreigners when these have the 
right spirit. I know of no Chinese school in the country 
that ought to go forward to a brighter future, provided 
only it can keep the services of men like Dr. Li Shu-fang, 
the president and professor of surgery, and of some of the 
foreign staff that have been so devoted, particularly Drs. 
Todd and Edward Kirk. 

The crying need to-day is for a central 
Medial Council Medical Council, whose function it shall be 

to keep track of all prospective medical 
students, to outline standards, premedical and medical, 
for the curriculum, and to publish reports, at given 
intervals, as to the standing of the schools. 



320 MEDICAL EDUCATION IN CHINA, TO-DAY 

In 1915 the China Medical Missionary 
^°M e 5 f ic ai° UndI Association created a Council on Medical 
Education Education, which has endeavored to function 

in the directions suggested. In the biennium 
between 1923 and 1925 it had before it the task of aiding 
the several medical schools of modern spirit to discover 
their relationship to the standards fixed in 1923 by the 
Executive of the Association. Application forms were sent 
out and a number of medical schools applied for formal 
recognition. As 1924 drew to a close, these applications 
were ready for consideration and report to the biennial 
medical conference which was held in Hongkong in 
January, 1925. Seven schools received favorable attention, 
as follows: 

Full recognition ; Peking Union Medical College, 

Peking 
Provisional : Hunan Yale College of Medi- 

cine, Changsha 

Moukden Medical College, Muk- 
den 

Pennsylvania Medical School, 
(St. John's Univ.), Shanghai 

Shantung Christian University 
Medical School, Tsinan 

West China Union University 
Medical School, Chengtu 

Woman's Christian Medical 
College, Shanghai 

It is the understanding of the Council on 
fof q Fun mentS Medical Education that the schools to which 
Recognition provisional recognition has been granted will 
make improvements in the particular elements 
where they are still below standard so as to qualify for 
full recognition by the end of 1926. It is probable that 
all schools that care to have this formal stamp of standard 
put upon them will be asked to fill out application forms 
at least once every biennium. The standard at present 
requires two years of collegiate preparation, after leaving 
middle school, the two years to include a considerable 
amount of biology, chemistry and physics ; as well as the 



MEDICAL EDUCATION IN CHINA, TO-DAY 321 

presence on the staff of trained specialists in anatomy and 
other preclinical subjects, and an adequate number of 
clinical teachers, hospital beds, etc. To the incoming 
Council on Medical Education has been entrusted the task 
of re-studying the whole matter of requirements. Working 
in friendly cooperation with the National Medical Associa- 
tion, the Council will continue to function as vigorously as 
it can until an indigenous organization shall be created, 
capable of discharging the functions of creating standards 
and upholding educational ideals. 

Sh At their meeting on November 5, 1924 the 

Medic"" School Trus tees of the China Medical Board made 
further appropriations on behalf of the main- 
tenance and building funds of the Shantung University 
School of Medicine. Due partly to the natural increase of 
demands upon the college and hospital, and partly to the 
recent union of the North China Union Medical College 
for Women with the Shantung Medical School, the Univer- 
sity now urgently requires additional teaching staff, 
residences, dormitories, a new teaching hospital of 200 beds, 
a private ward building, together with additions to 
mechanical equipment. To provide for the needed expan- 
sion, more land has been purchased. The grant from the 
China Medical Board to the annual support of the school 
for the next three and a half years amounts to a total of 
$113,000 silver. Towards buildings and equipment the 
Board has appropriated a conditional grant of $100,000 
silver. It will be recalled that in the summer of 1923 the 
Board contributed $50,000 gold for the same purpose, and 
since 1916 has been providing funds in varying amounts for 
the needs of the medical school. 

L' t f¥f« r ^ e following list of forty medical schools 

Schools Nowln includes at least a]1 tne active teaching 
China institutions in China on December 31, 1924: 



322 MEDICAL EDUCATION IN CHINA, TO-DAY 



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PART IX 
SOCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 
CHAPTER LXI 

THE PROBLEM OF THE HOME IN CHINA 
Miss Y. J. Fan 

The Committee on the Church and the Home of the 
National Christian Council has been one for which the 
Church as a whole has felt a very deep need, and to which 
it has been looking most eagerly to see something 
accomplished. The Committee's organization dates back 
to the fall of 1923, but the work was not started until the 
spring of 1924. Even then very little was done. It was 
not until September 1924 that the serious work of the 
Committee was launched. 

The Aim of the ^ e a * m °^ *^ s Committee is to Christianize 
Committee ^ ne l^ e i n the homes so as to make it possible 

for China to have citizens strong in health, 
pure in thought, of high ideals and good conduct, and with 
a right attitude toward their fellows all the world over. 
It is only as we achieve such an aim that we can hope to 
see a diminution in the necessity for social reform, the 
ending of war, civil or international, the vanishing of race 
prejudice. In a word, brotherhood can be established only 
as it exists in the hearts of such Christian citizens. 

The Policy of ^e P ^ c y °* fcne Committee is to work 
This Committee primarily through existing bodies such as 
the Y. M. C. A., Y. W. C. A., W. C. T. U., 
the Council on Health Education, Institutional Churches, 
and educational forces. These organizations have been 
approached, either formally or informally and the response 
has been more than encouraging. 



THE PROBLEM OF THE HOME IN CHINA 325 

The Work in The Central Committee on the Church and 
Local Centers the Home felt that China is too vast a country 
and the customs and practices are too varied 
for one committee to study and work on, so it was decided 
to have local centers representing different parts of China 
cooperating in study with the Central Committee. The 
Committee discovered that there were a few cities already 
working on this subject. These were Moukden, Tientsin, 
and Hangchow. These cities agreed to work with the 
Central Committee, so we now count them as branches of 
the Committee on the Church and Home. Two of them 
still bear their original names. In addition to the above, 
new centers have been organized in Tsinan, Chengtu, 
Fengchow, Taiyuanfu, Taikou, Liaochow, Pingting, Lin* 
ching, Wenchow, Yungchia, and Canton. 

Topics for Study. The Committee has worked out an 
Outline to serve as a suggestive guide to those who are 
interested in^ studying the problems of the home. The 
following main topics are analyzed in some detail in this 
outline: 

1. The Home for Christ. 

2. The Family and the Family System. 

3. Marriage. 

4. Family Relationships. 

5. The Home as a Center of Social Life. 

6. Home-making and Home Management. 

7. Slavery. 

8. Concubinage. 

Wenchow. Wenchow has been one of the most vigorous 
of the local centers, due to the leadership of Mr. Yli. The 
work has been growing steadily. They have a meeting for 
women every Thursday. In these meetings there are talks 
on woman's responsibility and on home management. 
Through the home committee family worship is being 
started in many homes. The committee is making a survey 
of the country homes near Wenchow, and there are many 
progressive plans for future work. 

Chengtu. A committee was organized in Chengtu with 
Mr. Hwang Tze Hsien, secretary of the Boys' Department 
of the Y. M. C. A., as corresponding secretary. Since 
Szechwan is faced with the most difficult problem of 



326 THE PROBLEM OF THE HOME IN CHINA 

concubinage, they decided to confine the work at present to 
a study of that subject and to call their group The 
Committee for Abolishing Concubinage. They would like 
to take responsibility for investigating this question. 

Tientsin. This society which is called Yang Chen She, 
under the direction of Mr. Yung Tan has been working on 
the following questions: 

1. Equality between Men and Women. 

2. The Choosing of one's Life Mate. 

3. A Relationship Between Husband and Wife which 

is based on Love. 

They have worked out a marriage and betrothal 
contract which has been tried out by different people in 
Tientsin and in some other places and found very 
satisfactory. 

Moukden. The Society studying home problems in 
Moukden was started under the auspices of the Y. M. C. A. 
and the Y. W. C. A. They hold a monthly meeting to 
discuss different problems in the home. For the last year 
or two they have been studying especially the marriage 
question and concubinage. On several evenings in April 
1924 they performed a play showing The Fate of a Con- 
cubine. This was well attended each time and made a 
deep impression on those who saw it. 

The Committee on Church and Home is 
Work on ttV actively at work in seeking to discover the 
Home lines along which Christian people throughout 

China are thinking in regard to this all 
important subject; at the same time they are making a 
certain number of practical suggestions. 

Letter to Schools. In writing to the principals of boys' 
and girls' schools the Committee makes the following 
statement of the case: 

"We are constantly hearing voices from all sides 
asking for help in this wretched struggle. We see the old 
in a panic because the foundations of the home are being 
shaken, and at the same time the cry of the young is, 
1 New homes or no homes \ 

"Now what should be our attitude toward this 
struggle? How are Christian institutions to face it and 
where are they to begin? These questions certainly 



THE PROBLEM OF THE HOME IN CHINA 32? 

cannot be answered in any simple way, for the home 
problem is the most difficult and the most complicated, as 
well as the most important of all the problems which are 
facing the country, and particularly the church, to-day. 

1. The home is made up of both men and women. 
If we want to improve it neither of these factors should be 
neglected or ignored. 

2. Home life has two sides, the material and 
spiritual. The best home life cannot exist if either of 
these is lacking or out of proportion. 

3. This is the most serious problem facing the 
Christian Movement in China to-day. 

" After much time spent on thinking and talking with 
various people we have come to feel that the Christian 
educational institutions in China are well qualified to help 
in the solving of this problem. Since the present homes 
are not in any position to tackle this problem and since 
the school is the place where one learns how to live and 
to prepare for life, we plead with you as educationalists, 
in the name of the church and for the sake of the future 
homes, to add to your school curriculum a course of study 
on home building." 

Practical suggestions are made with a view to 
preparation of suitable courses on Sociology and other 
topics bearing on home life. The Committee is also 
seeking for information as to what is being done in the 
various schools along these lines. 

Letter to the Student Departments of the Y. M. and 
Y. W. O. A's. A letter was written to both the Y. M. and 
the Y. W. C. A. student departments requesting them to 
cooperate with the Committee on this question through 
their Student Associations. We suggested that they take 
up the study of home problems with students, trying to 
find out means of improving the homes and of preparing 
the students to be future home builders. Both Associations 
have promised to take up this question. 

Letter to the Churches. A letter has been prepared and 
sent to pastors and those in charge of congregations 
throughout the country. 

This letter suggests that in each congregation a 
parents' club should be organized so as to bring together 



328 THE PROBLEM OF THE HOME IN CHINA 

Christians for the study of home problems. It suggests 
that these clubs might start with the topic of ' Winning 
the Home for Christ.' This work raises many questions as 
to what are the principles of a Christian home and how 
these should be applied under the varying conditions and 
circumstances of home life. The Committee is anxious 
to help these clubs to function effectively in order to 
stimulate thought, and lead to fruitful activity in the 
various centers. Jn this connection a number of questions 
have been prepared. 

Most of the pastors in Shanghai have been interviewed 
personally regarding the question of the home. They seem 
to have been of one accord in agreeing on the importance 
of the subject and promise to tackle this question with 
their church members. 

Literature on ^ e matter of literature to help stimulate 

the Home thought upon the home and give guidance 

to those who are seeking for it has been 
especially in the mind of the Committee and a brief 
bibliography has been prepared. The books and pamphlets 
are grouped under the following headings: 

1. Religion and the Home 

2. Personal Relations in the Home 

3. Children in the Home 

4. The Health of the Home 

5. The Family Budget. 

The material is in Chinese, but in a good many cases 
there are also English editions and some of the material is 
translated from English books. The following three pam- 
phlets are picked out by the Committee as of special 
importance in helping those who are desirous to make the 
home truly Christian. 

1. The pamphlet entitled The Home. This is a 
selection from the speeches given at the 1922 National 
Christian Conference. It also has a great many suggestions 
in regard to winning the home for Christ. It will be* of great 
help to pastors and to parents in the home. 

2. Religious Education in the Home — translated by 
Dr. R. Y. Lo. It has the right understanding of what the 

' Home for Christ " really means, and it also deals with 
the psychology of children. It gives an all-round viewpoint 



THE PROBLEM OF THE HOME IN CHINA 329 

of religious life in the home. If the members study 
and really follow out the ideas given there, we will soon 
achieve the purpose of winning the homes for Christ. 

3. Two Points About Children's Education — a speech 
given by Miss Lambert in the 1922 Conference. The two 
points are that children's education ought to start as early 
as possible, even before birth; and that parents must 
practice what they expect of the children. 



CHAPTER LXII 

THE FIGHT AGAINST OPIUM 
E, C* Lobenstine 

Y 1924 ^^ e Conferences held under the auspices of 

Landmark in tne Lea S ae of Nations to determine on more 
Opium Trade adequate measures for carrying out the 

provisions of the Hague Convention of 1912 
and looking to the ending of the trade in narcotic drugs 
for other than medicinal purposes, will make the year 1924 
stand out in the history of the opium trade. Whatever 
the immediate outcome of the conferences, the publicity 
given to the facts gathered by the League and to the 
discussions at the conferences, has called the attention of 
the people of all lands to the serious character of the trade in 
these drugs. The fact ha3 been made clear that this is one 
of the world's great evils, and that it must be energetically 
and wisely dealt with by the combined action of all 
nations. 

Intern t' i ^ e tra ^ c * n nar cotic drugs is no longer to 

ProbIem° na °e tnou &ht of as a question that concerns 

merely China and India and those European 
nations which use the opium traffic for revenue in their 
Far Eastern possessions. It also menaces the people of 
Europe and America. The direct effect of the habitual use 
of morphine, cocaine, and heroin is bad enough; but in 
addition confidence is undermined in the moral integrity 
of those nations whose governments, although signatories 
to the Hague Convention, still permit the manufacture of 
these dangerous drugs. 

Ch' th Ch* f ^ remains, however, true that the chief 
Sufferer * ** sun * erer from opium to-day, as in the past, is 

China. Her people alone in large numbers 
use it for smoking purposes. Who can estimate the 
number who during the past decades have been users of 
the drug or what it has cost the nation in lessened physical 



THE FIGHT AGAINST OPIUM 331 

and moral vitality, in economic loss, and in retarded 
scientific and industrial progress! 

Her heroic struggle to free herself from a 

for Fr eedom ggIe habit which had iaid ' stron S hold on man y 
millions of her people commanded the 

admiration of the world. The International Anti-Opium 

Association estimates that in 1906 just before the fight 

began, the extent of opium production in China amounted 

to something like 30,000 tons a year. Practically ail of 

this was consumed in China. In addition some 51,000 

chests, amounting to 6,630,000 pounds, were imported 

from India. In 1907 the British government entered into 

an agreement with China by which she agreed to 

reduce the import of prepared opium from India by 1/10 

annually for ten years provided the production of opium in 

China was reduced pari passu. 

In January 1907 the Emperor ordered the several 
viceroys to reduce the acreage under poppy cultivation by 
one-half by the spring of 1908. Hundreds of opium dens 
were closed in different parts of the country as a result of 
the imperial edict. In March 1908 a further edict was issued 
enforcing a three years' experiment of abstinence from 
opium. A year later Tuan Fang reported that 3,000,000 
persons had abandoned the habit, and the government 
determined to prohibit entirely the cultivation of the 
poppy. In 1916 the British Minister in Peking reported to 
his government that China had carried out her part of the 
agreement and Great Britain brought the trade with China 
in Indian opium to an end. 

China was practically free from opium. Her fight had 
been successful. The magnitude of the achievement was 
recognized throughout the civilized world. The seemingly 
impossible had been accomplished. When the Indian 
trade thus came to an end large stocks of opium amounting 
to 1576 chests were in the hands of Shanghai opium 
merchants. The Chinese Government purchased this for 
more than $30,000,000, refusing an offer of the British 
Government to buy it back, and burned the whole amount. 
Unfortunately the reform did not prove 
Relate permanent. A strong central government 

had succeeded in imposing its will upon the 



332 THE FIGHT AGAINST OPIUM 

Chinese people. In this it was aided both by the large 
proportion of those who had never used opium and by the 
general docility of the people as a whole. Once, however, 
the power of the central government was weakened, as it 
was after the fall of Yuan Shih-kai, and after the southern 
provinces broke away from Peking, there were plenty of 
interested people, ready to take advantage of the weakness 
of the government and to see the anti-opium laws broken 
and poppy cultivation resumed. 

A further, and probably the main cause of the 
recrudescence of poppy planting was the growth of 
militarism, and the need of money in maintaining large 
rival armies. The easiest way to secure this was by 
levying taxes on the farmers which could only be paid out 
of opium cultivation. 

Opium Cultiva- Tniis 19 23 an0 ^ 1924 found the poppy in 
tion in J923-4 full bloom in most of the provinces in China 
where it had previously nourished. The 
International Anti-Opium Association, upon which we are 
dependent for most of the statistical information regarding 
the opium trade in China, estimates the area cultivated in 
1923 at some 25,000,000 mow or about 4,000,000 acres. In 
its opinion the total amount of opium produced in China 
in 1923 could not have been far from 15,000 tons, approx- 
imately one-half of the amount produced before prohibition 
went into effect. The provinces growing the largest quantity 
of opium are Yunnan, Szechwan, Shensi, Kwaichow, and 
Fukien. 

Opium Some idea of the enormous revenues derived 

Revenues from opium taxes may be gained from figures 

of such income in a few of the provinces. It is 
stated that in the province of Shensi these amounted to 
$15,000,000; in Fukien to $15,000,000; in the Kiangsi 
Opium Monopoly to $5,000,000; and in Anhwei to more 
than $3,000,000. 

In Hupeh Province, at Ichang alone, in a little over 
one month, $500,000 was collected and in Amoy a monthly 
income of half a million dollars is received from this source. 

These figures are quoted by the International Anti- 
Opium Association as but a few substantiated items 



the! fight against opium 333 

concerning revenue arising out of the traffic. They form 

but a small part of the whole. 

, T , , There is no means of knowing how many 

Number of , . .-, . . « ~. ,* ", 

Smokers people in China are using opium at the present 

time. That the practice has again become 
very common is certain. Public places for smoking are 
being opened in many parts of the country, although they 
are not nearly as much in evidence as in 1906. Opium is 
freely used in homes, hotels, and business offices. It would 
appear, however, that the bulk of the smokers are those 
who have reverted to a habit, temporarily abandoned, rather 
than new persons, who have recently acquired the habit. 
It is said that relatively few young people are smoking 
opium. There are no facts to show whether or not they 
are using the more concentrated form of the drug. 
E , To the Chinese-grown opium must be added 

Smuggling large quantities of opium smuggled into 

China from other lands. Occasional customs 
seizures and the enormous bribes running into hundreds of 
thousands and even into millions of dollars, offered by men 
in the opium trade to officials who agree to allow the trade 
to go on, give some indication of the extent of the illicit 
traffic. A recent lawsuit in the Mixed Court in Shanghai 
involved a cargo of opium valued at a million and a quarter 
dollars. The owner claimed to have purchased this opium 
in Turkey for delivery at Vladivostok and that it was stolen 
outside of the port of Shanghai from the ship on which it 
was being transported. Information connected with the 
lawsuit led to a raid being made in Shanghai and to the 
discovery of large quantities of opium and other drugs. 
In addition, very valuable documents were discovered 
showing the existence of an enormous organization with 
ramifications in Turkey, Switzerland, China, and Japan for 
the purpose of importing Persian and Turkish opium to the 
Far East. Among the documents are contracts running 
into millions of dollars. 

Side by side with the revival of opium is 

CocSne'and fcbe illicifc trade in the alkaloids of °P ium and 

Heroin 6 ^ m cocaine. In 1924 the customs seized 11,612 

ounces. The labels showed these to be from 

Germany, Japan, and Switzerland. There is evidently 



334 THE FIGHT AGAINST OPIUM 

great competition between certain European countries 
for this trade. Since these seizures the firms engaged in 
the trade have become more cautious and are seeking to 
avoid detection by placing false labels upon the receptacles 
in which the drugs are shipped. 

Morphia Pills Japan is probably more responsible than 
any other nation for the development of the 
use by the Chinese of pills containing morphia and other 
dangerous drugs. Although Japan in 1923 ratified the 
League of Nation's narcotic export certificate system, free 
and almost uncontrolled smuggling out of Japan has 
continued. Japan has more manufacturers of these drugs 
than Great Britain and the United States combined. She 
has developed a tremendous trade in pills containing 
morphine. This is one of the most difficult forms of the 
drug to control because of its compact form and because of 
the difficulty of detecting its use. Governor Yen of Shansi, 
who has fought opium harder than any other official in 
China, who has completely stopped the cultivation of the 
poppy in his province and has helped thousands of addicts 
to break themselves of the habit in opium refuges, says 
that the use of these morphia pills is even more pernicious 
than opium, and that the ease with which they can be 
smuggled makes it almost impossible to prevent their 
entrance into his province. This pill trade is reported to 
be especially great in North China and along the Peking- 
Hankow railway line. The I. A. O. A. reports that the tax 
collected on these pills in Chihli Province alone in one year 
was $750,000. 

Heroin in China ? we ma ^ J ud 8 e f . rom the Customs 
seizures much more heroin has been coming 
to China during the last two years. In 1924 sixteen 
seizures out of twenty -three made at Tientsin, Shanghai, 
Tsingtao and Harbin, were of heroin, thirteen seizures of 
heroin totaling over 2,000 ounces came from Japan, and 
the entire amount seized represents almost equal quantities 
of heroin and morphia. 

Opium and the ^ e above facts give but a very inadequate 

Government conception of the situation in China as 

regards the drug traffic. The trade is in 

fact probably growing at the present time, notwithstanding 



THE FIGHT AGAINST OPIUM 335 

the fact that China's laws regulating the traffic are as 
strict as any in the world and have never been repealed. 
The government has outlawed the traffic in opium, yet 
it is government officials who force the farmers to plant 
the poppy, who take charge of the transportation of the 
opium when it is ready for market and who fine people 
for trading in it, and yet who pay their soldiers and enrich 
themselves with the money derived from the taxes on 
opium land and from the sale of the opium seized. In 
some cases opium is distributed among the soldiers as 
wages in place of money. Among the papers found in the 
opium raid in Shanghai, above referred to, is one which 
states that, "the navy, army, and police will jointly assist 
and protect the goods" in their passage from Woosung 
to the neighborhood of the Kiangnan Arsenal, and it is 
expressly stated that the persons with whom the agreement 
was made " shall not enter into any agreement with other 
protectors". Next to militarism this trade is China's 
worst internal enemy to-day. It is responsible for the 
continuance of civil war since, but for opium, the large 
armies could not be maintained. It has been the undoing 
of hundreds of officials and led to all forms of treachery 
and corruption. 

p - The use of bribery by opium merchants 

an<Topfum has been demoralizing to large numbers of 
foreigners as well as Chinese in public service, 
including members of the customs service, notwithstanding 
the most rigid measures taken by the Inspector-General 
to maintain the high morale of his force; to officers on 
steamers flying foreign flags; and to members of the 
municipal police departments of certain foreign concessions. 
It is known on reliable information that one Customs 
official refused a bribe of $100,000 to let through a single 
shipment of narcotic drugs, and that there have been 
many similar cases of smaller amounts in which a single 
bribe exceeded the year's salary of the person approached. 
The trust in the moral integrity and good faith of every 
foreign nation making financial profit out of the traffic 
has been greatly weakened. Those nations, who for the 
sake of money allow their own nationals to engage in this 
illicit trade, or who make it possible for a man to change 



336 



THE FIGHT AGAINST OPIUM 



his nationality and come under their consular jurisdiction 
and protection, are deserving of the reprobation of other 
nations. 

Such being the case, all will recognize the truth of 
the contention of the Congress of the United States of 
America that, so long as there is produced anywhere in the 
world a larger supply of narcotic drugs than is required 
for the legitimate medicinal and scientific needs of the 
world, it will prove impossible to stop the illegitimate 
trade. There is but one way to stop the dangerous drug evil, 
and that is not to allow the production of more than is needed for 
medicinal and scientific purposes. This end can of course 
be accomplished only through whole-hearted international 
cooperation. 

Chinese ? VGr SillCe the yeaT 1906 when the Anti " 

Anti-Opium 9 pi " um Associat ion of Soochow sent a petition 
Movement signed by 1333 missionaries to Chou Fu, 
Governor-General of the River Provinces, 
urging that the cultivation of the poppy should be 
prohibited, many foreigners in China have been interested 
in bringing the opium trade to an end. For some years 
past prominent Chinese and foreigners have been associated 
in the ^ International Anti- Opium Association in Peking 
and in its branch associations in the provinces. It is only 
recently, _ however, that a popular Chinese anti-narcotic 
organization, started in order to bring about the suppres- 
sion of the poppy, has come into being. 

In 1922, at the National Christian Conference held in 
Shanghai, the Christian body as a whole became conscious 
that it had a responsibility in connection with this matter. 
It accordingly passed certain resolutions and entrusted 
their carrying out to the National Christian Council. Dr. 
S. H. Chuan, on behalf of the Council, made a study of 
the situation during the year 1923-24, and reported to 
the Annual Meeting of the Council in May 1924. The 
committee re-appointed at that meeting immediately 
recognized that, under existing political conditions, the 
people cannot again be freed as in 1917 merely through 
mandates issued by Peking. Their salvation must come 
through an awakened public conscience and through 
united action. 



THE FIGHT AGAINST OPIUM 337 

The Committee accordingly set to work to 
A a ?°o a1, bring into existence a National Anti-Opium 

Association* 1 Association. An approach was made to the 
annual meeting of the National Association 
for the Advancement of Education in Nanking in July 1924 
to secure their help in launching a popular movement. 
Over a thousand Chinese educators, mostly from govern- 
ment schools, were present at the meeting. The Association 
enthusiastically took the matter up, memorialized the 
Central Government on the subject and passed a number 
of resolutions. One of these calls for the introduction 
into the textbooks used in the public schools of China of 
teaching regarding the evils from the use of opium and 
other drugs. It authorized its officers to join with others 
in organizing a national anti-opium association. Before 
the end of the summer over twenty important bodies had 
thus united. These included, in addition to the National 
Association for the Advancement of Education, the General 
Chambers of Commerce, the Red Cross Society of China, 
the Kiangsu Educational Association, the China Medical 
Association, the China Medical and Pharmaceutical 
Association, the Union of Daily Newspapers, and other 
bodies, along with such national Christian organizations 
as the National Christian Council, the National Committees 
of the Y. M. and Y. W. C. A's., the China Medical 
Missionary Association, the Council on Health Education, 
the W. C. T. U., etc. 

- Two hundred and thirty-four branch as- 
Branch sociations have been organized to date in 

Associations different parts of t fc e country, and responses 
to communications sent out from the central office have 
been received from nearly 900 different cities and towns of 
China. These branch associations are quite independent 
one of another and are only very loosely bound together 
through the national association. They have, however, 
been able to make a beginning in dealing with the 
problem. 

n . n A call to set aside September 28th (a 

upium uay Sunday ) as Anti-Opium Day met with wide 
response. Many meetings were held, large numbers of 
posters and pamphlets distributed, and sermons preached 



338 THE FIGHT AGAINST OPIUM 

in Christian Churches. In some cities anti-opium proces- 
sions took place. One of the posters represented a 
double-headed snake on which was inscribed the names of 
different forms of the drug evil, with four men representing 
the four classes of society, (scholars, farmers, artisans, and 
business men), each carrying a suitable weapon, striking at 
the snake. The caption at the top was, " End the Opium 
Trade." It was widely used and attracted a great deal 
of attention. 

Autumn Work During the months from September to 
January the attention of the National Anti- 
Opium Association was devoted primarily to the Geneva 
Anti-Narcotic Conferences called by the League of Nations. 
These were used largely as a means of educating the 
Chinese people, both as to the evils of opium in China, and 
as to China's responsibility for the trade since she is 
herself by far the greatest producer and consumer of 
opium. Emphasis was also placed on the necessity of 
international cooperation if the illicit trade is to be ended. 
A number of memorials were sent both to the central 
government in Peking and to the Geneva Conferences. 

, The National Christian Council at its 

Dekgateat A "nual Meeting in 1924 appointed one of 
Geneva ' its members, Mr. T. Z. Koo, who was to be in 

Europe during the winter of 1924-1925 as 
Oriental Secretary of the World's Christian Student 
Federation, to represent it at Geneva for such work on 
behalf of opium suppression as he might find possible. 
He was later also appointed by the National Anti-Opium 
Association along with Chancellor Tsai Yuen-pei of the 
National University of Peking, and Dr. Wu Lien-teh as 
" people's representative " at the conference. The two 
others were unable to attend the conferences, at Geneva, 
but Mr. Koo was there for a large part of both gatherings. 
He worked in close cooperation with the chief Chinese 
Government representative, Dr. Alfred Saoke Sze, and was 
given an opportunity of addressing the second Conference. 
In a report to the British Press, Mr. Basil Mathews, 
correspondent in connection with the League in Geneva, 
said of Mr. Koo, " The most powerful impression upon the 
International Opium Conference at Geneva during its first 



THE FIGHT AGAINST OPIUM 339 

week was made by Mr. Koo It is strictly true to 

say that in Mr. Koo's speech the voice of the prophet 
broke in where the voice of the diplomat and expert had 
ruled, and that the prophet was, in his grip on the ultimate 
realities and in his statemanship, a finer diplomat and 
expert than they." 

The first conference at Geneva was called 
The First to dea j ^^ fa e question of prepared opium. 

Conference Tne Powers composing the conference were 
Great Britian, France, Holland, Portugal, 
India, Japan, and China. The conference was to see 
whether agreements could be reached, through a monopoly, 
whereby the amount of opium imported for smoking 
purposes could be gradually reduced so as to cease entirely 
in a definite time. It was also to deal with the situation 
in China. As the conference proceeded the Chinese 
delegates came to the conclusion that the Powers concerned 
lacked any real desire to deal with the problems before 
them in a thoroughgoing manner. An agreement was 
reached on some minor matters. The Powers were not to 
sell opium to minors; minors were not to be allowed in 
opium dens; opium dross (the residue left after smoking) 
was to be sold to state monopolies only; information 
regarding the suppression of smuggling was to be reported 
to the League. 

But nothing was done in regard to the vitally 
important question of reducing the amount of raw opium 
grown and available for smoking purposes; nor was any 
form of registration of smokers adopted prohibiting the 
sale of opium after a given date to any person not on the 
register. Neither were any steps taken to reduce the 
number of opium dens and shops in the far eastern 
territories of European countries where the sale of opium 
is legalized. Even the suggestion that educational methods 
be adopted to discourage opium smoking was qualified and 
rendered valueless because of strong objection from the 
Indian delegation. 

The reasons given by the Powers for their failure to 
take more positive action were, on the one hand, the ex- 
istence of smuggling and the large quantity of opium 
produced in China, and, on the other, the fear that there 



340 



THE FIGHT AGAINST OPIUM 



would be an inadequate supply of Chinese labor in their 
colonies if the privilege of opium smoking were to be taken 
away. 

Financial considerations were, however, undoubtedly 
the main factor in the decisions reached, notwithstanding 
protestations to the contrary. At one of the meetings of 
the Opium Advisory Committee, Sir John Jordan, former 
Minister of Great Britain at Peking, said that as long as 
colonies are deriving fifty per cent of their whole revenue 
from the opium traffic, it is absurd to say that financial 
considerations do not play a part. 

The Second - Tiie second conference was called to deal 

Geneva Wlfcn fc . ne question of narcotic drugs, the use 

Conference of which in Europe and America was giving 
t m serious concern. It opened in a more aus- 

picious way than the first conference. It dealt with 
matters of more immediate concern to the people of western 
nations. The main questions before it were: 

1. Can the production of raw materials used for drug 
manufacture be controlled and limited in such a 
way that no^ surplus will be available for other 
than the strict medicinal and scientific needs of 
the world? 

2. Will it be possible so to control and limit the 
manufacture of these drugs that no surplus will 
be available for other than the medicinal and 
scientific needs of the world ? 

3. Can the internal trade in manufactured drugs be 
so controlled as to make it impossible for un- 
authorized persons to have access to them ? 

4. Can the international trade in these drugs be so 
regulated as to reduce smuggling operations to 
the minimum ? 

5. Is it possible or desirable to set up some central 
body with definite functions to look after the 
operation of any measures which the Powers may 
agree upon in this conference ? 

America's America, as a signatory of the Hague Opium 

Position Convention took part in the second conference. 

She intimated at the very beginning that she 

would not sign any agreement reached at the second con- 



THE FIGHT AGAINST OPIUM 



341 



ference which did not deal with the question of prepared 
opium. The American delegates presented the two follow- 
ing proposals: 

1. If the purpose of the Hague Opium Convention is 
to be achieved according to its spirit and true 
intent it must be recognized that the use of opium 
products for other than medicinal and scientific 
purposes is an abuse and not legitimate. 

2. In order to prevent the abuse of these drugs, it is 
necessary to exercise control over the production of 
raw opium in such a manner that there will be 
no surplus available for non-medicinal and non- 
scientific purposes. 

America desired to see the reduction of the import of 
raw opium for smoking purposes by ten per cent annually 
so as entirely to end the trade in ten years. Notwith- 
standing the chaotic political situation in China the Chinese 
delegation strongly supported this American proposal. It 
was not, however, adopted. It was agreed to take measures 
for ending the trade in fifteen years beginning from such 
time as China is able to give substantial evidence of her 
ability and willingness to restrict the cultivation of the 
poppy in her own territory ; the question of the efficiency 
of the measures adopted to be decided upon by a commis- 
sion appointed by the League of Nations. On this com- 
mission China was not to be represented. 

Some real advance was made in the development of an 
elaborate system of import and export certificates together 
with strict rules in regard to transshipment of these drugs 
through a third country. , 

In view of the decision to make the begin- 
The Chinese ning of the per iod during which the traffic in 
Wiufdrlws 0P ium was t0 be gradually reduced depend 
upon previous evidence of China's ability 
adequately to deal with her own situation, and not to 
demand such evidence from any other country, China 
withdrew her delegation from Geneva as America had 
previously done and did not sign the Convention. 

It is impossible to say at this time what 
Mo^opoTy the Chinese Government will do. The Re- 

habilitation Conference, now sitting m Peking, 



342 THE FIGHT AGAINST OPIUM 

has definitely placed the opium question on its agenda. A 
government monopoly is strongly urged by some of the 
leading Chinese officials and gentry at the present time 
and is supported by Sir Francis Aglen, Inspector-General 
of the Chinese customs service. If such a monopoly could 
be properly administered, it would no doubt tend to lessen 
smuggling, by keeping down the price of opium, and 
would bring to the central government large sums of 
money that now go to military rulers. The International 
Anti-Opium Association takes the position that if the 
government is in a position to conduct such a monopoly, 
she is also in a position to do away with the trade and that 
therefore a monopoly is not advisable. 

Chinese China has repeatedly stated that she will 

Opinion never again legalize the traffic in opium. She 

has paid a high price in the past to rid her- 
self of a traffic which has wrought her irreparable harm. 
Some of the recent utterances of her statesmen published 
by the International Anti-Opium Association show the 
strength of their feeling in regard to this question. 

" My views on the opium question are best 
demonstrated by the fact that when President of China 
I ordered the complete destruction of the accumulated 
stocks of opium in Shanghai purchased by my pre- 
decessor amounting to $37,000,000. At that time 
China had almost entirely ceased to cultivate opium, 
and, as I was determined to prevent any resuscitation 
of the opium habit, I ordered this destruction. I 
deeply regret the recrudescence of opium cultivation 
during recent years and sincerely hope that a way 
may be found to again deliver our people from this 
terrible evil." 

His Excellency Hsu Shih-chang, 
Ex-President of China. 

" I feel extremely sorry that the people have lost 
their virtue through opium, and will support any 
effort to suppress it. When the Government was 
erroneously accused in 1923 of considering a scheme 
for establishing a Government opium monopoly, and 
re-legalizing the use of opium throughout China, I as 



THE FIGHT AGAINST OPIUM 343 

President declared, ' There is no power on earth that 
can compel my hand to sign an Edict to re-legalize 
opium. ' This has always been my attitude, and it 
will remain so. China must get rid of opium at any 
cost." 

His Excellency Li Yuan-hung, 
Ex-President of China. 

M The view expressed in some quarters that be- 
cause of the admittedly widespread recrudescence of 
the opium traffic in China, the opium trade should 
again be legitimatized and foreign opium openly 
admitted through the Maritime Customs — thereby 
providing increased revenue for the national exche- 
quer — is totally reprehensible. For it is incontrover- 
tible that Chinese Public Opinion — the opinion of 
the average peaceful and law-abiding, decent and 
respectable citizen — is strongly opposed to the Opium 
Evil and any, even temporary, surrender in the fight 
against the illicit opium traffic, much less the proposal 
to re-admit the legitimacy of the opium trade, is re- 
volting to the nation." 

Dr. Sun Yat-sen. 

1 Our nation is growing more and more convinced 
that opium paralyzes all social and economic advance- 
ment, and as we are determined to advance into the 
fullness of political and organized freedom, opium 
must go." 

His Excellency Sun Pao-chi, 
Ex-Premier of China. 

p j Whatever action is taken at the present 

Opinion time by the Government, the chief reliance 

in China and in other countries for the ending 
of the trade in dangerous drugs must be the development 
of an educated public opinion opposed to the trade and 
strong enough as time goes on to make its will felt. To 
this both the International Anti-Opium Association in 
Peking and the more recently developed National Anti- 
Opium Association are pledged. The National Anti- Opium 



344 THE FIGHT AGAINST OPIUM 

Association is seeking to strengthen its branch associations 
and to increase their number. It is engaged in securing 
more accurate data in regard to the cultivation of the 
poppy in China and the illicit trade in drugs from other 
lands. It is seeking through dissemination of the facts to 
arouse the people 

(1) To suppress the cultivation of opium in China; 

(2) to oppose the smoking of opium and the use of 

morphine and cocaine and other dangerous 
habit-forming drugs; 

(3) to bring to an end the smuggling of narcotic drugs 

into China; 

(4) to oppose the emigration to other lands of Chinese 

who are opium smokers so that the governments 
of these countries will not be able to argue that 
its labor supply is dependent upon the con- 
tinuance of opium smoking. 
While the situation is in many respects dark, it is 
more hopeful than appears on the surface, for China has 
once before proved her ability to grapple with this most 
difficult question and her best people are increasingly con- 
vinced that the trade must be brought to an end. 



CHAPTER LXIII 

CHILD LABOUR AND THE CHURCH 

Mary Dingman and Helen Thoburn 

_ . Child Labour is but one of many things in 

thePfobiem China which Christianity cannot live with 
comfortably. To write of the Church's action 
in this field is to illustrate a process that might be used for 
similar problems rather than to write of accomplished fact. 
This article is a brief record of the steps taken whereby, in 
one Chinese city, three of the parties to the child labour pro- 
blem — the employers, the general public, and the Christian 
Church, — are slowly coming to a common point of view. 
Of the attitude of the fourth, and principal party concerned, 
the employees themselves, there is astonishingly little to 
say. When we speak of "child labour," what do we 
actually mean? A five-year-old baby girl, it may be, 
standing in a silk filature in Shanghai, working for 
twelve or fourteen hours. When we speak in more general 
terms of the " industrial situation " in China what do we 
see? Men and boys working in the coal-mines of Kailan 
perhaps, or country girls working on the backless benches 
of the hairnet factories of Chefoo. For once the indus- 
trialization of a nation is being faced in its early stages 
before labor has to any great degree become articulate. 

„ The story of the industrial program of the 

1 he urogram jj^j^j christian Council will be fairly 
familiar to readers of the Year Book, at least from the time 
the National Christian Conference took its stand in May 
1922 on the three-fold program: (1) no child labour; (2) 
one day's rest in seven; (3) health and safety for industrial 
workers. Shanghai has since gone farther than any other 
city in the effort to put this famous pronouncement into 
effect. It has wisely concentrated on but one measure 
first, — child labour in modern factories. 



346 CHILD LABOUR AND THE CHURCH 

First Step ^ about the same time, two represen- 

tative groups in Shanghai began to take this 
matter very seriously : one, the local industrial committee 
of the National Christian Council; the other, a Women's 
Committee representing the Chinese, Japanese, British and 
American women's clubs, and the Y. W. C. A. It was this 
latter committee which really took the lead by petitioning 
the Shanghai Municipal Council to arrange for a study of 
child labour in the Settlement. That was in February 1923. 
Just two years later, in this spring of 1925, a report from 
the resulting Child Labour Commission comes before the 
ratepayers for action. The Model Settlement will then 
choose whether, against the heavy odds of competition with 
adjoining territory and of political chaos worse than at any 
time since 1912, it will take the first definite steps towards 
protecting the children in its own factories. 
Help from Between the spring of 1923 and that of 1925 

Abroad lies a long record of patient work, against 

countless obstructions and discouragements, 
on the part of these local committees, much of it carried, 
as always in pioneering of this kind, by a few individuals 
of unshakable faith. But to faith has been added expert 
knowledge from many lands, — for example, the interna- 
tional experience and deep human insight of Miss Jane 
Addams during her brief visit to Shanghai ; for a short time 
the technique of M. Pierre Henry of the International 
Labour Office; and above all, a year of invaluable help 
from Dame Adelaide Anderson, formerly Chief Lady 
Factory Inspector of the United Kingdom. Modern 
industry has such wide ramifications that the Church's 
relation to it in China is being followed with the utmost 
interest in many different parts of the world, and in 
addition to these personal visits much encouragement has 
come in messages from abroad. 

Situation in ^ e International Settlement of Shanghai 

Shanghai is one small piece of internationalized land set 

on the coast of a great Republic in which not 
one regulation for the control of modern industry is 
enforced. Whatever action it may take will be seriously 
affected by other factors, notably the provincial government 
of the adjoining Kiangsu Province. Both this government 



CHILD LABOUR AND THE CHURCH 347 

and the national one have been approached. The Peking 
Government in March 1923 enacted certain factory regula- 
tions, far from satisfactory in nature, and still entirely 
unenforced. All we can say of them is that they form a 
step towards possible effective legislation later on. The 
governor of Kiangsu came almost to the point of setting up 
a Commission for the province, similar to the one appointed 
for Shanghai. The outbreak of war, however, blocked the 
matter and it has not been taken up since. 

Shanghai itself is the critical point. By 

£?CfaJW Labour action here U wil1 be P ossible to show what 
Commission can De done in other Chinese cities. The 
Child Labour Commission, which worked 
for one full year, published its findings in July 1924. The 
gist of the Report is as follows: 

Strong emphasis is laid on certain difficulties in the 
way of regulation, such as absence of birth registration, 
the lack of schools for children released from factories, the 
ignorance of parents, who see only their need of the few 
coppers their children can earn, and above all, the difficulty 
of working in a country without a central government. 

Nevertheless Shanghai, within the limits of its treaty 
terms, is free to act independently. The Commission 
recommends: — No employment of children under ten years 
of age, rising to twelve years four years after the regulations 
go into effect ; no employment of children under fourteen 
more than twelve hours in twenty-four, these twelve hours 
to include one hour's rest; no employment of such children 
in dangerous places. It suggests that the prohibition of 
night work be considered four years later. It provides for 
a system of factory inspectors. The full report of this 
Commission can be obtained by writing to the Industrial 
Committee of the N. C. C. 

The recommendations are mild indeed, It was felt 
that because Shanghai is so affected by conditions in the 
adjoining provinces, this was as far as it is now possible to 
go. The standards of the Washington Conference, however, 
were set as the ultimate goal, for this settlement is con- 
trolled by governments most of whom are already 
signatory to that agreement. Meanwhile, whether the 
citizens of Shanghai will venture thus far as a beginning, at 



348 CHILD LABOUR AND THE CHURCH 

least, will be determined at the Ratepayers Meeting this 
April. 

Better Days There will, of course, come a day when all 

Ahead of China will have turned its children out of 

the factories into the schools, and then the 
work of these more or less obscure pioneering groups will 
be seen in its true perspective. The following up of the 
Child Labour Report, the endless calling of committees and 
imparting of conviction in this community or that, together 
will give the Christian Church of China the place in this 
long story which Lord Shaftsbury held in the corresponding 
struggle in England one hundred years ago: 

The devil, with sad and sober sense on his grey face, 
tells the rulers of the world that the misery which disfigures 
the life of great societies is beyond the reach of human 
remedy. A voice is raised from time to time in answer; a 
challenge in the name of the mercy of God, or the justice 
of nature, or the dignity of man. To the law of indifference 
and drift, taught by philosophers and accepted by poli- 
ticians, Lord Shaftsbury opposed the simple revelation of 

his Christian conscience When silence falls on such a 

voice, some everlasting echo still haunts the world." 



CHAPTER LXIV 

COOPERATIVE CREDIT IN CHINA 

THE CHINA INTERNATIONAL FAMINE RELIEF 

COMMISSION PROGRAM 

Walter H. Maifory 



. The China International Famine Relief 

Commission 6 Commission was organized at the close of the 
drought famine of 1920 from the numerous 
International Committees in the various provinces of China 
which were formed to meet that emergency. Its function 
is to be the central agency through which all the local 
committees will act, and to maintain a permanent staff 
which will not only devise means to relieve future disasters 
but will devote itself to famine prevention enterprises. 

P fth * w *** not dwell at ^ en 8 tn on tne many 

Commission & aspects of the Commission's program, beyond 
mentioning the fact that prevention has been 
decided upon as requiring major attention. 

The occurrence of famine in China is due to such a 
multiplicity of causes that the question of its prevention 
falls under many heads. It is argued by some that the 
surest cure lies in a decrease of the birth rate. Others 
believe that large engineering schemes which will assist to 
control natural forces will effect the best results. It has 
also been urged that improved agricultural methods, and 
the extension of China's forests will have similar results. 

It is commonly recognized, however, that | the 
fundamental cause of this great scourge is the impoverished 
condition of the Chinese masses who have an insufficient 
margin of livelihood with which to bridge years when the 
crops, because of flood or drought, are adversely affected. 
It has therefore been agreed that the improvement ^ of 
economic conditions will be a substantial contributing 
factor to the elimination of future famines, 



350 COOPERATIVE CREDIT IN CHINA 

Committee on A Committee on Credit and Economic 
Crediting Improvement has therefore been appointed 
Economic for the purpose of investigating the economic 

Improvement condition of the people and proposing a 
program which will assist in improving it. 
During the summer of 1922 this Committee conducted a 
scientific rural survey through the cooperation of Chinese 
students. Questionnaires were carefully prepared and 
statistics _ were gathered from two hundred and forty 
villages in live provinces. These statistics have been 
carefully examined, and one of the results of the 
information obtained in this way has been the adoption of 
a plan for the promotion of rural cooperative credit and 
savings societies. 

RufaI One of the greatest difficulties with which 

Cooperation the Chinese farmer is confronted is his 
inability to meet his financial needs excepting 
under the most exacting terms. There arc no adequate 
banking facilities available to him, and loans are generally 
obtained by pawning his personal effects or farm imple- 
ments, or if the sum needed is a large one his farm is 
mortgaged. He is forced to pay such an exceedingly 
high rate of interest (sometimes as high as 3% per month) 
that his indebtedness rapidly increases. 

It is largely for this reason that improvements in 
Chinese agricultural methods are so slow and difficult to 
bring about, for most of them require capital. The Chinese 
farmer, with practically no economic reserve, is also 
unwilling to adopt new methods which he himself has not 
previously tried even though no capital outlay is required. 
He fears lest the experiment may possibly result in a 
failure of his crops — a failure which would render him and 
his family destitute. 

. It is common knowledge that cooperative 

Credit f and e societies have been remarkably successful in 
Savings other agricultural countries, and it is this 

Societies knowledge which has prompted the China 

International Famine Relief Commission to 
promote in China a similar enterprise for the improvement 
of the rural population. The RafTeisen system which has 



COOPERATIVE CREDIT IN CHINA 351 

proved, so effective in India has been taken as a model and 
is being adapted to Chinese conditions. 

The Commission does not contemplate the promotion 
of this scheme in any large way at present. Its program 
has been formulated for a three years' experiment. The 
first year is nearly completed. During this time eight 
societies in North and Central China have been organized — 
those in Central China through the cooperation of Nanking 
University. During next year the results obtained from 
their working will be studied and any necessary changes 
will be made in the rules of organization of the societies. 
During the second year additional societies will also be 
formed, and the savings feature will be added. In the 
third year we anticipate that the work will be further 
expanded and systematized and perhaps some features of 
cooperative marketing introduced. At the end of this 
time, if the movement has proved successful and is 
appreciated by the farming population, it will be the 
purpose of the Commission to promote it in a large way by 
inviting other agencies to cooperate, using the code which 
has been evolved. 

The objects of the cooperative societies as 
A^tA* given in the model constitution are : * 
SodSies* (a) To borrow funds on the joint and 

several responsibility of all the members to 
be used as loans to members for declared purposes. 

(b) To encourage thrift, self-help and cooperation 
generally among members. 

The members of the societies mui- 1 be at least twenty 
years of age and of good standing in the community. All 
the members are required to purchase a membership share, 
the price of which varies from 12.00 to $10.00. 

The capital of the society consists of membership 
shares, savings of members and non-members, loans 
granted by the Commission or other agencies, and the 
reserve fund. 

The purposes for which loans may be extended to 
members are : 



* China International Famine Relief Commission Publication 
Series B, No. 8. 



352 COOPERATIVE CREDIT IN CHINA 

(a) For seed, cultivation expenses, or cattle fodder. 

(b) For the purchase of carts, cattle, buildings or 
implements. 

(c) Loans for purposes which will continue to be 
productive for several years such as dikes, irriga- 
tion and similar community projects. 

(d) Loans for necessary social obligations. 

The purpose for which each loan is required must be 
definitely stated in the application to the committee. The 
security for the loans is either that of the borrowing 
member with two other numbers who act as guarantors, or 
by a mortgage on property or crops. The committee elected 
by the society from among its members has power to refuse 
any loan, to limit the amount of it, or to object to the security 
offered. # A Council of Inspection is also elected, whose duty 
it is to insure that the loans made to members are utilized 
for the purposes specified. 

The society charges a slightly higher rate of interest 
to members than it pays for savings, or for loans contracted 
from the Commission. The profits thus earned go to 
defray the running expenses of the society and to build 
up a reserve fund. 

The management of the societies is in the hands of 
its members under careful supervision of the China 
International Famine Relief Commission, and regulations 
for its accounts and reports are provided by the 
Commission. * 



CHAPTER LXV 

COMMISSION ON SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC RESEARCH 
J. B. Tayler 

The question of research into social and economic 
conditions in China has been prominently before the 
Christian movement ever since the China Education Com- 
mission issued its report. The subject is repeatedly 
referred to, especially in Sections 205, 377, and 555. 
That Commission urged its importance particularly in 
connection with the far-reaching changes that are taking 
place in China as a result of western contacts, among which 
it emphasized those resulting from the introduction of 
modern forms of industrial organization. After speaking 
of these changes the report continues: " Profoundly 
impressed by the magnitude of the issues involved, the 
Commission recommends that as early as possible the 
investigation of the larger questions be assigned to a 

central Institute of Economic and Social Research 

This Institute should be recognized as the clearing-house 
for all information collected in the course of local investi- 
gations in any part of the field." It then proceeds to 
outline its views in regard to the work that the Institute 
should attempt. 

The importance of this question from the point of view 
of the new factors introduced by industry has also been 
insisted upon by the National Christian Council's Industrial 
Committee, and it was strongly felt by Dr. Sherwood Eddy 
on his recent visit to this country. Those engaged in 
social work, also, have been conscious of the need for fuller 
information and some of them have been pressing such 
institutions as the Russell Sage Foundation to undertake 
research in China. Sociology and Economics teachers in 
the universities have also desired to see research systemati- 
cally undertaken, as being essential for their teaching work 
and for the training of students. The need for a central 



354 COMMISSION ON SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC RESEARCH 

Institute engaged the attention of the Sociology and 
Economics section of the Universities' Conference at 
Nanking last year, when the need for a coordinating agency 
was particularly stressed. 

Happily these various influences have been brought 
together and the Institute of Social and Religious Research 
in New York of which Dr. John R. Mott is Chairman, 
President E. D. Burton, Secretary, and Dr. Galen Fisher 
Executive Secretary, has undertaken the task of creating a 
Commission in China to report on the kind of institution 
which is desirable. The Institute has sent out Dr. Royal 
Meeker, formerly Commissioner of Labour Statistics at 
Washington and subsequently chief of the Research 
Division in the International Labour Office under the 
League of Nations at Geneva. With him the following 
Chinese and foreigners, resident in China, have been 
associated : — 

Dr. Chen Ta, Professor of Sociology at Tsinghua 
College. 

Dr. Fong Sec, Editoral Staff, Commercial Press. 

Mr. Sidney Gamble, author of " Peking: a Social 
Survey." 

Mr. D. K. Lieu, chief of the Investigation Depart- 
ment, Bureau of Economic Information. 

Professor G. W. Sarvis, University of Nanking. 

Professor J. B. Tayler, Yenching University. 

Mr. M. T. Tchou, National Industrial Secretary, 
Y.M.C.A. 

Miss W. T. Zung, Y.W.C.A. 

The Commission is proposing to spend about four 
months in visiting various centres in China, — educational, 
rural, and industrial, — in order to collect the material 
necessary for the report which it is to make to the Institute 
in New York. It is too early to speak in any detail of the 
recommendations that it is likely to make, but it is very 
generally felt that what is needed is a thoroughly 
impartial, scientific, institution for the obtaining of 
accurate data. The institute must not be biased in the 
interests of any section or group but must be guided in the 
subject matter of its inquiries solely by the desire to 



COMMISSION ON SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC RESEARCH 355 

promote the social well-being of the people of China. It 
is also very widely thought that such an institute should 
both conduct investigations itself and also do all that is 
possible to promote and coordinate research on the part of 
others. Only by the uniting of the forces available can 
the vast held of social and economic inquiry be adequately 
covered. 



CHAPTER LXVI 

MISSION INDUSTRIES 
Helen Davis Chandler 

Conditions following famine or flood in China present 
an urge for relief of human suffering that missions con- 
tinually have to face. The method which pays wages for 
work given, instead of dispensing charity, has been 
widely used in the last few years. Industries have been 
started in considerable numbers as one means of meeting 
this pressure. Although a few outstanding industries have 
long been carried on by missions, the majority of those 
existing have been begun in the last eight or ten years. 
There are several reasons why they have outlasted the 
economic catastrophes which caused them to be opened. 
They offer an unusual opportunity for raising the standards 
of a group or a community and of otherwise carrying out a 
missionary program. Moreover, in most cases, their 
maintenance need not be a financial burden, as is true in 
some other lines of work. Without plan for permanency 
in the beginning, this large number of industries is holding 
a considerable place in mission work. Whether or not it 
exists only temporarily is, as yet, uncertain. The enterprise 
is in the early stages. It is only beginning to learn how to 
apply the Christian laws of sociology and economics, for 
the best good of the workers whom it would serve. 

In the autumn of 1923 a representative 
National group of those interested in mission industries, 

Industries from many parts of China, met in conference 

Association an( ^ organized the National Christian Indus- 
tries Association. The purpose of this 
organization is the linking together of these scattered 
industries, consideration of mutual problems, and promoting 
the welfare of Christian industrial enterprises in China. 
Those eligible for membership are, " Any Christian Chinese 
or foreigner, engaged in industrial work for the avowed 



MISSION INDUSTRIES 357 

benefit of the workers and receiving no personal share from 
the profits of the enterprise." 

The Association has four committees : 

1. Methods of Education and Evangelism among 

workers. 

2. Wages, Working Conditions, and Welfare Work. 

3. Undeveloped Possibilities of New Materials and 

Types of Work. 

4. Markets in China and Abroad. 

These committees are making a special study of these 
questions and are at the service of all who may come to 
them for help. 

A questionnaire sent out by the Association to all 
available mission industries, brought in data which tells a 
story of interest. It is far from complete, but thoroughly 
representative. 

Typos of Work Cross-stitch on Chinese linen leads as the 
type of work most in demand. Embroidery 
follows, and applique * patch-work ", and different kinds 
of lace, are made in not a few industries. Knitted work, 
dolls, toys, children's clothing, rugs, leather work, weaving, 
tapestries, and basketry, as well as other forms of hand- 
work, are the products of the mission industries in China. 
Number and ^ e numDer °f workers employed by each 

Age of Workers place varies from ten to over two hundred. 
There are a few boys' schools included and 
many girls' schools. There are men patients recuperating 
in hospitals; there are blind girls and lame boys; but 
the most are made up of women upon whom falls the burden 
of supporting their families. Their ages vary from ten to 
seventy years. The majority of these industries, however, 
will not employ workers under fifteen years of age. 

Most of the schools which give industrial 
tions and work to their pupils include it in their regular 

Working Hours s °hool schedule. This system enables those 
who would be unable otherwise, to pay for 
their education. Less than half of the industries give out 
work to be taken home. The majority, however, have a 
work-shop and an eight-hour day, with special attention 
given to shop conditions. More wages are paid "by the 
piece" than "by the day." A card catalogue system for 



358 MISSION INDUSTRIES 

a record of employees is in favor. Two or three industries are 
attempting a survey of the communities from which the 
workers come. When completed they will have data from 
which to judge what the standard of living is, and could 
become, and what an adequate wage may be. 

The industries are proving a human 
Ed tf' 1 nd l aDorator y °f unusual opportunity. They are 
Religious Work groups in which intensive work can be done 
day after day. The following forms, also, of 
welfare activity are being attempted : examination of eyes, 
and glasses given when needed; dentistry; free clinics; 
wages paid when ill; graduate nurse visiting homes; baths; 
day nurseries; lunch rooms; kindergartens; scholarships 
for children; loan and savings systems, and so forth. 
Nearly all are teaching their workers to read. The pho- 
netic system is popular. Talks to mothers, mothers' clubs, 
representation of workers in management, and in one 
industry, a cooperative society of the workers, — all tell of 
beginnings that will lead the way. Religious education is 
emphasized, and trained religious workers are employed 
by many of the industries. 

M , The majority find little difficulty in obtain- 

ing a market for their products. These are 
almost entirely designed for foreigners and a large part 
is sold in China. Several, however, send their complete 
output to the United States. The record of their annual 
turnover ranges from five hundred dollars to thirty five 
thousand. There are " Exchanges " or mission shops in 
five of the large cities of China, whose purpose is mainly 
to offer a market for mission industry products. 
P t N d There are special needs for the whole 
enterprise. Social surveys conducted scien- 
tifically, in the communities of employees, would establish 
a basis for procedure that would be a contribution to the 
whole country. Conditions over China are so different that 
many surveys are needed. Trained Chinese employed by 
the industries, ready to apply their deeper knowledge on 
problems involved, should be sought. For instance, the 
problem of converting the industry into an indigenous 
institution which shall produce an article that can compete 
with the Chinese market, is baffling to the Westerner. 



MISSION INDUSTRIES 359 

There would be a great opportunity also for leaders with 
ability and vision to use the industry as a means for popular 
education and wide spread evangelism. These and other 
needs must be filled; and mission industries will have a 
vital share in quickening the Christian movement in China. 



CHAPTER LXVII 

THE INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CHINA 
Gilbert Reid 

Th N The original name of this institute in its 

formative period from 1894 to 1897, was the 
Mission among the Higher Classes in China, so indicating 
the special object in mind. In order to show that its 
purpose was international and not simply American or 
Chinese or Anglo-American, the name was changed in 1897 
to The International Institute of China. This was done at 
the suggestion of the Netherlands Minister in Peking, 
formal sanction being secured from the Chinese Ministry 
of Foreign Affairs. Since it has been incorporated under 
the laws of the State of Delaware, with powers to have its 
headquarters and management in China, the legal name 
to-day is The International Institute of China, Inc. The 
Chinese name (f& ^ ^) has not been altered since the 
start. The Chinese characters were suggested by a high 
Minister of State, Hsu Yung-i, who died as a martyr 
during the siege of the Legations in 1900. 

The work of the Institute was restarted in 
of Work 1921 when the Director-in-chief and his 

family returned to China from a stay of over 
three years in the United States. The valuable property 
of the Institute is still located in the French Concession of 
Shanghai, but after careful consideration it has been 
deemed best to make Peking the center from which to 
direct the work. In this way it is hoped to reach the 
largest number within the nation. Peking was the place 
where initial efforts were put forth in the years 1894 to 
1902. Up to date the work of the Institute in Peking has 
been located in a rented house inside the Imperial 
City, and the Director's family have resided in the 
same place. 



THE INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CHINA 361 

(1) The International Journal. This is a 

Special Review weekly, four-fifths in Chinese and one-fifth 

from July 1923 in English. It is in no sense the official 
to the End of a „ , , . . 

J924 organ of any country, government, religious 

creed or political party; but it has its own 
propaganda. It works for peace, both throughout China 
and also in all the world ; it records good deeds and good 
ideas rather than the black and base things of life; it gives 
support to all constructive measures in regard to inter- 
national relationships. Where criticism is offered it is 
free from personal abuse and animosity. Week after week 
agitation has thus been kept up in the interests of interna- 
tional reconciliation, more particularly between Chinese and 
all foreign peoples, and also among the various factions in 
China. The Journal is an embodiment of the principles 
of the Institute. 

(2) There has been sympathetic approach to a num- 
ber of new religious movements which stand out in contrast 
to the anti-religious movement among the student class. 

(3) The Institute has conducted several conferences 
of all religions and of these eclectic religious societies, (a) 
One notable occasion was a religious address by Dr. 
Rabindranath Tagore, under the auspices and by the 
invitation of the Institute's Religious Section, when an 
audience of a thousand people, interested in spiritual 
themes, both Chinese and foreigners, assembled in a 
modern-built theatre in Peking, (b) There have been 
three conferences as to the best way to help the Eastern 
Orthodox Church in Peking to retain its ecclesiastical 
property. A Memorial was drawn up and presented to the 
Chinese Government. The International Journal has opened 
up its columns to this cause and many of the articles have 
been widely circulated through translation into English. 
It is to be hoped that the Chinese Government will 
continue to extend protection as in the past, (c) There 
have been four conferences in the interests of peace. 
Besides these a service of prayer for peace has been held in 
Shanghai with Sir Robert Ho Tung in the chair. 

(4) There has been friendly contact with the student 
class in different educational institutions. Class-room 
work has been conducted and lectures have been given. 



362 THE INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CHINA 

(5) Help has been rendered the different Christian 
Churches in Peking. The Director- in-chief preaches nearly 
every Sunday at the invitation of the Chinese pastors of 
these churches. One Sunday he was invited to preach 
at the Russian Orthodox Church. Thus the Institute 
stands for unity among all Christian Churches and in 
addition for unity among the adherents of all religions. 

(6) The Institute has sought to exert an influence on 
the official class. Notwithstanding various political changes 
there has been personal contact with at least a few of the 
cabinet ministers, especially with the head of the Foreign 
Office. As nearly every week The International Journal 
contains discussion of topics and issues which concern 
China, special distribution is made among those officials 
where interest may be expected. 



CHAPTER LXVIH 

THE FLOODS OF J924 
Waiter H. Mallory 

Distress by famine is such a chronic ill in China that 
scarcely a year passes without one or more of the provinces 
being visited with a food shortage due to flood, drought or 
other natural causes. Social considerations such as the 
high birth-rate which causes overcrowding on the land, 
and political disturbances like the incessant internecine 
warfare which engages large numbers in destructive rather 
than productive enterprises, also contribute, not only to the 
frequent re-occurrence of this dreaded scourge, but also to 
increasing its disastrous effects. 

A study of the record of famine in China would seem 
to indicate that the period between such disasters is getting 
constantly shorter. This may easily be accounted for by the 
disintegration of government since the revolution, that has 
resulted in lack of proper upkeep on river dykes, a failure 
to preserve ancient irrigation and reclamation works, the 
exhaustion of the old public granaries, and the inability of 
the government to provide adequate funds to meet even 
local distress. 

The year 1924 opened with the prospect of 
1924 ons good crops and there was no report of distress 
from any province in China. During the 
spring, however, there was very little rainfall in the north 
with the result that the wheat crop was adversely affected 
in several localities. 

This period of drought was followed by the heaviest 
downpour experienced in years. In the first half of July 
a total of 20.25 inches of rainfall was recorded by the 
Commission's Engineering Department at Peking, or more 
than the yearly average for the past thirty years. 

The result of this unprecedented rainfall was the 
breaking of the dyke system on practically all the 



&64 THE FLOODS OF 1924 

important rivers of Chihli province and the flooding of 
appoximately 10,000 square miles of agricultural land. 
Tientsin was for weeks in imminent danger of inundation, 
but the dykes surrounding the city held. In spite of this, 
the loss to the province has been estimated to be no less 
than $100,000,000. 

While these events were taking place in the North, 
Central and South China were undergoing a similar exper- 
ience. Both Hunan and Kiangsi suffered the worst floods 
within the memory of the inhabitants, and the West River 
in Kwangsi and Kwangtung overflowed its banks causing 
extreme damage in the far South. 

The level of the water in the district between Paotingfu 
and Tientsin was higher than in the big flood of 1917 and 
the territory inundated was probably greater. Added to 
this the simultaneous phenomenally heavy rains in Central 
and South China resulted in the most serious disaster of 
this nature in many decades. No accurate estimate of the 
total property damaged is possible, but reports which 
reached the Head Office of the Famine Commission indicated 
that more than 13,600 lives were lost. There were about 
200 dyke breaks in the various rivers and nearly 11,000 
villages were affected by the floods. On January 1st, 1925, 
there were 2,000 square miles of territory west of Tientsin 
still under water. 

As soon as the magnitude of the calamity 
Meet* the *° was a PP rec i a ted an emergency meeting of the 
Situation China International Famine Relief Com- 

mission was held and plans were formulated 
to meet the distress. A proposal was made to the Chinese 
Government and to the representatives of the Foreign 
Powers for the imposition of a Surtax on the Maritime 
Customs, and a National Flood Relief Drive was organized. 
This Surtax was at once agreed to by the Chinese Govern- 
ment and all the Foreign Powers except France. Up to the 
time of writing no reply has been received from Paris and 
the delay has greatly hampered the work of perfecting 
plans for meeting the situation. 

The outbreak of civil war in the fall resulted in such a 
constriction of private charity that the results of the drive 
have been most disappointing. 



THE FLOODS OF 1924 365 

PI f R V f ^^ e p * an °^ re ^ e ^ ^ or Chihli province 
Adopted contemplated the employment of famine 

labor for the construction of a flood channel 
from a point near Tientsin to the sea. Such a channel 
would protect this whole area from the danger of such 
serious floods for years to come, and it has long been 
advocated by leading engineers in North China. The 
flooded area is contiguous to the territory through which 
such a channel would run, and the able-bodied members of 
refugee families could be readily recruited and transferred 
to the work. The men were to be given relief on the job 
and their families fed at their homes. Added to this it 
was contemplated repairing the main dykes of the river 
system according to the same plan. All this work was to 
be done on a loan basis, what the province repaid being 
used for similar work in other localities. 

In Hunan the relief work agreed upon was to take the 
form of reconstruction loans to communities for dyke 
repairs and to individuals for rehabilitation purposes such 
as the purchase of seed grain and livestock. In Kiangsi 
the sufferers from the disaster were to be employed to 
repair the dykes of the Kan River system, the failure of 
which caused this year's catastrophe. In the far south a 
committee is in process of formation and no specific plans 
have yet been drawn up for any work that may be under- 
taken there. 

In spite of the delay in the granting of the 
IfaW teEMi Customs Surtax and the small receipts from 
p is e o a e ^ er gources> a start on the relief program 
has already been made and more than a half million dollars 
have been released by the Commission and its constituent 
committees for carrying out the program above alluded to. 
Additional appropriations are made at every meeting of 
the Executive Committee as funds become available. 
Ninety per cent of this money is being used for works on a 
loan or revolving fund basis, free relief being given only in 
Chihli Province. 

The support and encouragement which the Commission 
has received from all sources which have the good of China 
at heart, particularly from the missionaries in the field of 



866 THE FLOODS OF 1924 

its operations, would seem to indicate that it is being re- 
cognized as fulfilling the objects for which it was founded. 
Finally, no report of the work of the Commission would 
be complete without a statement of appreciation for the 
services of the missionary community in China, both in the 
towns and throughout the interior, whose cooperation on 
the committees as well as in the actual administration of 
relief in the field has made possible the achievements of 
the past. 

Statement of Policy of the 
China International Famine Relief Commission 

Since extensive operations are under way to relieve 
the distress occasioned by the severe floods of the past 
summer, and as many inquiries are received revealing a 
lack of knowledge on the part of the general public of the 
methods of work of the China International Famine Relief 
Commission, the following brief statement of the policies 
which have from time to time been adopted by the 
Commission, is made. 

Labor Relief First, giving relief in return for labor has 

been recognized as the most efficient manner 
of distributing famine funds, and it is upon this principle 
that the construction of public works as a famine preventive 
and the development of the revolving fund idea, which will 
be described below, is based. 

In districts which are in a state of famine due either 
to flood or drought, the normal pursuits are necessarily 
abandoned and the people are left in idleness. The idea 
of giving employment rather than feeding them in idleness 
first originated from social rather than economic con- 
siderations. Later it was found that this labor could be 
utilized on public works which would not only be of 
economic value to the community but of a famine preven- 
tion nature. In other words, in the effort to find a method of 
relief which would automatically eliminate the undeserving 
and which would avoid the creation of unhealthy social 
conditions and preserve the self reliance of the recipient, 
the possibility of attacking the whole problem at its root 



THE FLOODS OF 1924 367 

and, while relieving present necessity, doing work of a 
preventive nature, was discovered. 

Free R lief ^ u ^ wn ^ e * ne ma i n emphasis of the Com- 

mission's program is put on the labor relief 
plan, free relief is not entirely eliminated, and it is 
provided that in cases of emergency free doles of food may 
be made. But free relief to be really effective requires 
very large funds. Doles are usually urged for the aged, 
the sick, and the children, and unless the funds are 
sufficiently ample to include also the able-bodied, it 
means discrimination against the latter who are equally in 
danger of starvation. In other words the distribution of 
funds only to this " most needy " class results in the 
preservation of the unfit and the dooming of the class 
which is of the greatest economic usefulness to the 
community. If the able-bodied are to be included, they 
may as well be required to work for what they receive. 

The labor relief plan does not directly benefit families 
who have no able-bodied members, but these are few in 
number, and the provision of a large amount of work in a 
locality will so increase the resources of the district as to 
make possible the relief of this class locally. 

There are still some who have not followed closely the 
development of the labor relief idea, and who consider the 
free distribution of famine funds a paramount necessity. 
The fifty thousand dollars which has been subscribed in 
Tientsin was solicited with the idea of free relief and is 
being distributed on that basis. 

Th Loan Idea Since the famine prevention works which 
may be constructed with famine labor are for 
the most part revenue producing, increasing the value of 
land which they affect by insuring future crops against 
drought or inundation, the idea was formed of making the 
funds expended returnable. From the experiments which 
have been made by the Commission during the past two 
years this policy of making grants on a loan basis has been 
demonstrated to be practicable and it has been adopted 
wherever possible. The Chinese people have been quick 
to appreciate the value of this plan and the number of 
proposals to do labor relief work on a loan basis far exceeds 
the resources of the Commission. 



368 THE FLOODS OF 1924 

The Commission has been occasionally advised to give 
up its modern policy and revert to the old method of 
distributing all funds at its disposal on a free relief basis 
in accordance with the intentions of the subscribers"; 
but the members have not been convinced that a person 
who has contributed a sum for famine relief would prefer 
that it should be distributed on a free relief basis, when it 
might be used over and over again by the loan plan, and 
each time be made to work more effectively than on the 
old time principle. 

It would appear that the only excuse for the abandon- 
ment of the loan scheme and the disposition of all funds by 
one free distribution, would be the inability of the Com- 
mission to make loan agreements. Up to the present time 
there are more calls than can be met. 

The Revolving . Tlie loan P lan nas led to tne idea of revolv- 
Fand Idea in g the resources of the Commission so that 

as fast as loans are paid they are available 
for re-appropriation lor further relief work, or, in the 
interim between disasters, for famine prevention projects. 
This is the plan that is being followed at present by the 
Commission. 

Since the occurrence of the summer floods more than 
a quarter of a million dollars has been appropriated for 
work in Chihli province and the vicinity of Peking, and 
another quarter of a million has been released for work in 
Central China. Every month at meetings of the Executive 
Committee additional appropriations are made as more 
funds become available. Yet the financial statements show 
no appreciable decrease in the resources of the Commission. 

It is the hope of the members of the Commission that 
this revolving fund may in the course of a few years be so 
enlarged that appeals to the public, except in the most ex- 
ceptional circumstances, will be unnecessary. Already 
substantial progress has been made since the Commission 
has conserved and is now able to make available consider- 
able funds which will serve as a good start in meeting the 
distress this year. 



PART X 
LITERATURE 

CHAPTER LXIX 

SCRIPTURE DISSEMINATION IN J 924 
G. W. Sheppard 

The most distinctive thing which Christian 
Circulation Missionaries have given China is THE 
increasing B00K __ the Chinese Bible. The translation 

of the Scriptures was the first task to which the missionary 
scholars of last century devoted themselves; the inter- 
pretation of the Scriptures is the work in which all 
missionaries in some sense participate; and the dis- 
semination of the Scriptures is one of the principal means 
through which they look to see their final aim achieved. 
It is therefore most gratifying that 1924, (although a year 
of peculiar difficulties and discouragements for Christian 
Missions in this land) has witnessed the most remarkable 
increase in Scripture circulation recorded in recent years. 
Not only are the figures the highest on record (nearly ten 
million copies having been circulated) but they mark an 
advance of 20% over the previous year. 

The increase has not been peculiar to any one part of 
the country, but fairly general throughout; and it is as 
marked in the demand for complete Bibles and New 
Testaments as for the single Gospel portions. 

The following table shows the circulation of the 
three Bible Societies and compares the totals with those 
of 1923. 



370 



SCRIPTURE DISSEMINATION IN 1924 



Total Circulation of Scriptures in China 



American Bible 
Society 

British and For- 
eign Bible 
Society 

National Bible 
Society of 
Scotland 



Bibles New Test. Portions Totals 

22,152 50,304 2,479,375 2,551,831 

35,261 98,475 3,741,993 3,875,729 

3,540 7,438 3,049,722 3,060,700 



1924 60,953 156,217 9,271,090 9,488,260 
1923 57,763 85,313 7,411,418 7,564,494 



Increase ; 



Reasons for 
Increase 



3,190 70,904 1,859,672 1,923,766 



increased 



Some reasons for this greatly 
circulation may here be noted: 

(1) It is the natural accompaniment of the 
spread of Christian Missions in this country. The number 
of missionaries in China grows from year to year. New 
stations are constantly being opened, new churches formed, 
new Christian schools and other institutions established. 
Chinese Christians are encouraged to read and possess the 
Book, and to commend it to their friends. Many of them 
give a copy of one of the Gospels to their fellows, thinking 
this the best way of testifying to and spreading their faith. 
Evangelists and colporteurs, singly or in bands, go to the 
towns and villages with books in hand. This constantly 
expanding missionary work means necessarily a growing 
demand for copies of the Scriptures, and that the books are 
called for in such numbers is not so much a tribute to the 
Bible Society's organization as evidence that Christian work 
is being done in China, and not being done in vain. 

(2) Several missionaries who have direct supervision 
of colporteurs give as a reason for the specially large 
increase last year the distress through which so large a 
proportion of the people have been passing. Disappointed 
in their hopes of the promised benefits of political reform ; 
weary in their hard struggle for " the bread which 
perisheth"; distracted and impoverished by the disorder 



SCRIPTURE DISSEMINATION IN 1924 371 

and oppression which prevail, whither shall they turn for 
solace ? Where is there prospect of peace ? It is offered 
in the Book. 

(3) A further explanation suggested for last year's 
extraordinary demand is the Anti-Christian Movement. 
In attacking the Christian Religion, more attention is 
drawn to it. " What after all is this of which so much 
evil is said ? " M Read the hook which all these Christians 
use," is the natural reply. And many out of curiosity 
may have bought the Book. 

(4) But another more substantial reason for the 
growing demand should be noted. Education in this 
country has been growing rapidly in recent years. Not 
only has it been broadened by the inclusion of many 
subjects other than Chinese literature, it also has been 
extended to far larger numbers of the children of China. 
Notwithstanding all the political trouble since the Revolu- 
tion, the last fifteen years have witnessed wonderful 
progress in education. It is confidently said that never 
before was such a large proportion of China's youth at 
school. And school still, first and chiefly, means in China 
* learning to read.' This is a land of books. One ques- 
tions whether the people of any other nation read books 
as eagerly as do those Chinese who can read at all. 
Reverence for literature remains deep-rooted in their 
nature. In China's past, literature rose above all arts to 
the place of highest dignity. Through books the wisdom 
of the sages was preserved ; through books the finer 
qualities of life were cultivated ; through written precepts 
the thoughts and ideals of this people have been moulded. 
Those of their number, the favoured few, who could read, 
rehearsed their learning in the ears of the rest. It was 
thus that from of old the best was handed down; books 
became sacred things and the ability to use them an 
accomplishment highly esteemed. China is the greatest 
market in the world for many commodities, and especially 
for books. 

Should it then be counted as a marvel that so many 
copies of the Scriptures are sold ? It would indeed be 
inexplicable if there were not that in the Book which 
proves its worth. A book of almost any sort, if pushed 



372 SCKIPTURE DISSEMINATION IN 1924 

for a season, might temporarily have enormous sales in 
China. But that for which the demand goes on and grows 
from year to year must needs have commended itself. 

Cooperation by . The . three Kiole Societies work side by side 
Bible Societies in China. They provide and circulate the 
same literature, they issue the same versions ; 
they have uniform prices for their publications; they use 
the same printing presses; their agencies and depots for 
the most part are established in the same centers. Only 
in the case of the separate Scripture Portions are there 
slight differences in the form of presentation. One 
Society issues these with * Annotations ' or explanatory 
notes inserted in the lines of the text; one has the 
explanatory notes in a panel at the top of the page and 
calls them ' Translational Helps ' ; the other Society 
publishes the plain text of Scripture with no extraneous 

* helps.' 

It will be observed that whereas a large proportion of 
the books circulated by all three Societies consists of the 
Scripture Portions, there is a steady and very considerable 
sale for complete Bibles and New Testaments. These are 
chiefly supplied to the Christian Community, whereas the 

* Portions ' are distributed to the general public. 

Methods of ^e met hods of distribution are somewhat 

Distribution different in the three Societies. By one, the 
Scripture Portions are issued as free grants 
to any Missionary who will undertake to circulate them 
or pass them on to Chinese evangelists or Christians for 
distribution. Free distribution is not favoured by any 
of the Bible Societies. It is stipulated that the books be 
sold and at regular prices. By this method the proceeds 
of sales are regarded as balancing the expenses of dis- 
tribution. This obviates the keeping of any accounts of 
the books sent out by the Society after they have been 
issued, and leaves the responsibility for the actual selling 
with those who receive the grants. 

Another of the Bible Societies issues its Gospel 
Portions in a similar way and further extends the grants 
on the same conditions to Chinese Christians direct, only 
requiring that at the end of the year a statement of the 



SCRIPTURE DISSEMINATION IN 1924 



37B 



number of books still in hand be furnished to the Society, 
to make possible an estimate of circulation. 

The third Society prefers to adhere to the employment 
of regular colporteurs, whose business it is to be traveling 
booksellers. Over 400 colporteurs are in the service of this 
Society. It is required that they be personally recommended 
and supervised by a foreign missionary or by a responsible 
Chinese Church Council; that regular book and cash 
accounts be kept; and that a detailed report of their work, 
together with these accounts, be furnished to the Society at 
least once a year. 

The last is the most costly method of distribution 
because the bookseller's salary is provided. It is obvious, 
moreover, that it calls for much more careful attention on 
the part of those responsible for recommending and 
supervising the men. An endeavour is being made to let 
this responsibility be shared more largely by the Chinese 
Church Councils so that the colporteur be regarded not as a 
free lance or the employee of the foreigner, but as a forward 
worker in the general Christian movement. 

There are doubtless advantages and disadvantages in 
each of the above methods. No one of the Bible Societies 
confines itself rigidly to its own way. It is recognized 
that the effectiveness of the books issued depends chiefly 
on the spirit in which they are offered. That will influence 
the spirit in which they are read. A Senior Missionary, 
recently commenting on the remarkable figures of the 
circulation for 1924, writes: 

" As time goes on it is more and more impressed upon 
me that we need, as an essential part of this work, con- 
sistently to pray that the Holy Spirit may cause these 
Scripture Portions to be read, and may use them to 
enlighten the minds and consciences of great numbers of 
people throughout this country. " 



CHAPTER LXX 

CHIEF PUBLICATIONS IN CHINESE BY LITERATURE 
AND TRACT SOCIETIES 

John Darroch 

Output for the ^ ie . Christian Literature Society reports 
y eaf that it published during the year under 

review : 

41 New Books with a total of 6,050,500 pages 

48 Reprints „ ,, 6,578,980 „ 

520,000 Sheet Tracts 

50,000 Art Calendars and 

Periodicals and sundry literature 

amounting to 1,890,000 ,, 

These publications equal a total of 15,089,000 pages. 
There are 24 books in the press, some new manuscripts 
have been passed for printing and a number of reprints 
await their turn for attention. Sales amounted to $16,023.11 

New Books Perhaps the most valuable book issued 

Issued during the year was the careful and 

scholarly commentary on Romans prepared 
by Dr. W. M. Hayes, Principal of the North China 
Theological Seminary. The commentary is intended for 
use in class rooms and will certainly be much appreciated 
by teachers and preachers. It is eKegetical and expository 
and is a valuable addition to the theological literature of 
the Church in China. 

The Life and Letters of St. Paul, translated by 
Dr. MacGillivray and Mr. Li Ya-tung, is also a theological 
book of considerable value. The author, Professor David 
Smith, is a man of deep spiritual insight and a writer who 
has made his mark as an original thinker with a gift for 
lucid exposition. The book has been translated into 
" Kwo-yii " which is well adapted to the narrative style of 
the original. 



EECENT CHRISTIAN LITERATURE 375 

Another book that deserves mention is " The Church 
and Social Reconstruction " by Zia Zong-kao. The book is a 
very free translation of a volume with the same name issued 
by a Committee on the War and the Religious Outlook 
which was formed in England at the close of the great War. 
The author of the Chinese book selects his material, choos- 
ing only that which is relevant to China and adding his 
own observations at the end. It would be too much to 
expect that a solution of the problem can be postulated, but 
the problem is stated and that in itself is a great gain. 
It is also insisted upon that present industrial conditions 
can, and must be, ameliorated. The life is more than meat 
and the body is more than raiment. The laborer is 
worthy of his hire. The coolie, the boy, the hewer of wood 
and drawer of water, is a man and God's man at that. 
It is well that the problem should be brought before the 
church, for should we play the part of the ostrich we shall 
meet, and merit, the end of the ostrich. 
For Wome d ^e -' ^ J ' ®* ^ as a "Department of Lit- 
Children erature for Women and Children " which is 

doing good work. Mrs. Wiggs in a Chinese 
Cabbage Patch is the taking title of one of the issues from 
this, department. Others are Life's Story, a book for girls; 
Women of the New and Old Testaments, etc., beside the 
magazines, The Woman 1 s Messenger and Happy Childhood, 
this last being published for the Sunday School Union. 
Art Calendar ^ ne ^ r * Calendar, printed at the Com- 
mercial Press, does not belie its name; it is 
really a work of art. It is something to rejoice in that 
50,000 Chinese homes are adorned with copies of this 
beautiful scripture picture. It may do more to attract 
people to Christ than many a pretentious book. 
Other ^ ev * -^ van Morgan writes a series of essays 

Publications on t ne subject of God and His relation to man 
treated from the standpoint of Philosophy, 
Psychology and Art. Rev. Chen Gin-yung has a volume of 
studies in the family life in Genesis in which there is much 
that has escaped the Western commentator. Rev. Luther 
Li has prepared the first of his Practical Life Series and 
discusses such subjects as The Christian View of Life, 
Private Prayer, The Use of Money, etc. Lastly there are 



376 RECENT CHRISTIAN LITERATURE 

book3 for students such as Three Vital Questions by Dr. J. L. 
Stewart of Chengtu University and The Philosophy of Theism 
by a Chinese Student. He would be a very fastidious 
reader who would not find something to edify and instruct 
in the year's issues from the C. L. S. 

The Religious Tract Societies report their work for the 
year as follows : 

New 
r. m a t nu • , TT , Circulation Sales Publications 

R. T. b. for China (Hankow) 3,768,636 $49,301.92 64 

West China E. T. S. (Chungking) 2,082,293 6,393.00 
S. Fukien R TS (Amoy) 131,999 4,451.68 (Reprints) 12 

N. Fukien R. T. S. (Foochow) 99,359 395.18 7 

Hongkong Bible and Tract Depot 6,904 780 57 

S. China R.T.S. (Canton) No report 

Total 6,089,191 $61,322.35 

Amalgamation T he ! R * T# S# for Cnina comprises the three 
of Societies societies formerly known as the Central, 
North, and East China Religious Tract 
Societies. Being amalgamated, the report issued from the 
head depot in Hankow represents the work of the United 
Society. 

New Tne most important publication of the year 

Publications was the Universal Bible Dictionary recently 
issued by the R. T. S. for China. This is a 
publication of the parent Society, the R. T. S. of London, 
and is a veritable multum in parvo of things Biblical. It 
was translated by the Rev. G. A. Clayton into easy Wenli 
but there were insistent demands for it in a more popular 
style and it has now been issued in Kuo Yu, in three 
volumes, bound in Chinese style, and runs to 760 quarto 
pages. Bible Doctrines, by the Rev. F. C. H. Dreyer, is 
based on Dr. Torrey's well known book " What the Bible 
Teaches." Mr. Dreyer has used the latter book in classes 
in the Bible School which he conducts in the Province of 
Shansi. Mr. Dreyer is an experienced teacher and a 
skilled translator; this book is sure to be valuable. 

Tracts In the report for this year of the R. T. S. 

for China it is said, " There are other pub- 
lishers who issue Christian books in Chinese, but the task of 
producing tracts for the masses is the primary duty of the 
various Tract Societies. Whatever else we may do we must 



RECENT CHRISTIAN LITERATURE 3?? 

maintain a constant output of new and old tracts.' ' In 
pursuance of this policy we find that amongst the publica- 
tions of the Tract Societies about 40 are new tracts. 
Mr. Vale heads the list with a fresh series of his ever 
popular " Direct Gospel Talks " series. Twelve in number, 
these are taken from "The Traveller's Guide from Death 
to Life fi which has had a circulation of several millions in 
English and has reached 250,000 in Chinese — doubtless the 
largest circulation of any book in the Chinese language. 
The total issue of the series prepared by Mr. Vale runs 
well into the fourth million. Such a circulation is the best 
recommendation any writer could desire. 
w . j The West China R. T. S. sends its literature 

West China ou ^ m ^° the unevangelized tracts through 

Kansu to Sinkiang and Turkestan; through 
Szechwan to the borders of Thibet and through Yunnan 
and Kweichow to the hill tribes who, from their mountain 
homes, have seen the rising of a great light. Its circulation 
is high but the monetary value of its output, comparatively 
low, for its work is, chiefly, pioneer and evangelistic. It 
reports an increase of more than half a million over its 
last year's output, making this a record year in the Society's 
history. 

Fukienuses Tlie S° utn Fukien R. T. S. does a large 

Romanized proportion of its work in Romanized. More 

than half its publications are in this script. 
This is unique amongst publishing Societies in China. 
T bilee of ^e ^ ecretary °* tne & T. S. for China, 

R. T. S. moved by the recollection that next year the 

Society for which he labors will celebrate its 
Jubilee, has been trying to compute the total output of its 
publications for fifty years. The records are incomplete, 
especially for the early days, for men then did the day's 
work with no idea that what they did would one day be 
historic. After careful calculation, he estimates that, since 
the founding of the Society, about 71,649,623 publications 
have been issued. If we think of the time it takes to make 
a tract and the toil entailed in its distribution, and 
visualize the early writers at their desks, the wooden blocks 
from which the tracts were printed and the pioneers toiling 
over miles of dusty roads to dispose of their loads of 



3?8 RECENT CHRISTIAN LITERATURE 

unwanted literature, we can get a faint idea of the time 
and thought and toil and prayer that went into the making 
and circulating of 70 million messages of peace. If, on the 
other hand, we consider that there are 400 million people 
in China and that the whole fifty years' output of the 
Tract Societies — though they are the chief, and were for 
many of the earlier years the only publishers of evangeli- 
cal literature in China — if all distributed at once, would 
but suffice to put one book or tract into the hands of only 
18 per cent of the population, then we realize how little has 
really been done and how much remains to do. 

These two aspects of the preparation and distribution 
of Christian Literature — the much and the little — are 
very inadequately set forth in this paper. Its scope is 
limited to the work of the Christian Literature and Tract 
Societies. These two organizations have, in one year, 
circulated many millions (it is impossible to give exact 
figures for the C. L. S. does not report its circulation, but 
see tables) of books and tracts and received from sales 
nearly $80,000. If it were possible to collect and publish 
statistics from all the Societies producing literature in 
China, the Y. M. C. A., the S. S. U., the C. E., the various 
publishing houses and the Mission Book Co. etc., we would 
be able to see at a glance what an immense amount of work 
is being done. The writer firmly believes that no non- 
Christian country has anything like the same output of 
Christian literature, whether the amount, the variety or the 
excellence of it, on the whole, be considered. Contrariwise, 
there is no country in which the same facilities for the 
production of literature exist side by side with the same 
restless thirst for knowledge and such a vast unevangelized 
population. 



CHAPTER LXXI 

CHRISTIAN PRINTING PRESSES IN CHINA 

Gilbert Mcintosh 

In a land where the printed page is reverenced, the 
production and distribution of literature has naturally a 
place of honor. The call for Christian books has placed 
great emphasis on the work of printing as well as 
literary production, but in time, with increasing demand 
for such literature and the growth of presses willing and 
able to contract for the printing of Christian literature, the 
work of distribution will bulk more largely than that of 
printing. There is still, however, a place for Christian 
printing presses. The manner of financing and operating 
them differs, and the following particulars aim at showing 
how the work is carried on, and the nature and volume 
of the work done. 

Last year was the eightieth year of its 

Mfe e stonPr«K ian existence and tne vear of ifcs largest output. 
Shanghai * The work done for the twelve months ending 
June 30th, was 3,586,287 volumes (147,892, 
838 pages) . This consisted of Scriptures, catechisms, hymn 
and tune books, religious works, educational textbooks, 
medical works, periodicals, tracts, calendars, etc. The 
policy of this press is to confine itself to work of a missionary 
character, and supply mission printing at as near cost as 
possible. In addition to other up-to-date time and labor- 
saving machinery, two linotypes have recently been 
installed. The output is worth about $100,000 per annum. 
This Press was started in 1912 with a gift 
Tfa e ct R Soc1e°t US of £2 > 500 from the Arthington Trust. It has 
Press, Hankow been entirely self-suporting from the start, 
no further grant of any kind having been 
received. New machinery has been purchased out of 
profits and sufficient capital accumulated to allow of $17,000 
worth of paper being kept in stock. 



380 CHRISTIAN PRINTING PRESSES IN CHINA 

A few years ago the Society was in a position to erect 
a reinforced concrete building for the Press at a cost of over 
$35,000 and the Press pays to the Society a rental of $300 
per month for the building and also carries out repairs. 
In addition the Press has for a number of years made a 
donation to the Funds of the Society, this donation last 
year amounting to over $4,000. 

The utmost capacity of the present plant is an output 
of $50,000 worth of printing in a year. The regular 
employees number fifty. The binding is all put out on 
contract. 

This Press from its situation in the far west 
^Canadian naturally has, as its main constituency, the 
MfssfonPress, P rovinces of Szechwan, Kweichow, and 
Chengtu Yunnan. The output of this Press includes 

reproduction of Chinese textbooks for the 
West China Christian Education Union, the publication of 
the " West China Missionary News," and the reprinting of 
the C. S. S. U. Sunday School Lessons for the West China 
field. This Press also turns out a great deal of literature 
for the Tibetans and tribesmen of Southwestern China. 
As a matter of fact it is the only press in the world that 
prints some of the languages of the outlying regions such 
as the Miao. They are also printing a large quantity of 
Scriptures every year for the American Bible Society. 
During the year 1923-4 they issued 200,000 Scripture 
portions. In order to expedite the publishing of the 
Hankow Hymn Book in West China this Press has under- 
taken to print the first edition at its own expense. It is 
also publishing a monthly paper in Chinese for the Canadian 
Mission. 

To enable the Press to turn out the great bulk of its 
work, which is of a missionary character, at a minimum 
cost, a certain amount of English commercial work is done. 
About one-fourth of the literature produced is subsidized 
by the West China Religious Tract Society and other 
agencies. 

So th Chi ^ his P re ss is connected with the Christian 

AHfance Press ? nc * Miss i° nar y Alliance and was commenced 
Wuchow, ' in 1913. The nature of the literature pub- 
Kwangsf listed may be described as Bible and Gospel 



CHRISTIAN PRINTING PRESSES IN CHINA 381 

literature. Twenty Chinese workmen are employed in 
the printing office. No outside work is done. The out- 
put for the past twelve months is about eight or nine 
million pages. 

Unfortunately no reply has come to our 
PuMfcatfon rec l uesfc for details, but we are able to report 
Society, Canton that this Society was established in 1899 to 
produce periodicals and tracts, in addition to 
the Baptist literature which its constituency required. In 
1912 a new publishing house was erected. There is room 
for expansion. Altogether this institution is a powerful 
force for the dissemination of Christian literature in the 
South China field. 

T v . This Press was started in 1904 and is self- 

Mi s e s ionPres^ eI supporting. During the past year it has 
North China' published various kinds of Gospel tracts, 
Gospel sheet calendars, Daily Bread Calend- 
ars for Christians, a four-page Gospel Messenger, Golden 
Compass and other Gospel booklets. 

T The work of this Press is mostly done on 

castVract " treadle presses, operated by the boys of the 

Press, Changsha Orphanage. The special issue of this Press 
^ is a series of selected Gospel Tracts for broad- 
cast distribution through the Mandarin-speaking provinces 
of China. The tracts are sold slightly above cost of paper, 
ink, etc., with sufficient to pay the press boys or young 
men. 

The Truth During the past year the little foot-power 

Publishing press produced over 260,000 sheets of printed 

House, ^ matter. Most of these were tracts that have 

Tsaohsien, Deen scattered broadcast by evangelists and 
ang * Bible- women, and editions have been ex- 

hausted almost as soon as they came from the press. In 
addition they have printed 9,500 copies of various Chinese 
booklets; and 1,000 English pamphlets have been printed. 
-.< — This press is run as a department in con- 

CoHegeVress section with the mission and industrial 
Ningpo school. Some of the boys who learn the work 

go out as printers; others take advantage of 
the facilities for learning to go into higher occupations, 



882 CHRISTIAN PRINTING PRESSES IN CHINA 

The Methodist ^ ne Methodist Mission Press began work in 
Mission Press Foochow in 1864 and for many years was a 
flourishing institution producing millions of 
pages annually for its own denominational work and for 
several Tract and Bible Societies. As the growing church 
developed in various parts of China, the Methodist Press 
felt the need of larger equipment and a more central 
location; and in 1902 the publishing interests of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church in China joined forces with 
those of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and 
organized the Methodist Publishing House in China, locat- 
ed at Shanghai, continuing the work at Foochow as a 
Branch house. The work continued to grow and in 
Shanghai a considerable amount of commercial work was 
available so that for nearly twenty years little or no sub- 
sidy was required from the Mission Boards concerned. 

During recent years, however, the authorities of the 
Methodist Publishing House faced the question whether to 
increase the capital of the institution so as to bring it up to 
date in equipment and thus fit it to meet the varied and 
increasing demands of its constituency; or whether the 
time had not come when the actual need for Mission 
Presses had ceased and the church authorities might now 
withdraw their capital and workers from that department 
of work. 

Some leaders in the church felt that in a center like 
Shanghai there was no necessity for a mission press to 
carry on commercial work in order to maintain itself as a 
missionary institution ; and on the other hand there were 
sufficient well equipped presses to do all the work required 
by our Christian missions. It was fully admitted that the 
mission presses had done a great and necessary work for 
two or three generations, and even now were meeting a 
demand which very few presses were able to meet, and 
were doing a unique and distinctly mission work which the 
ordinary commercial press was unwilling to undertake. 
Nevertheless, it was finally decided by the authorities of 
the Methodist Publishing House in China to close the 
House as a manufacturing institution and to provide for 
the publication of Methodist literature through other 
channels, 



, 



CHRISTIAN PRINTING PRESSES IN CHINA 383 

The publication and distribution of Christian literature 
were considered more important departments of our work 
than the mechanical process of manufacturing the 
literature, and the Methodist Publishing House continues 
to exist as a co-partner with the Presbyterian Mission 
Press in carrying on the Mission Book Company. The 
Chinese Christian Advocate in Chinese and the China 
Christian Advocate in English are continued under a union 
committee representing the missions of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church and the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South, both of which are represented on the Board of 
Directors of the Mission Book Company. The editorial 
staff of the Methodist Episcopal Church in China has been 
considerably increased in recent years and during the 
present years in spite of very serious reductions in 
appropriations, a more liberal policy has been shown 
towards our literature department and it is intended that 
the output of Christian literature shall be steadily 
increased. 

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE PRESBYTERIAN 
MISSION PRESS, SHANGHAI 

For Year Ending June 30th, J 924 

As the year under review brings us to an interesting 
milestone in the history of the Presbyterian Mission Press, 
it may be well to give a brief retrospect from the humble 
commencement in Macao, on January 23rd, 1844, to the 
present time. 

184-4--1864- : 20 years of beginnings and developments. 
With the assistance of one compositor and two press-men, 
Mr. Richard Cole started work in Macao. A year later the 
Press was moved to Ningpo where it had a quiet growth 
until the arrival of Mr. William Gamble in 1858. This 
outstanding worker in the long list of helpers of the Press 
revolutionized the methods of casting Chinese type, and 
instituted many vital changes. In 1860 the Press was 
transferred from Ningpo to Shanghai. 

1864--1894-: SO years of growth. — During these three 
decades the work was gradually consolidated. Rev. J. 



&84 CHRISTIAN PRINTING PRESSES IN CHINA 

Wherry succeeded Mr. Gamble. On his going North, 
Rev. J. Butler temporarily took charge. Following him 
were Revs. C. W. and J. L. Mateer, W. S. Holt, J. M. W. 
Farnham, and G. F. Fitch. 

1896-1924 : SO years of expansion. — During 1902 and 
1903 the present Works where erected on North Szechuen 
Road, affording three times as much room as was available 
in the old quarters. There has been a steady increase in 
plant and equipment. In 1915 The Mission Book Company 
was formed, incorporating our Book Sales department, and 
in which the Presbyterian Mission Press has a half share. 
This has left us free to more fully serve the missionary 
body in any and every need in the printing line. 

The Pr St ff ^ n ^ e ^ ong hi sfcor y of the Press there has 
been much coming and going of workers and 
a moderate amount of staying. It is impossible for us to 
hold out the financial inducements that commercial 
concerns can offer, so from time to time we lose valuable 
members of the staff. During the year Mr. Tsaung Ding- 
hau, who has been in our employment for about thirty 
years, finally as foreman in the English type-room, left for 
still more responsible work in Hongkong. 

Miss Beck, whose name has frequently appeared in 
these reports, has also left us for an important position in 
Shanghai. Her work in the proof-reading department has 
been taken over by Mrs. W. S. Featherstonhaugh, assisted 
by Mr. C. R. Davis. The English and bi-lingual side of 
the work has developed considerably under the care of Mr. 
Brewer. Mr. T. F. Buchanan, who was formerly connected 
with the Scotch Bible Society Press in Hankow, is 
now in charge of the Chinese side of the work. The 
accounting department is under the care of Mr. F. 
Schmuser. 

Mr. C. W. Douglass, who joined as a member of the 
Mission in 1898, is at present home on furlough. The 
Press owes much to the initial advantages of his experience 
as a practical master printer, and to his steadfast 
missionary purpose, foresight, insight, and unerring good 
judgment. 

Financial ^ ne P°li cy °* supplying all mission printing 

at as near cost as possible has been again 



CHRISTIAN PRINTING PRESSES IN CHINA 385 

justified by the showing of the annual audit. The net 
profit on the actual working of the printing plant was 
seven and a half per cent on the turn-over for the year. 
A fair bonus is paid to the workmen. The proportion of 
this annual payment is based on faithfulness and length 
of service. There have been happy relations between 
employer and employee, although we have not been able to 
introduce as many sick benefits as we should like to see 
attempted. 

In these days of revising methods and call 
PresT for hi g hesfc efficiency it was considered 

advisable to have an expert survey of the 
Press and its activities. This was carried out during the 
year and the report has been considered by the Press staff 
and directors and the suggestions carried out as far as prac- 
ticable. The closing sentence of the report by the surveyor 
will be of interest to many, " As a going concern the Mission 
Press is a valuable property and one that will, from a 
purely financial point of view, well repay any increased 
capital invested in it." 

During the year under review we have 
Equipment a <*ded to our plant a Chandler and Price 
Platen Press, a Booklet Sewing Machine, and 
a Paper Cutter, all of which are electrically driven. 
Among our supplies of new type we have received a font of 
music type. We have also installed a melting furnace to 
supply the needs of our two linotype machines. 

The speed of five of the machines has been accelerated 
through alterations to driving pulleys, thus increasing the 
output of each machine. Extensive repairs have been 
made to one of our small cylinder machines to put it into 
good working order. We expect in a month's time a new 
Quad Crown Printing Machine. 

_ For the sixth time in the history of the 

Output Press we have been able to exceed the 

hundred million mark in the output of 
printed pages. The first time was in 1907, the one 
hundredth year of mission work in China. The past year 
has seen the greatest output of all, due largely to a decided 
increase in Bible Society work over that of previous years. 



386 CHRISTIAN PRINTING PRESSES IN CHINA 

Among the publications in our Chinese Department 
have been an edition of the Nevius-Mateer Hymn Book in 
the National Phonetic, various publications in the Peill 
Phonetic, eleven volumes of Elementary Arithmetic for 
the China Christian Educational Association, also reprints 
of Advanced Arithmetic and Mr. Liu Gwang Djao's 
Elementary Geography for the same Association; a new 
issue of the music edition of the Evangelistic Hymn Book, 
and a reprint of "Analysis of Chinese Characters. " For 
the Publication Committee of the China Medical Missionary 
Association we have printed new editions of "Diseases of 
the Skin " and "Obstetrics." Fresh issues of "Jesus my 
Saviour" show how this illustrated life of Christ has 
made its appeal to the Eye Gate. "The Life of Living- 
stone," "My Old Dog," "My Story Book," "Charity's 
Birthday Text," have all been issued in connection with 
the Happy Childhood Series. We have also printed a new 
edition of "Elements of Moral Science." In revising this 
work, Dr. Hayes has added a section on Positive Authority, 
a part which could not well have been added in the days of 
the Empire — as it defines the duties of the State to the 
citizens as well as vice versa. It is a section needed at 
present and while the book may not be used in Government 
Schools, yet it will have some influence for the right. The 
fifth edition, revised, of Dr. Hayes' " Apostolic History " 
and a revised edition in Mandarin of "Rules of Order for 
Deliberative Bodies," has also been printed by us. 

The " Chinese Christian Intelligencer" (M K «) still 
fills a great need as a connecting link between the Chinese 
preachers and evangelists and Christian families through- 
out the country, affording a much needed and much used 
means of interchange of ideas. Many letters of apprecia- 
tion were received during the year and there is abundant 
testimony to the influence of the paper both as a stimulus 
to Christians and as an evangelistic agency. As Dr. 
Woodbridge said in closing his last report, " We feel that 
our paper is an established agency for good to Chinese 
Christians and that it grows better all the time, advancing 
as the Churches advance — not too fast or too slow, but 
shaping a sure and safe policy for the Chinese in these 
days of stress and danger." 



CHRISTIAN PRINTING PRESSES IN CHINA 387 

" Happy Childhood ?! (fg #j fft) is still providing 
monthly cheer and instruction in a most attractive manner 
to a growing number of readers. A large Christmas issue, 
with illustrations in color, makes a special appeal to many 
homes all over China. Other periodicals printed by the Press 
are the "Chinese Recorder," the "Quarterly Journal for 
Chinese Nurses, 7 ' the "Tsinan Medical Review,' l the 
" Bulletin " of the Southern Presbyterian Mission and the 
"Friends' Oriental News." 

Various dictionaries are in process; for the China 
Medical Missionary Association we are reprinting their 
revised Medical Lexicon. Among the miscellaneous works 
we would specially mention the Missionary Anglo-Chinese 
Diary which has been growing in usefulness since its first 
issue in 1893. 

T q . The writer of this report had the privilege 

of compiling the Jubilee book of the Press, 
and of writing the Sexagenary and Septuagenary reports. 
Naturally as each decade came to an end, and a new period 
was entered on, the questions were asked : " Has the time 
come for us to withdraw in favor of the Chinese presses, 
some of whom were competing for some of the work we 
were doing? " and "What, after all, is the objective aim 
of the Mission Press ? " 

The problems back of the first query were emphasized 
by occasional discussions, apart from us, as to the present 
position and future need of Mission Presses in China. A 
few years ago the policy was suggested of leaving the 
mechanical work of printing more and more to Chinese 
firms, the principal Mission Presses becoming rather 
identified with the publishing and distributing aspects of 
the work. The answer to the query may be found in a 
few sentences from the independent expert survey already 
referred to: — 

" A considerable part of the work that is 
undertaken is of a dictionary nature (concordances, 
medical works, etc.) which entails an unusual 
quantity of standing type, numerous proofs for 
correction and much complicated composition . . . 
the class of work that is usually unwelcome to a 
commercial office. In this respect the value of 



388 CHRISTIAN PRINTING PRESSES IN CHINA 

the Mission Press work can hardly be computed 
by its financial return and the Press can conse- 
quently be credited with filling a gap that would 
otherwise be difficult to bridge. . . . 

" The Mission Press is an institution to which 
every missionary body in China can be assured of 
sending its work either in English or Chinese and 
obtaining it with reasonable speed and at a 
reasonable price.''* 

The reply to the second query is that we are here 
primarily to supply the needs of the missionary body and 
the Chinese Church, and as far as possible help on the 
program of missionary literature organizations. The 
ultimate objective is the extension of Christ's Kingdom. 
Incidentally we are endeavoring to make Christian printing 
indigenous in a land where printing already is indigenous 
and where the printed page is held in high esteem. 
c j 4 We would thankfully acknowledge the 

help rendered by various workers, who at 
different stages of the development of the Press, have 
contributed to its success. Specially would we remember 
Dr. Fitch (whose death was referred to in last report) who 
for so long faithfully and wisely guided the interests of the 
Press, and rendered great service to the whole cause of 
Christ throughout China. 

In our wider review of the past eighty years, with its 
record of progress, we recognize that there have been some 
lean years and many anxious days, but through all there 
have been constant tokens of God's goodness. We face 
the new problems and great opportunities trusting in His 
strength and praying for His wisdom. 

Gilbert McIntosh 

Superintendent 



christian printing presses in china 389 

Output for Twelve Months Ending June 30th, 1924 



Chinese Work 

Scriptures 

Religious — Commentaries, Hymn 
Books, Prayer Books, Catechisms, 
Works on Theology, Christianity, 
the Spiritual Life, etc 

Educational — Textbooks for Schools 
and Colleges , ... 

Medical Works 

Scripture Tracts, Folders, Calendars, 
etc 

Periodicals and Sunday School 
Quarterlies 

Miscellaneous Books, Reports, Cata- 
logues, etc 

Totals 

English and Bi-Lingual Work 

Reports of Missions, Christian As- 
sociations, etc 

Reports of Hospitals 

Catalogues, etc., for Educational 
Institutions 

General Books 

Periodicals — Monthly, etc 

Missionary Diary 

Miscellaneous Pamphlets 

Miscellaneous Printing, Educational 
and Hospital Supplies 

Totals 



Copies 
941,000 

76,500 

384,000 
7,155 

1,505,680 

404,675 

26,529 



3,345,539 



77,885 
2,550 

8,700 
1,502 

89,761 
1,000 

59,350 



240,748 



Pages 
83,585,000 

8,249,600 

25,088,000 
1,977,320 

4,246,864 

10,523,950 

1,788,548 



135,459,282 



2,224,780 
41,000 

698,800 

18,008 

5,980,413 

312,000 
1,193,640 

1,964,915 



12,433,556 



Grand Totals 



3,586,287 



147,892,838 



(Total of last year's report : 3,253,795 copies; 86,968,983 pages.) 



CHAPTER LXXII 

PHONETIC PROMOTION COMMITTEE 
E. G. Tewksbury 

Changes in There has been no one who could give full- 

Personnel and time to the work of the Phonetic Promotion 
Offices Committee since Miss Garland went home on 

furlough. She was most efficient in her 
service and carried on the work of the Committee during 
the three years she was able to be in Shanghai. Pier work 
consisted not only in promoting the use of the National 
Phonetic through the preparation of teaching aids and 
literature written in the Phonetic, but in the designing and 
publishing of a series of Bible and Gospel Posters which 
same have had and are continuing to have a wide circu- 
lation. 

The Committee's work was formerly conducted in 
connection with the Literature Department of the Stewart 
Evangelistic Funds. When, however, that office was moved 
to the Missions Building, the Phonetic Promotion 
Committee moved into the former quarters of the China 
Christian Educational Association at 5 Quinsan Gardens ; 
the office and translating staff, Messrs. Wang and An, with 
the cooperation of the Secretary of the China Sunday 
School Union, Rev. E. G. Tewks bury, carrying on the work 
of the Committee in this new office. 
Monthly Paper In addition to the publications of the 

Phonetic Committee, the Stewart Evangelistic 
Committee has made it possible to edit and issue the 
Phonetic monthly paper, called the "iShihPao." Rev. 
W. C. Longden and Rev. Gia of the Tenghsien Seminary 
edit this paper, which has a circulation of some 1600 
copies a month. 

New Edition of The outstanding work of 1924 has been the 
Gospels issue, in connection with the Bible Societies, 

of an edition of the Four Gospels, printed in 






PHONETIC PROMOTION COMMITTEE 391 

the new combination Character-Phonetic type prepared by 
the Commercial Press. This type has upon the same type- 
slug a No. 4 size Chinese character and at its right the 
11 Standard " pronunciation of the character in the National 
Phonetic small size Script. The type-setting, proof reading, 
etc., is much simplified by using this combination type, 
which of course produces two column literature. 

It will be recalled that the original purpose of the 
Government Phonetic Committee in issuing a Phonetic alphabet 
was that the spelling should be used at the side of the 
Chinese character to indicate the pronunciations approved 
by the Standard Pronunciation Conference. To promulgate 
any national pronunciation it was of course necessary for 
the Conference either to use Komanization or some other 
phonetic method. Instead of using one of the many 
phonetic alphabets proposed or formerly used in China, 
they decided to adapt the ancient ' fan ctiieh 1 system, 
selecting 39 characters to represent the 400 and more sound 
combinations in the Chinese language. Books therefore, 
printed in this combination Character -Phonetic type carry out 
the purposes of the Government Committee, which wishes 
to secure throughout the country, especially in the schools, 
a knowledge of the Standard Pronunciation of the National 
Language (Kuo Yu) . 

Apparently the Government Committee did not con- 
template the issuing of literature wholly in the Phonetic, 
nor did some of them fully appreciate the work of the 
(Christian) Phonetic Committee, in so doing. Later, 
however, they themselves realized the use of the Phonetic 
in teaching illiterates and agreed that literature wholly in 
the Phonetic may be useful for the popular education of 
the masses. 

It is not the thought of the Committee in 
Reasons for beginning the issue of the New Testament in 
Using New combination type to restrict its work in the 
Printing future to this method of printing. But various 

reasons have led them at this time to 
introduce widely double column literature. One of the 
main reasons is that the so-called " Popular Education 
Movement," initiated by Mr. James Yen in connection 



392 



PHONETIC PROMOTION COMMITTEE 



with the National Committee of the Y. M. C. A. and using 
his "1,000 Foundation Characters, "is having wide advertise- 
ment and real success. It is being promoted with the best 
educational devices, and not only by the Y.M.C.A., but by 
and with the cooperation of the educational authorities; it 
has moreover the sympathy and support of leading Chinese 
business and official circles. The knowledge of even a few 
characters increases the earning value of Chinese workmen 
and apprentices and there is real eagerness on their part 
to enter the night schools and thus begin the study of 
their own Chinese characters. Mr. Yen has used the 
Phonetic alphabet to indicate the pronunciation of new 
characters as they appear in his " 1,000 Character " books. 
He has also urged that the Phonetic Committee join him in 
a movement which should make it early possible for at 
least Chinese Christians to read the New Testament in the 
character. He thinks this can be accomplished with the 
1,000 characters and the help of the National Phonetic. The 
combination type edition of the Gospels ought materially 
to aidthis Popular Education Movement, especially in 
Christian communities. 

Other New T^e Committee has introduced into this 

Features edition of the Gospels certain features not 

formerly used in Bible printing. These aids, 
it believes, will make for easier and quicker reading. For 
example, the pages are divided horizontally in the middle, 
making # the columns shorter and giving easier eye 
registration. An attempt has also been made, to group or 
agglutinate the characters into words and phrases. This 
method, of course, is the one used in all alphabetical 
languages as well as Romanized. It makes possible the 
fixation at one glance of a word or phrase and helps to 
prevent the single character reading so common even yet 
in teaching to read the character. 

Gifts Tne Phonetic Committee has been enabled 

to send out not only several hundred "In- 
troduction " copies of the combination type Gospels, but 
as a special New Year's gift, is presenting copies to the 
principals of all the higher educational institutions in the 
country. 



PHONETIC PROMOTION COMMITTEE 393 

o th . The Bible Societies have given the Phonetic 

forTh* Children Committee permission to use the Union 
Mandarin for a special Phonetic Committee 
illustrated edition of the Gospels. This is printed in 
combination type and contains 32 Bible pictures in color. 
Nothing of the sort, at so reasonable a price, viz.^ 10 and 
20 cents each, has ever been available for the children of 
China. 






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PART XI 
OBITUARIES— 1923-24. 

Berkey, Dr. Earl R., M. E. F. B., arrived in China 1922, died 

May 26, 1924, at Peking. (See sketch Chinese Recorder, 

July, 1924.) 
Byers, Rev. George Douglass, P. N., arrived in China 1906, 

died June 24th, 1924, at Kachek. (See sketch Chinese 

Recorder, August, 1924.) 
Candlin, D. D., Rev. G. T., U. M. C, arrived in China 

1878, died July 11th, 1924, at Peitaiho. (See sketch 

Chinese Recorder, October, 1924.) 
Fraser, Mary Shaw, Eb. M., died September 26th, 1924, at 

Kioshan Hospital, Miyang Hsien, Honan. 
Goodrich, Mrs. Sarah Clapp, A. B. C. F. M., arrived in 

China 1879, died November 15th, 1923, at T'ung Chow, 

Peking. (See sketch Chinese Recorder, January, 1924.) 
Grinnell, Dr. A. L., American Free Methodist Mission, 

arrived in China 1912, died November 28th, 1923, at 

Kaifeng, Honan. 
Hansen, Miss A., Norwegian Mission, arrived in China 

1921, died April 4th, 1924, at Yungningchow, Shansi. 
Hardman, Mrs. M., C. I. M., arrived in China 1887, died 

October 18th, 1924, at Toronto, Canada. 
Hayes, Mrs. L. Newton, W. F. M. S., arrived in China 

in 1912, died May 4th, 1924, at Shanghai. (See sketch 

Chinese Recorder, June, 1924.) 
Jordan, Wayne C, Y. M. C. A., arrived in China 1913, died 

February 2nd, 1924, at Sianfu, Shensi. 
Leitzel, Henry Samuel, M. E. F. B., arrived in China 1915, 

died December 25th, 1923, at Taian, Shantung. (See 

sketch Chinese Recorder, February, 1924.) 
Leonard, M. D., Miss Eliza Ellen, P. N., arrived in China 

1895, died October 17th, 1924, at Tsinanfu. (See sketch 

Chinese Recorder, January, 1925.) 
Lowry, Dr. H. H., M. E. F. B., arrived in China 1867, died 

January 13th, 1924, at Peking. 



396 obituaries— 1923-24 

Maisch, W., Basel Evangelical Missionary Society, arrived 

in China, 1904, died June 25th, 1924, at Hoyiin, 

Kwangtung, where he was the senior worker. The 

Basel Mission has lost one of its most valued members 

in his death. Mr. Maisch was also a member of the 

National Christian Council. 
McClure, Mrs. Margaret Baird, wife of Dr. Wm. 

McClure, Canadian Presbyterian Mission, arrived in 

China 1884, died August 21st, 1924, at Oberlin, Ohio, 

U. S. A. 
McMullan, Mrs. James, C. I. M., arrived in China 1886, 

died August 1 6th, 1924, at Chefoo. (See sketch Chinese 

Recorder, October, 1924.) 
Morton, Miss Annie R., P. N., arrived in China 1890, died 

November 18th, 1924, at Changsha, Hunan. 
Neale, Mr. F. H., C. I. M., arrived in China 1895, died 

April 29th, 1924, at Ventor, N. J., U. S. A. 
Noyes, Harriet Newell, P. N., arrived in China 1868. 

(See sketch Chinese Recorder, March, 1924.) 
Palmberg, Mr. Gust, S. A. M., arrived in China 1902, died 

May 22nd, 1924, in America. 
Parker, Dr. A. P., M. E. S., & C. L. S., arrived in China 

1875, died September 11th, 1924, at Oakland, California. 

(See Sketch Chinese Recorder, November, 1924 ) 
Price, Mrs. Harry, C. M. M. L., arrived in China 1894, died 

August 28th, 1924, at Kuling. (See sketch Chinese 

Recorder, October, 1924.) 
Pyke, James H., M. E. F. B., arrived in China 1873, died 

May 29th, 1924, at Chinwangtao. (See sketch Chinese 

Recorder, August, 1924.) 
Rees, Dr. W. Hopkyn, L. M., arrived in China 1883, died 

August 4th, iy24, at Peking. (See sketch Chinese 

Recorder, November, 1924.) 
Sanies, Rev. H., C. I. M., arrived in China 1908, died 

August 3rd, 1924, at Linkiang, Kiangsi. 
Sanders, Arthur H., E. C, arrived in China 1895, died 

September 15th, 1924 at Kuling. (See sketch Chinese 

Recorder, October, 1924.) 
Scott, Dr. Anna K., A. B. M. U., arrived in China 1889, 

died October 18th, 1923, at Granville, Ohio. (See 

sketch Chinese Recorder, April, 1924.) 



obituaries— 1923-24 397 

Thomson, Rev. George D., P. N., born in Canton, China, on 

June 22, 1888, and returned to China in 1909, died 

May 21st, 1921. (See sketch Chinese Recorder, July, 

1924.) 
Twinem, Rev. Paul D., U. of N., arrived in China 1919, 

died September 23, 1923, at Nanking. (See sketch 

Chinese Recorder, January, 1924.) 
Wallace, Mrs. E. W., M. C. C, arrived in China 1906, died 

November 24th, 1924, at Shanghai.- 
Wheeler, Miss M. M., C. M. M., arrived in China 1915, 

died November 15th, 1923, at Chengtu, Szechwan. 
Whitewright, Mrs. M. A., wife of Rev. J. S. Whitewright, 

arrived in China, 1881, died Jaunary 11th, 1924, at 

Bristol, England. 
Whyte, George Duncan, M. D., E. P. M., arrived in China 

1903, died November 25th, 1923, at Hongkong. 



INDEX 



Aborigines, 67. 

Adams, Miss Jane, 348. 

Agriculture, 90, 92 ;— Conference 
in Nanking, 274 ; — Educa- 
tion, 90 ; — Missionaries, 91; 
Schools, 261 ; — Station, 231 ; 
Work, 230. 

Almblad, Mr., 233. 

A.B.F.M.S., 211, 215. 

American Board Mission, 91, 
103, 123, 124, 126, 127. 

America and Boxer Indemnity, 

American Presbyterian Mission, 
126, 127. 

Anderson, Dame Adelaide, 119, 
346. 

Anfu Caucus, 9; party, 4, 75. 

Anti-Christian-Bodies, 55, 56;— 
educational movement, 51, 60, 
266, 267;— effects of, 65, 77, 84; 
— federation, 53, 55, 56; — lead- 
ers, 109;— literature, 57;— move- 
ment, 43, 44, 45, 49, 51-60, 63- 
65, 77, 84, 147, 168, 175, 176, 
180, 199, 269, 371;— publica- 
tions, 45; — publicity, 56, 77;— 
student mo vement, 112;— week, 
55. 

Anti-foreign feeling, 16, 45, 64. 

Anti-Imperialism Federation, 
43. 

Anti-Narcotic Movement, 117, 
118. 

Anti-opium ; Campaign, 147, 150; 
— movement, 136, 170. 

Anti-Religious " Essays," 54; 
— movement, 43-47; 52, 58, 
200, 361. 

Arrests of labour leaders, 22, 23, 
28, 29; political, 21, 22, 23. 

Art Calendar, 375. 

Austrian peace treaty, 31, 33. 



" Baby weeks," 150. 

Bakeman P. E., 211, 215. 

Banditry, 62, 72, 75. 

Barbour Mrs. George, 279, 283. 

Beam an Mr. and Mrs., 251. 

Bell Miss Hope, 308. 

Bible, 204, 369, 392 ;— classes, 82, 
184, 222, 296;— class system, 
227;— courses, 56 ; — doctrine, 
376;— for children, 393;— illus- 
trations, 282, 285; — in church 
life, 140, 141;— institute, 225, 
227 ;— posters, 390;— schools, 
68, 140; — societies, 205, 369, 
370, 373, 390;— society work, 
385;— study, 130, 131, 133, 189, 
204, 221;— study classes, 219;— 
Summer School, 150. 

Birney, Bishop, 208, 210. 

Blaisdell, T. C. Junior, 19, 22, 
26 29. 

Boberg,' Mr. A. F., 231. 

Bolshevism, 5, 11, 229, 233; — 
movement, 267, 268. 

Bondfield, Dr. G. H., 233. 

Boss Freeda E., 291, 293. 

Bo wen, A. J., 61, 66. 

Boxer Indemnity, 12, 32, 35, 40, 
41 j— and Austro-Hungary, 41. 

British Medical Association, 
299. 

Brigandage, 61, 62. 

Broadcast Tract Press, Chang- 
sha, 381. 

Brockman Mr. F. S., 154. 

Brown, T. Cocker, 130, 134. 

Buddha, Living, 229. 

Buddhism, 47, 48. 

Buriats, 229. 

Burma Mission, 211. 



Cable, A. Mildred, 220, 223. 






INDEX 



399 



Canadian Methodist Mission 
Press, Chengtu, 380. 

Canadian Presbyterian Mission, 
126. 

Canton, 23; and good roads, 38;— 
Christian College, 236, 280;— 
conference, 262, 280; — inst'l 
church, 83; — political condi- 
tions, 5 ;— west'n sc, 248, 249. 

Canton-Hankow Railway, 27. 

Capitalism, 44, 53, 57, 64, 200, 
268. 

C. C. E. A., 90, 91, 265, 266, 271, 
272, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 281, 
283, 386. 

Central government, 342; — weak, 
332. 

Chang Eev. Heng-chiu, 90. 

Chandler R. E., 253, 258. 

Chandler Helen Davies, 356, 
359 

Chang Tso-lin, 2, 4. 

Changsha, 56, 136, 236. 

Chao, Mr. T. C, 173, 176. 

Chefoo Schools, 245, 248, 249. 

Chekiang, 75, 151, 154, 261;— 
leprosy in, 311. 

Chen Sanford C. C, 259, 269, 274. 

Chen, Rev. Gin-yung, 375. 

Chen, Tiao-yuan, 4. 

Chen, Dr. Y. G., 263. 

Cheng, Dr. C. Y., 121. 

Cheng, Rev. M. S., 136, 138. 

Cheng, Rev. Marcus, 137. 

Chi Hsieh-Yuan, 2, 3, 4. 

Chihli Province, 334, 365, 368;— 
Public Medical School, 318. 

Child Labor; Commission, 346, 
347;— and the church, 345, 
348 ; — in modern factories, 345; 
— report, 348; — welfare work, 
295, 307;— problem, 345. 

Chili-Shansi Educl. Assn., 280. 

China, 31, 37, 48, 117, 119, 147, 
154, 189, 194, 209, 217, 254, 255, 
263, 265, 270, 271, 276, 298, 303, 
309, 341, 344, 353, 363;-a mem- 
ber of league of nations, 33 ; — 
and Soviet Russia, 32; political 
condition of, 1 ; — chief sufferer 
from opium, 330. 



China Baptist Pub. Society, 
Canton, 381. 

China Continuation Committee, 
235, 238, 242. 

China Educational Commission, 
270, 271, 353. 

China Inland Mission, 140-142, 
204, 235, 

China Int. Famine Relief Com- 
mittee Program, 349, 352, 364. 

China Medical Board, 318, 321 ; 
—Rockefeller foundation, 299. 

China Medical Missionary Asso- 
ciation, 298, 301, 304, 320, 386, 
387 ;— conference, 301. 

China Church Year Book, 121. 

China Home Missionary Society, 
228. 

China Mission Year Book, 121, 
125, 126 ;— of 1916, 211. 

Chinese, 81, 97, 98, 101, 117, 136, 
139, 140, 148, 202, 203, 254, 257, 
263, 284;— administrators, 275; 
— anti-opium movement, 336; 
— approval of Y. M. program, 
160;— association movement, 
158, 162, 164, 165 ; — back- 
ground, 184; — and mission- 
aries, 253;— artist, 282, 285;— 
Christians, 61, 149, 370, 386, 
392;— church, 69, 74, 81, 86, 88, 
89, 99, 103, 105 ; 106, 122, 128, 
137, 151, 162, 206, 217, 223, 227, 
240, 257, 270, 296, 388;— con- 
ference, 135, 136 ; — church 
council, 373 ;— control, 100;— 
civilization, 12, £8; — and reli- 
gion, 45 ;— classics, 13, 185; — 
constitution, 217 ; — delegation 
at Geneva, 341; — districts su- 
perintendents, 104 ; — educa- 
tional commission, 48 ; — evan- 
gelists, 210, 231, 372;— and 
foreign secretaries, 163; — and 
foreigners, 151; genius, 165; — 
government, 255, 201, 361;- 
hospital mgrs., 301; — indepen- 
dent church of Tsinan, 216 ; — 
labour corps, 295 ; — lab. imm. 
into Mexico, 32; — language, 
135, 139 ;— leaders, 284, 138, 



400 



INDEX 



151, 152, 168, 169, 182, 207, 213, 
220, 221, 266, 269, 270, 284;— 
leadership, 87, 104, 155, 163, 
164, 214, 266, 318 ;— leadership 
in Christian colleges, 274;— 
members, 158 ;— missionaries, 
220, 222;— nurses, 306, 308;— 
opinion re opium, 342;— pas- 
tors, 132, 213, 258;— people, 
174, 332, 338, 367;— philology, 
13;— Emperor, 7;— poetry, 13; 
—presses, 387;— program, 169; 
—preachers, 184;— psychology, 
203 ; — responsibility, 94, 98, 
100, 103, 105;— secretaries, 163; 
—staff, 100;— students, 42, 43, 
49,191, 195;— spirit in Y. M. 
C. A., 161;— teachers, 237, 275; 
—textbooks, 174;— type, 383; 
—Christian education, 63; — 
womanhood, 14;— women, 15, 
168, 169, 170, 172:— youth, 13. 
Chinese students and Anti- 
Christian movement, 55; — and 
religion, 42, 50. 
Chinese vs. Mission Control, 106. 
Civil Code, Lack of, 19. 
Clayton Eev. G. A., 188, 190, 

376. 
Cocaine, 118, 333, 344. 
Cole, Mr. Richard, 383. 
Colleges, 260, 270, 282. 
College Conference in Nanking, 
274: — finance, 273;— of agricul- 
ture and forestry, 93; — stand- 
ards, 273. 
Combination type Gospels, 392. 
Commission on Social and Eco- 
nomic Research, 353, 355. 
Communion with God, 113. 
Communism, 11, 24, 25, 45, 269; 

— The, 56. 
Community councils, 279 ;— cen- 
tre, 149 ;— improvement, 90; — 
service, 172. 
Confucianism, 47, 48, 60. 
Cooperation, 69, 73, 265, 147, 148 
151, 239, 243;- and unity, 76;- 
• by Bible Societies, 372. 
" Cooperative associations," 104 
—credit in China, 349, 352;- 



credit and savings societies 
350, 352;— effort 81;— market- 
ing, 351 ;— missions, 83 ;— rural 
capital of, 351;— stock com- 
panies, 83. 

Country evangelism, 137;— hos- 
pitals, 300; — preachers, 130, 
131. 

Credal statement, 125. 

Credal basis of church member- 
ship, 106. 

Credit in China, 349, 352. 

Criminal Code, 19, 22. 

Cross, Rowland M., 103, 109. 

Christianity, 44, 48, 59, 192, 202, 
208; — and emotion, 54; — and 
militarism 44 ; — and the 
Christian church, 52; — and 
Buddhism, 60 ; — and capi- 
talism, 59;— and womanhood, 
29^;—^ China, 52;— reasons 
against, 43. 

Chu, Rev. Morton, 90. 

Chu Shiong Chi Hwei, Madame, 
265. 

Chuan, Dr. S. H., 118, 336. 

Chung K. T., 86, 89. 

Church, 49, 73, 74, 81, 115, 118, 

119, 127, 132, 209;— affairs, 15; 
- and child labour, 345, 348;— 
attacks on the, 52, 53, 58;— and 
mission, 84, 104, 106, 108, 115, 
127; — and home committee, 

120, 293;— and industry, 118, 
119; — and social questions, 73; 
—and stabilizing force, 66;— 
and politics, 63;— and bol- 
shevism, 64; — and social re- 
construction, 375; -and Y. M. 
C.A., 162;— and industry, 346; 
— articles of agreement and 
belief, 124;— and education, 
83; — and student association, 
159; — believes in education, 
83, 274;— bodies, 271;— East 
China, 75, 80 ; — federation, 
150; -industry, 118, 119;— in 
China, 67, 71, 115, 185; — 
leaders, 149, 204, 205, 218, 219; 
—members, 67, 68, 72, 76. 
86, 213;— North, 72, 74;— of 



INDEX 



401 



Christ in China, 83, 123, 125, 
129, 203;— of Scotland Mission, 
127; — in West China, 67, 
71 ; — problems, 131;— planning, 
37, 38;— South China, 81, 85;— 
union, 76, 123, 124, 125, 129, 
132;-unity, 152;-West, 205. 

Christian and Missionary Alli- 
ance, 230. 

Christian education, 44, 46, 47, 
53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 63, 200, 265, 
270, 275; — and the church, 
274; — opposition to, 54;— vs. 
nationalism, 59;— higher, 121. 

Christian Literature, 172, 374, 
378, 379. 

Christian Literature Society, 
375, 376, 378. 

Christian, schools, 48, 54, 59, 
151, 175, 193, 199, 265, 266, 268, 
269 ; — service, 206;— students, 
48, 49, 192, 198. 

Circulation of Scriptures in 
China, 370. 

Civil Code, Lack of, 19. 

Clark, C. A., 224, 227. 



Daily Vocation Bible School, 

152 277. 
Devolution, 79, 84, 105, 266;— 

mission, 107 ; — of mission re- 

spons., 97, 102;— in North 

China, 103-109. 
Dingman, Mary, 345, 348. 
Diplomas, 307. 
"Diplomatic Protection," 253, 

255. 
Disease distribution, 309 ;— of 

the skin, 386. 
District associations, 98, 99, 103; 

— conferences, 210. 
Douglass, Mr. C. W., 384. 
Dreyer, Eev. F. C. H., 376. 
Drought, 226, 363, 366. 



Earthquake, Japanese, 226; — re- 
lief of, 174. 
Eastern Orthodox Church, 361. 



Economic conditions, 349; — view 
of Dr. Eddy, 353; — and social 
research, 353-355. 
Education, 63, 140, 151, 170, 176, 
217, 259, 269, 371;— among 
workers, 357; — Christian, 44, 
55; — commission, 277, 283; — 
health, 303, 305 ; — commis- 
sioner of, 262. 
Ekvall, Kobert B., 139, 142. 
Elliot, Mr. T. M., 134, 197. 
Eriksson, Dr. and Mrs. Joel, 

232 
Evangelism, 81, 116, 137, 204, 205, 
207, 209, 215;— among workers, 
357;— for soldiers, 178;— and 
finance, 181;— in the M. E. 
mis., 208, 210;— in the North 
West, 220-223;— meaning of, 
177; student, 191, 199;— week 
of, 188, 190;— decline of, 178, 
179; — extensive, 212. 
Evangelistic Work, 177-234;— 
also se 62, 116, 128, 150, 151, 
152. 
Evangelization, 140, 141. 
Evans, Mr. and Mrs. Edward, 

250. 
Extraterritoriality, 30, 31, 32, 

253, 254. 
Factory conditions, 119; — inspec- 
tors, 347;— regulations, 347. 
Famine, 363;— cause of, 349;— 
commission, 349 ; — labor, 365 ; 
— prevention projects, 368; — 
prevention works, 367 ; — in- 
creasing frequency of, 363. 
Fan, Miss Y. J., 324, 329. 
Federation, 108, 147, 148, 150, 
153 ; — of the Christian 
Churches, 149 ;— of prov. educ. 
associations, 264, 367 ;— of the 
Pres. Church in China, 123 ;— 
of Christian churches in 
China, 124. 
Finances and, Opium, 340; — 
Christian printing presses, 379, 
383 ;— in Union Churches, 128, 
129;— Nurses' Assn., 307; — 
Pres. Miss. Press, 384, 385;— 
of Y. M. C. A., 157. 



402 



INDEX 



Financial, Control, 105 ; — dif- 
ficulties of farmers, 350; — 
problems, responsibility, 99, 
101, 104, 105, 214. 

Fisher, A. J., 81, 85. 

Fitch, Eev. G. F., 239, 384, 388. 

Fleming, Prof. D. J., 107. ' 

Floods, 72, 223, 363, 364, 366 ;— 
channel construction, 365; — 
of 1924, 363, 368. 

Follett, Miss, 112, 113. 

Follow up work, 184, 197, 198, 
210, 216, 218 ; -failure in, 184. 

Foot-binding, 78, 291. 

Ford ham, Miss, 233. 

Fowler, H., 309, 317. 

France & Box. Indem., 41. 

Freedom, 13, 14 ; — from military 
interference, 21 ;— of press, 22 ; 
— of worship, 217. 

Fukien, 377 ;— leprosy in, 311 ;— 
Christian University, 236. 

Gailey, Dr. E. E., 154. 

Gamble, Mr. William, 383. 

Gamewell, Frank D., 274. 

General Assembly, 126. 

Geneva Conference, 338, 340;— 
action reopium, 341. 

Germany, 31, 32 ; — Boxer 
Indem., 41. 

Giimour Eev. James, 230. 

Ginling College, 170, 171, 173, 
292. 

Goodrich, Dr. L. C, 318. 

Gospel, 62, 204, 210 ; — portions, 
369, 372;— posters, 390;— tracts, 
205, 370, 393 ; new edition of — , 
390. 

Government educational-autho- 
rities, 272, 273 ; — monoply, 
341, 342;— & opium, 334; — 
phonetic committee, 391 ; — 
private schools, 292 ;— recog. 
for Y.M.C.A., 156 ;— registra- 
tion, 274 ;— relationship, 266; 
—students, 15, 46, 47, 192, 193, 
198, 205; — schools, 199, 201, 
204 ;— standards, 265. 

Great Britain, 12; — and Boxer 
Indem., 41. 



Greek Church, 230. 

Green O. M. Political Condition 
of China, 1-9. 

Group, atmosphere, 112; — con- 
sciousness 72; — meeting, 
194 ; — solution of problems, 
131;— of students, 195. 

Gustafson, Eev. F. A., 231. 



Hague Convention, 330 ; — of 

1912, 330 ;— opium, 340, 341. 
Hangchow, 76, 14S, 149, 150, 325 ; 

— convention, 168 ; — national 
convention, 167 ; — Christian 
College, 173. 

" Happy Childhood ", 375, 387; 

— series, 386. 
Harrison, Miss Agatha, 118. 
Harrisson, S. J., 287, 290. 
Hayes, Dr. W. M., 374, 386. 
Health conditions, 309 ; — in 

mission schools, 304 ; — educa- 
tion, 217, 303, 305, 307. 

Henry, M. Pierre, 346. 

Heroin, 118, 333 ; — in China, 
334. 

Higher education, 83, 259, 260 ; 

— normal schools in Peking, 
292. 

Hillcrest Sc. Nanking, 248, 249. 

Hindle, Eev. Thomas, 233. 

Hodgkin, Dr. H. T., 115, 122, 147, 
153, 177, 187, 276, 283. 

Home, 87, 137, 171 ;— problem of, 
324, 329 ; — mission movement, 
79; — mission society, 214, 215 ; 

— nursing, 307. 
Hongkong Conference, 298; — 

seamen's strike, 26. 

Hopei University, 318. 

Hospitals, 79, 140, 205; — Day, 
306;— evangelism, 137;— work, 
76. 

Ho Tung, Sir Robert, 361. 

Hsiao, Mr. M. K., 136, 138. 

Hsu Shih-Chang; His Excel- 
lency, 342. 

Hume, Edward H., 318, 323. 

Hunan, 151, 313; — Bible in- 
stitute, 135, 137, 138; — con- 



INDEX 



403 



ference, 135, 138, 152;— early 
work of missionaries in, 136. 

Hutuktu, 229. 

Hwang, Kev. H. C, 136. 

Hygiene, 217 ; — department, 295. 



Illiteracy, 74, 184. 

Imperialism, 44, 53, 57, 58, 59, 
64, 200, 268 ;— attacked, 10. 

Indemnities, 12, 255, 256, 264 

Indian delegation at Geneva, 
339. 

Indigenous : Christianity, 65 ; — 
church, 49, 81, 86, 103, 120, 149. 

Indigenization of the Y. M. C. A. 
in China, 154, 166. 

Industrial, committee, 118, 353, 
346, 347 ;— conditions, 375 ; — 
conferences, 119 ; — problems, 
150, 324, 368 ; — program of 
N. C. C, 345;— standards, 118, 
119 ;— work, 149, 169, 230. 

Ingle, Anges S, 294-297. 

Intellectual awakening, 200. 

Intelligence Survey, 263. 

International, 69 ; — anti-opium 
assn., 331,332, 334, 336, 342, 343; 
—character of Y.M.O.A., 167 ; 
—committee, 154, 155, 157, 163, 
164, 165, 166 ; — co-operation 
against opium, 338 ; — council 
of nurses, 306; — famine rel. 
comm., 366 ; — friendships, 
15; — graded series, 286; — 
institute of China, 360, 362 ;— 
journal, 362, 361 ;— labor office 
346 ; — misunderstanding, 165 ; 
— mission to lepers, 316 ; — 
peace, 49 ; — inter-racial co- 
operation, 165, 166; — relations, 
173,176;— Settlement of Shang- 
hai, 346 ; — study in colleges, 
175. 
Inter-mission co-operation, 69. 
Italy <k Box. Indem., 41. 



Jacobson, Mrs., 233. 
Japan, 31, 33, 334 ;— and Boxer 
indemnity, 12, 41. 



Japanese Christians, 174; 

earthquake relief, 149, 174 ; 

legation, 7. 
Johanson, Mr. & Mr3., 232. 
Joint Boards of Control, 98. 
Jordan, Sir John, 340. 



Kaifeng Baptist College, 91, 92. 
Keller, Dr. Frank & Mrs., 137, 

138. 
Kirk, Dr. Edward, 319. 
Koo, Mr. T. Z., 176, 338, 339. 
Korean Church, 149, 227 ;— and 

foreign mission, 224, 227;— 

baptism, 226. 
Kuling, 235 ; — conference, 175 ; 

—summer school, 235, 289 ; — 

summer school rel. educ. 

success of, 282, 287. 
Kung Yee Medical College, 306, 

319. 
Kuo, Dr. P. W., 318. 
Kuomingtang, 5, 23, 29, 43, 45, 

56, 267. 



Labor: — and Bolshevism, 64 ; — 
and imperialism, 26 ; — move- 
ment, 23, 26, 27, 29; — and 
Capital, 28 ; — in Canton, 23 ; 
—and militarism, 26; — in 
Hunan and Hupeh, 25; — 
organizations, 23, 25 ; — relief, 
366, 367 ;— representatives, 28; 
— movement in Hunan and 
Hupeh, 25. 

Lambert, Miss, 329. 

Larson, Mr. F. A., 233. 

Laura Spellman Kockefeller 
Fund, 239. 

Leaders, 109 ;— Chinese, 138, 213, 
214, 221. 

Leadership, 99, 107, 159, 221, 289. 

League of Nations, 33, 338, 341 ; 
—certificate system, 334 ; — 
conference, 330. 

Leper Settlement, 316. 

Leprosy, Anaesthetic, Tubercu- 
lar, mixed, 313, 315; general 
conclusion on,— 316, 317; — in 



404 



INDEX 



Chihli, 311 ; — in Mongolia, 
315 ;— in Shantung, 311, 316 ;— 
classes afflicted by, 312, 315 ; — 
in China, 309, 317 ;— endemic, 
111, isolation of— 315. 

Li, Rev. Luther, 375. 

Li Yuan-Hung, His Excellency, 
343. 

Literary tendencies, 10, 13. 

Literature, 68, 279, 280, 281, 369, 
373 ; — circulation increasing, 
369, 373, Chinese and English; 
— Christian, 374, 378 ;— dept. 
S. E. F., 390 ;— in evangelism, 
205 ; — exhibit, 287 ; — for 

women and children, 375 ; — 
on health, 303 ; — on the home, 
328. 

Liu, Herman C. E., 42, 50. 

Loan idea, 367, 368 ; — for repair- 
ing dykes, 365 ; — to farmers, 
351, 352. 

Lobenstine, Eev. E. C, 121, 238, 
243, 274, 330, 344. 

London Mission, 103, 123, 127, 
230, 308. 

Lyon, Rev. D. W., 154, 235, 280. 



MacGillivray, Dr., 374. 

MacNeil Ella, 14-18. 

Magill, O.R., 191-199. 

Mallory, Walter H., 349-352, 
363-368. 

Marriages, 10, 15, 17, 230. 

Marx, Edwin, 75-80. 

Maxwell, James L. & Mrs., 298, 
302, 307. 

Mcintosh, Gilbert, 379, 383. 

Medical education, 318-323 ; — 
examination, 304 ; — lexicon, 
387 ; — missionaries, 299 ; — 
Work, 68, 225, 231, 233;— school 
in China, 321, 323. 

Meeker, Dr. Royal, 354. 

Mei, Mrs. H. C, 169. 

Methodist Board, 307 ; — Epis- 
copal Mission, 204, 208, 210 ;— 
Mission Press, 382, 383. 

Mexico, 31, 32, 33. 

Militarism, 11, 26, 29, 68 ;— and 



Christianity, 44 ;— and opium, 
332; Americans and — , 256. 

Milton Stewart Fund, 130, 133. 

Miner, Luella, 111, 114. 

Missions, 81, 86, 97, 99, 100, 104, 
115, 127, 271, 272; — boards, 
128 ; — bodies, 272 ; — and the 
Chinese Church, 88, 120, 220 ; 
—hospital, 298, 300, 301 ; — 
industries, 356,359 ;— to lepers, 
316 ;— policy, 106 ;— presses in 
China, 387, 388 ;— schools, 54, 
56, 62, 100, 141, 154, 192, 210, 
303, 304. 

Mission Book Co., 384. 

Missions Building, 238, 243. 

Mongolia, 221, 228, 234. 

Morgan, Rev. Evan, 375. 



National Bible Soc. of Scotland, 
205. 

National Christian Council, 115, 
122. 

Need, The, 276; — for adjust- 
ment, 260; — for analysis, 185; 
—for applied Christianity, 87; 
— for central medical council, 
319 ;— for Chinese leadership, 
87 ; — for education, 70 ; — for 
greater spirituality, 116 ; — for 
indigenous forms of expres- 
sion, 87; — for industrial 
research, 353; — for leaders, 
70, 74, 79, 186; 283, 359 ;— for 
self-expression, 88 ; — for sacred 
music, 88; — for spiritual 
reality, 2^9 ; — for spiritual 
revival, 70, 71, 74, 82 ; — of 
co-ordination, 277 ; — of deeper 
spirituality, 208 ; — of evange- 
lism, 209 ; — of new church 
members, 279 ; — spirituality, 
82 ; — of more spiritual mem- 
bership, 208 ; — of strong 
leadership, 164 ; — and pro- 
blems of federation, 150. 

Nestorianism in Mongolia, 228. 

Nieh, Mr. C. C, 180. 

Normal Bible training school, 
91 ; — class, 227; — depts. of 



INDEX 



405 



physical educ, 292;— schools, 
261; — training school for phy- 
sical educ, 170. 
Nurses' Association of China, 
306, 308. 



Openshaw, H. J., 204, 210. 

Opium, 68, 78, 117, 137, 147, 344; 
— advisory comm., 340; — cul- 

. tivation, 332;— day, 337;— dens, 
339;— fight against, 330, 344 ;— 
and the govt., 334; — imported 
from India, 331;— as Int. Pro- 
blem, 330; — problem, 175;— 
production in China, 331; — 
raid, 333; — raid in Shanghai, 
335; — recrudescence, 331; — 
regulate production, 336; — 
revenues, 332; — smokers, 333; 
— smuggling, 333, 339, 340; — 
and textbooks, 337 ; — and 
bribery 335; — import and ex- 
port certificates, 341; — Indian 
trade stock 331. 



Paid ministry, 182. 

Pan, Mr., 284. 

Payne, Henry, 216, 219. 

Peill, Phonetic Hymn Book, 
386. 

Peking, 104, 107, 148, 149, 171, 
235, 264, 268;— Amer. school, 
248, 249;— Christian students 
work union, 108; — good roads, 
37; — government, 22;— govern- 
ment and industry, 347; — 
group, 279; — ministry of edu- 
cation, 262; — missionary asso- 
ciation, 105, 106, 107, 109;— 
missions, 105 ; — school, 237. 

Personal evangelism, 186, 195, 
206 , 210, 218, 227. 

Pettus, W. B., 235, 237. 

Peter, W. W., 303, 305. 

Phonetic Promotion Committee, 
390, 393;— script, 140, 184. 

Physical education in China, 
291, 292, 293;— directors, 293; 
■ — training, 170. 



Political arrests, 22, 23;— con- 
dition of China, 1, 9, 75; — 
outlook, 8;— prosecutions, 21, 
22, 23;— unrest, 268;— writing 
directed against imperialism, 
10. 

Preachers' Conference, 130-134; 
—salaries, 128. 

Presbyterian, 123, 124, 129;— 
Board, 239 ; — Board of Foreign 
Missions, 241; — church, 104, 
125;— church of Korea, 224;— 
North, 243; — Gen. Assembly, 
125;— Mission Press, 239,379, 
383, 388. 

Primary school work, 98, 99, 
261, 272, 282. 

Printing presses in China, 379, 
383, 387. 

Prison evangelism, 150, 204. 

Proctor, Dr. J. T., 97, 102. 

Professional schools, 260. 

Publications, 174, 306; — anti- 
Christian, 45, 55, 57 ; — in 
Chinese by literature and 
tract societies, 374, 378. 

Public affairs in China and mis- 
sions, 61-66. 



Eees, Dr. W. Hopkyn, 235. 

Registration, 141, 274 ; — of 
Christian schools, 266 ; — of 
foreign schools, 54; — of 
medical schools, 299 ; — ot 
mission schools, 56. 

Rehabilitation Conference, 5,6,8. 

Reid, Gilbert, 360, 362. 

Reisner, John H., 90, 93. 

Relations of sexes, 17, 18. 

Religion, 42, 45, 58 ; —antagon- 
ism to, 54 ;— department of, 
203 ; — reasons against, 43 ; — as 
a solace, 370 ;— and Chinese 
students to-day, 42, 50 ;— and 
science, 52, 202, 203; — of 
friendship, 294. 

Religious Discussion, 202 ; — 
education, 56, 63, 82, 120, 152, 
168, 171, 203, 273, 275, 276, 278, 
283, 287, . 290, 328 ; — ethical 



406 



INDEX 



societies, 77;— freedom, 269 ;— - 
indifference, 42, 45, 201 : — 
instruction, 202;— movements, 
361 ;— needs of young people, 
283 ; — policy at Yenching 
University, 200, 203; — serv- 
ices, 56 ;— students, 47, 49 ; — 
teaching, 54, 63; — thought 
and activity, 42, 50; — work, 
358. 

Religious tract Society for China, 
188, 285, 376 ;-Jubiiee of, 377. 

Remission Plans of Boxer In- 
demnity, 40, 41. 

Retreats, 110-114. 

Revolving Fund Idea, 368. 

Road Const., 34-38. 

Robertson, Prof. C. H., 156. 

Rockfeller, Mr. J. D. Junior, 119. 

Roman Catholic Missions, 229. 

Roots, Bishop Logan H., 136, 138, 
175. 

Roots Eliza, 244, 249. 

Rural, Church, 93, 120 ;— depart- 
ments, 91 ;— committee, 90 ; — 
cooperation, 350 ; — coopera- 
tive credit and savings socie- 
ties, 350 ; — investigation, 90 ; 
—life, 87 ;— leadership, 90, 93 ; 
—normal school, 92; —preach- 
ers, 92 ; — schools, 261 ; — 
service, 93 ; — survey, 350 ; — 
training, 92 ;— training school, 
91 ;— work, 21, 61 ; — workers, 
91. 

Russia, 31, 32, 33 ; — and Boxer 
indemnity, 12, 41. 

Russo-Chinese Treaty, 8. 

Scandinavian Alliance Mission, 
230. 

Schmuser Mr. F., 384. 

School, Board, 262 ; — clinics, 
150 ; — curriculum, 327 ; — 
school health, 305 ; — con- 
ference, 274 ; — program, 304 ; 
—hygiene, 303 ; — statistics, 
248, 249 ; - standards, 274 ; - 
system, 264; — of theology, 
203;-work,62,76. 



Schools, 79, 83, 204, 215, 226, 236, 
270, 295, 32«, 327; — and col- 
leges, 148, 276;— and govern- 
ment, 140; — Hallong Csso, 
232 ; — for missionaries' chil- 
dren, 244, 249;— atPatsebolong, 
231 science, 12, 58 ;— exhibits, 
295 ;— and religion, 43, 46, 47, 
52, 53, 202, 203 ; — vs religion, 
200 ; teaching, 263. 

Scripture Dissemination, 369, 
37a 

Self-support, 79, 81, 94, 96, 109, 
120, 140, 141, 156, 157, 183, 214, 
220, 221, 227 ; — as an end, 83 ; 
—spiritual problem, 95. 

Sex interest, 13, 17, 18. 

Shanghai, 27, 347, 383 ;— Ameri- 
can School, 244 ; — Chinese 
Chamber of Commerce, 5 ; — 
college, 98 ; — industrial con- 
dition, 346 ; — labor organiza- 
tions, 24; — members of the 
N. C. C. Comm., 281 ; — as 
missionary center, 238 ; — 
Municipal Council, 346 ; — 
pastors, 328. 

Shantung, 32, 154, 178, 216, 219, 
224, 227, 294, 311 ; — Christian 
university, 294, 297 ; — med. 
school, 321 ; — provincial 
medical school, 318 ;— railway, 
32 ; — extension dept. of, 294, 
297. 

Shen* H. C, 23, 25. 

Sheppard, G. W., 369, 373. 

Sian, 148, 150. 

Simpson, Miss Cora E., 306, 308. 

Smith, Prof. David, 374. 

Social custom, 74; — and 
economic conditions in China, 
353;— research, 352, 355. 

Social Gospel, 49, 227 ; — ideals, 
172; — immorality, 79; — and 
industrial conditions, 49; — 
and industrial problems, 324, 
368 ; — life, 84 ; — order ; — 
change in, 14 ;— problems, 131, 
171 ; — questions, 73 ; — service, 
128, 152;— unrest, 268;— work, 
68 t 169, 170. 



INDEX 



407 



Socialism, 23, 25 ; — and church, 
64 ;— and labor org., 23, 25. 

Sociology and economics section, 
354. 

Soldier Evangelism, 205 ; — 
work, 296. 

Soochow, 268 ;— University, 173, 
236, 292. 

South Eastern University, 318. 

Southern Baptist Convention, 91. 

Soviet Government recognized, 
7, 8, ; — influence in Canton, 
5,8. 

Sparham, C. G., 123, 129. 

Spurling, Edith, 250, 252. 

Stanley, C. A., 72-74. 

Stewart Evangelistic Fund, 222, 
390. 

Stewart, Dr. J. L., 376. 

Stewart, W. E., 228, 234. 

Strikes, 7, 26, 27, 28, 29, 54, 263. 

Stuart, J. Leighton, 200, 203. 

Student associations, 171, 198 ; — 
christian movement, 170 ; — 
class, 73, 156 ; — evangelism, 
184, 191, 199, 205;— leaders, 197; 
— summer conference, 205 ; — 
union, 45 ; — volunteer move- 
ment, 162 ;■ — workers, 192. 

Students, 22, 27, 43, 51, 54, 60, 
73 ; — christian, 49 ; — favour- 
able toward religion, 47. 

Sun Yat Sen, 5, 6, 343 ;— and 
merchant volunteers, 6. 

Sunday schools, 82 ; — lessons, 
286 ;— union, 277, 278, 284, 286. 

Swedish Missions, 231. 

Switzerland, 31. 

Synod of the Church of Christ, 
125, 126, 127. 

Szechwan, 67, 151, 178, 204, 207, 
210, 314 ; — christian council 
152, 204, 206. 



Table of religious attitude of 

students, 43. 
Tagore, Sir Robin dranath, 13, 

261. 
Taoism, 47, 48. 
Tayler J. B., 353-355. 



Tent equipment, 217 ; — evangel- 
istic work, 82 ; — evangelism, 
178 ;— services, 222 ;— enangel- 
ism in Shantung, 216, 219. 

Tewksbury, E. G., 284, 286, 390, 
393. 

Text books, 176, 275, 280, 306 ;— 
needs of, 282. 

Theological, controversy, 183 ;— 
differences, 185 ; — training 
institution, 294 ;— seminaries, 
91. 

Thibet, 221. 

Thoburn, Helen, 167, 172, 345, 
348. 

Tientsin, 148, 325, 326. 

Ting Shu-ching, Miss, 169, 174, 
146. 

Ting Yuen Hsien, 79. 

Todd, Dr. Paul, 319. 

Tooker, Dr. F. J., 238. 

Tract Societies, 376, 377, 378. 

Training school for girls, 292 ; — 
rural workers, 91 ; — teachers, 
2(51, 281 ; —of nurses, 295 ; — of 
native workers, 140 ; — leaders, 
74, 212 ;— for services, 171, 172. 

Tsinan, 148, 149; — conference, 
262 ;— Institute, 294, 218, 294. 

Treaties, 30, 33, 201, 268. 

Treaty Powers, 31 ; — Russo 
Chinese, 8 ; — Tientsin, 40 ; — 
Versailles, 31. 

Tuan Chi Jui, 1, 4. 

Tyau, M. T. Z., 30, 33. 



United Brethern Mission, 126. 



Wallace Edward Wilson, 270- 
275. 

Welfare work, 150, 357, 358. 

West China, 214 ; — present state 
of church, 67, 71 ; — educational 
union, in 68 ; — christian con- 
ference, 69: — field, 213; — 
Rel. Tract Soc, 205, 377; — 
Christian University, 236. 

Westman, Dr., 175. 

Whitaker, Rev. R. B., 279. 



408 



INDEX 



Whitewright, Eev. J. S., 294. 
Wigham, Leonard, 67, 71. 
Women, 107 ;— of China, 170 ;— 

evangelists, 218 ; — freedom, 

16 ; — ideals, 14. 
Worship, 88, 279. 
Wu, Mr. S., 34, 39. 
Wu, Lien-teh, Dr., 338. 
Wu Pei-fu, 1, 2, 3, 4, 23, 28. 

Yard, James Maxon, 94-96. 
Yearnings of the Chinese 

Church, 86-89. 
Yen, Mr. James, 391. 
Yenching College, 173, 200, 203. 
YM.C.A., 103, 119, 148, 154, 166, 



192, 193, 198, 199, 204, 206, 264, 
277, 283, 292, 293, 324, 392 ;-~ 
and anti-footing binding, 169; 
—control and basis of, 158 ; — 
mission policy, 106 ; — finance, 
157; — fourfold program, 158, 
159 ; — American Secretaries, 
154, 155 ; — Chengtu, 205; — 
student centers, 194. 

Y.W.C.A., 15, 119, 148, 167, 172, 
176, 192, 193, 169, 277, 283, 292, 
293, 324 ;— decrease in foreign 
staff, 169 ; — world's com- 
mittee, 169 ;— finance, 168, 169. 

Yui, David Z. T., 154, 166. 

Zia, N. Z., 51-60. 






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